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Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) for demanding
Aerospace and Terrestrial Applications
Dr. Karin E. Handrick
XXI C
Congress AIV,
AIV Catania
C t i
M 2013
May
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
and Terrestrial Applications
Aerospace
p
pp
CMC Basics
Aerospace
Space Vehicles
Aerospace IXV
Terrestrial
Applications
Future Fields
Innovation
/Optimization
What is CMC – Ceramic Matrix Composite
Manufacture of Keraman® CMC
Properties
P
ti
Applications
Aerospace
Requirements
Reentry Vehicles X38 & Expert and Shefex
Intermediate reentry Experimental Vehicle, IXV
Terrestrial Applications
Shaft Sleeves for Pumps
Future Fields
Aviation-Aerospace
gy
Renewable Energy
Innovation/Optimization
Page 2
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
and Terrestrial Applications
Aerospace
p
pp
CMC Basics
Aerospace
Space Vehicles
Aerospace IXV
Terrestrial
Applications
Future Fields
Innovation
/Optimization
Standard monolithic (SiC, Alumina, Mullite….. ) show the ‘normal ceramic
behavior
Fibre Reinforcement for Increase of Strength and Damage Tolerance leads
to ductile behavior - Carbon or SiC fibres in SiC Matrix
Brittle
Brittle behavior
behavior
D
Damage tolerant and ductile
t l
t d d til
Pull-out effect
Page 3
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
C/SiC and SiC/SiC
Light weight components
High damage tolerance
Crack /Fracture resistance
Dynamic
y
load resistance
Elongation of ca. 0.5%
High
g tensile, bending
g & compression
p
strength
g
High temperature stability (-1900°C)
Excellent thermal shock resistance
High wear & corrosion stability
Resistance to lightning & hail impact
Manufacture of complex shaped parts
Near net-shape production
High flexibility in machining & joining
Page 4
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
Page 5
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
C/SiC & SiC/SiC Manufacturing
Polymer/Resin & Fiber/Fabric
Shaping and Curing
(autoclave, press, filament
winding, resin transfer
molding)
Carbon fiber
reinforced
i f
d
plastic (CFRP)
Pyrolysis
T>900°C Inert
Gas Vacuum
Gas,
Multiple Polymer
Infiltration & Pyrolysis
cycles
LPI-- CMC
LPI
Siliconization
(melt infiltration)
LSI-- CMC
LSI
p
Chemical Vapor
Infiltration
CVI-- CMC
CVI
C/SiC &
C/SiC
SiC//SiC
SiC
Page 6
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
Main industrial manufacture p
process for C/SiC and SiC/SiC with crystalline
y
SiC matrix
Chemical Vapor Infiltration (Gradient-CVI )
Methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) / H2 / Temp.
exhaust
heater
CH3SiCl3
H2
SiC + 3 HCl
fiber
pe o
pre-form
Advantages of e.g. SiCcryst / SiCcryst





Better
B
tt thermal
th
l conductivity
d ti it andd aging
i behavior
b h i
Lower elongation (0.6% vs. 1.8%)
Higher Young‘s modulus (388 GPa vs.168 GPa)
Lower creep rates
Increased stability
growth
direction
of SiC
matrix
cooler
gas inlet
CH3SiCl3 in H2
Page 7
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
and Terrestrial Applications
Aerospace
p
pp
CMC Basics
Aerospace
Space Vehicles
Aerospace IXV
Terrestrial
Applications
Future Fields
Innovation
/Optimization
Requirements for Aerospace Applications
(e.g.
(e g Reentry,
Reentry Crew Rescue Vehicles)

High Temperature Stability - High specific thermomechanical strength at high temperatures acc.
acc to
mission trajectory

Low density (low weight) for all components including
cold structures

Step and Gap Requirements (I/F)

Aerodynamic requirements

Defined thermo-physical Properties e.g. heat
conductivity, radiation behavior

Impact resistance (e.g. hail, lightning)

Oxidation resistance

Chemical compatibility with Interfaces; environmental
requirements (e.g. outgassing)
Rudder, Fins,
Leading Edges
Nose
Body Flaps
Hot Structure,Tiles,
P l
Panels
Page 8
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
X-38, NASA-ESA
Keraman® C/SiC Body Flap
TRL = 8 qualified
Leading Edges
Bodyflap/Control Surface
Nose Skirt
Nose-Skirt
Chin Panel
Dim.: 3,2
, x 1.4 m
Mass: 140 kg
Page 9
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
and Terrestrial Applications
Aerospace
p
pp
CMC Basics
Aerospace
Space Vehicles
Aerospace IXV
Terrestrial
Applications
Future Fields
Innovation
/Optimization
X-38 Keraman® C/SiC Body Flap
Moveable
CMC bearings
Flap size: 1.4 x 1.6 m
Flap mass: 68 kg
CMC fasteners
Hot-cold attachment
Metal-to-ceramic joints for load
introduction
3 Mission profiles qualified , TRL = 8
acc. to vibration, thermal, thermo-mech. loads;
Operation temperature: > 1800 C
Excitation loads: > 15.6 grms
Thermo-mechanical tests under load
(4t dynamic, 7t static, 4000 movements)
HT- static & dynamic seals
to prevent hot gas flow
Page 10
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
Page 11
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
The program SHEFEX
(Sharp Edge Flight Experiment, DLR)
Performed two flight experiments (reentry,
ballistic) for data acquisition (T, p distribution,
aerodynamic behavior) and tested a Thermal
Protection TPS-system (panels) which can be
manufactured with reduced costs, using only
flat CMC elements in the TPS structure.
structure
Page 12
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
and Terrestrial Applications
Aerospace
p
pp
EXPERT Reentry Vehicle, ESA
Max Temperature Load at flap area: 1700°C
Max.
Page 13
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
and Terrestrial Applications
Aerospace
p
pp
EXPERT Keraman® C/SiC Flaps
Page 14
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
Page 15
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
and Terrestrial Applications
Aerospace
p
pp
CMC Basics
Aerospace
Space Vehicles
Aerospace IXV
Terrestrial
Applications
Future Fields
Innovation
/Optimization
Current Program: IXV Intermediate EXperimental reentry Vehicle, ESA
Launch planned for 2015
Page 16
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
Keraman® C/SiC & Layout,
Layout Qualification & Manufacture
of Body Flap Assembly with Hinge TPS, EMA TPS and Moveable Bodyflap
 Development, Verification & Manufacturing of IXV Body Flap Assembly
 Design of the highly integral Flap and Hinge TPS components toward fulfilling very stringent
combined thermal, mechanical & vibration loads, I/F- and mass requirements
 Interface management to provide geometrical integration for BFA components
 Sensor/Instrumentation management together with program partners
 Engineering of adequate insulation and material combinations toward maintaining the cold
structure temperature requirements
 Intensive investigations and clarification of P/A oxidation due to high local heat flux peaks
Page 17
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
Clamping Brackets
Retaining Ring
EMA TPS
Sliding Sleeve
B ll
Bellow
Mounting Adapter
Hinge
g TPS
Body Flap
Body Flap Assembly
Page 18
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
Analysis and Virtual Design Qualification Engineering Approach
Main requirements
 Limit temperature of materials
 Avoiding the occurrence of active oxidation
 Achieving positive margins of safety wrt. stress and reaction forces at I/Fs,
bearings and fasteners
Thermal Analysis
 3d Thermal Model
- Body flap assembly, Hinge TPS. EMA TPS, Parts of the vehicle cold
structure
- Vehicle
V hi l rear side
id as representative
t ti source off re-radiation
di ti iin order
d tto
accurately simulate the radiation environment for flap and hinge TPS
- Symmetry BCs (boundary conditions)
 Transient Analysis, assuming Initial conditions acc. to specification
- MHF (max. heat flux) and MHL (max. heat load) scenarios
- Heat soak effect at splash down
Circumferential
seal
Vehicle back side (semitransparent visualisation)
Cold structure (Aeroshell / hinge carter)
Hinge TPS Insulation
Hinge TPS Hinge
TPS
CMC shell
Stand‐off structure
Stand‐off structure
Hi
Hinge TPS CMC shell
TPS CMC h ll
6
7
4
5
8
9
3
2
1
Page 19
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
Heat flux as function of pressure and time
Lift-off and ascend
Orbiting phase
Re-entry
1200 s
6 3 59 s
5 2 40 s
0s
4 0 40 s
Maximum Heat Flux Trajectory
Descend
1118 s
Page 20
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
Oxidation Protection
2200
Calculation of the re-entry trajectory for
IXV shows potential spots for active
oxidation at the flaps
 = 90 K
2000
t = 50 s
1600
1400
Temperature @ t = 4900 s
1200
1000
2000
800
1800
600
 = 85 K
 = 170 K
1600
400
#PA1154
Transition Temperature Tcrit = f(p(t))
200
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
Time /[s]
[ ]
Max temperature at ceramic flap: 2120 K
red line: transition from p
passive ((below)) to active
(above) oxidation
6500
Temperaturre /[K]
T
Temperatur
re /[K]
1800
1400
1200
1000
800
600
#PA73434
#PA441
Transition Temperature T crit = f(p(t))
400
200
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
Time /[s]
Page 21
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
Qualification Approach for IXV CMC Components
Page 22
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
Qualification of EMA TPS
Permeability, Movement,
Thermal stability, Abrasion
Page 23
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
Qualification of EMA TPS
Page 24
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
All criteria have been successfullyy fulfilled byy the EMA q
qualification test campaign
p g
No damage on hardware
Fullfilled by
y
Qualification










Page 25
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
C/SiC fully ceramic Body Flap (Port), Qualification Unit,
ca. 600x600 mm - with Flap supports, Rod, EMA TPS , Fixations
Page 26
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
Qualification Unit IXV Flap with Bearing – Assembled for Test
Page 27
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
and Terrestrial Applications
Aerospace
p
pp
Already successfully performed:
BF Vibration & Shock Test
Vibration Loads: - 2000 Hz / 0,5-1,5 g
several times
3 directions (x, y, z)
Shock: f (Hz) = 100-10 000
acceleration : > 25 g
No damage to any structural part,
b i elements,
l
t rod,
d flap
fl
bearing
supports fixations, screws….
Page 28
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
C/SiC fully ceramic Hinge TPS Segment (Port), Qualification Unit,
ca. 900x400 mm – with integral standoffs
Cavity side for
insulation packs
Page 29
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
and Terrestrial Applications
Aerospace
p
pp
Already successfully performed:
Hinge
g Vibration & Shock Test
Vibration Loads: - 2000 Hz / 0,5 g
several times
3 directions (x, y, z)
Shock: f (Hz) = 100-10 000
acceleration : > 25 g
No damage to any structural part,
stand-offs,
t d ff fixations….
fi ti
Page 30
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
Next Qualification milestone (May 2013)
Movement tests under load with Assembled BF unit
Bodyflap Movement (angle) : - 21° to +19°
Up to 1500 Movements
Load with and without movements:
Limit pressure flap: 12,5 kPa und Hinge: 5 kPa
Ultimate pressure flap: 15,7 kPa und Hinge: 6,25 kPa
IXV Flight Hardware in Manufacture process
• Hinge TPS & EMA TPS Port/Starboard
• Bodyflap Port/Starboard
Page 31
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
and Terrestrial Applications
Aerospace
p
pp
CMC Basics
Aerospace
Space Vehicles
Aerospace IXV
Terrestrial
Applications
Future Fields
Innovation
/Optimization
Journal Sliding Bearings for Cryogenic Turbopumps & Casing Pumps
•
SiC/SiC shaft sleeves for bearings in power plant pumps (water, pH=9;
160 C) and in tubular casing pumps (sea water; sand), as well as under
cryogenic conditions (LOX)
•
p
y from Ø 20-350 mm,, L= 600 mm,, D= 2-25 mm
Manufacture capability
•
The SiC/SiC sleeves need, due to their high reliability, only a wall thickness of
less than 5 mm
•
Easy mounting on metal shaft components by shrink fitting, since the
material is capable to sustain a permanent hoop stress of more than 150 MPa
Assembled
A
bl d turbo-pump
t b
b i
bearing
ring installed in LOX test rig for
rotation up to 10 000 rpm
Outer bearing
g ring
g ((left)) and
inner bearing ring (right)
shrink-fitted in/on metallic
adapter parts
Page 32
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
and Terrestrial Applications
Aerospace
p
pp
Journal Slide Bearings for Cryogenic Turbopumps & Casing Pumps
Keraman®
Keraman
® SiC/SiC Journal Sliding Bearings and the Advantages
SiC/SiC Shaft Sleeves and Sealing Rings for bearings in power plant pumps
(water, pH=9; 160 C) and in tubular casing pumps (sea water; sand)
Advantages








Mechanical Stability (Elongation up to 1%, fracture toughness)
Interlaminar Strength
Corrosion & Abrasion Resistance
Low friction coefficient
Medium densityy realized byy SiC slurryy coatingg
Minimization of Pumps’ Maintenance
High reliability
Ceramic Sliding sleeves with life
life-time
time up to 10 years
Page 33
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
Results of Load Tests in Axial-Bearing Test Rig / Water lubricant at 80°C
Pressure Load
• For more than 15 years
• Up to 100.000 hours
without any maintenance
Speed / Sliding
Quelle: KSB
KSB, Frankenthal
1
Various combinations of conventional ceramics
incl. SSiC (sintered SiC) with SSiC & SiC/SiC with SiC/SiC
2
SiC/SiC with monolithic SSiC
Page 34
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
Aerospace and Terrestrial Applications
Antriebslaterne
Trag- und
Führungslager
Welle
Installation Principle of Shaft
Sleeves into Bearing
Auslaufkrümmer
Steigrohr
RESIDUR®
Lager
Aufhängerohr
Leitrad
Laufrad
Einlaufdüse
Page 35
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
Aerospace and Terrestrial Applications
Keraman® Shaft Sleeves/Journal Sliding Bearings
for Large Pumps in Power & Desalination Industry
Al Taweelah,
Abu Dhabi, Em.
Desalination of
sea water
SEZA 16-115
Q = 27100 m³/h
H = 30 m
n = 424
1/min
P = 2700 kW
ET= 11,7m
since: 2001
Pumps for
desalination
industries
Fujairah, U.A.E
Page 36
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
CMC in Formula1 & Automotive World
R d ti off weight,
Reduction
i ht thin
thi parts
t & goodd performance
f
under
d load
l d & temperature
t
t
Keraman® CMC in Clutches, Exhaust Parts, Heat
shields…
Brackets
Titel der Präsentation
Page 37
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
SiC/SiC components in EU-Program
EU Program ExtreMat for FUSION Application
St dies and Tests concentrated on
Studies
Thermal conductivity (Irradiation and Temperature reduce conductivity)
Thermal conductivity in z-axis (3D structures; requirement > 20 W/mK)
Compatibility with LiPb (Lithium-Lead; e.g. dense surface)
Swelling under Irradiation (e.g. Carbon!)
Maximal temperature (ca. 1000°C)
Maximal Stress Limits
Mechanical behavior before and after irradiation
Joining Methods (I/Fs)
Test results not yet fully available/in evaluation
Titel der Präsentation
Page 38
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
and Terrestrial Applications
Aerospace
p
pp
CMC Basics
Aerospace
Space Vehicles
Aerospace IXV
Terrestrial
Applications
Future Fields
Innovation
/Optimization
CMC – Durable Composites for Extreme Applications
Light Weight Components
High Damage Tolerance
Static and dynamic longterm load resistance
High
g wear & corrosion &
oxidation stability
Resistance to
environmental impact
Near Net Shape Manufacture of
complex shaped parts with small
tolerances
High reproducibility
High flexibility in machining
Sh i k fit joining
Shrink-fit
j i i off metal/ceramic
t l/
i &
ceramic/ceramic tubular shapes
Light-weight
sandwich/honeycomb/foam
structures
Fixation by fastener/nuts, bolts, pins,
plugs
Repair, refurbishment,
Special optical surface coatings
Oxidation p
protection coating
g
Page 39
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
Keraman® CMC – History & Future – Beyond 2013
NASA-X38
Bodyflaps, Chin
Panel, Leading
edges
TRL=8
Defense
IXV Flap, Hinge, EMA
Shaft sleeves,
bearing elements
(salt water, power
plant pumps)
Hypersonic
air-inlet
NASA-MoonMarsTPS
Capsule
EXPERT Flaps
SHEFEX Panels
TRL=9
TPS Thermal
Protection
System, Panels
Hot moving
structures, fixation
elements
ARD Capsule
Automotive/F1
Fusion/Fission
Blankets
Page 40
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
Innovation & Future in different Fields






Space, Aerospace (reentry)
Components for renewable Energy
(e.g. off-shore wind, water, energy storage)
p
Turbine Components
p
Aerospace
Combustion chambers
Defense
Fusion, Advanced fission (SiC/SiC)
Page 41
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
and Terrestrial Applications
Aerospace
p
pp
CMC Basics
Aerospace
Space Vehicles
Aerospace IXV
Terrestrial
Applications
Future Fields
Innovation
/Optimization
CMC in New Fields with Improved Properties
Longer Life Time under extreme temperature &
oxidation
id ti (air,
( i water
t vapor)) & wear
Aerospace
some hours,
Temp. >1500°C
Sliding
Sleeves/Pump
components
ca. 1000-10 000 h
Temp. >500°C
Turbine Engine
components, Heat
E h
Exchangers
> 100 000 h
Temp > 1000
1000°C
Temp.
C
Page 42
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
CMC for Turbine Components and next generation Jet Engines
Requirements of.
Long term stability up to 100 000 h (mech/therm.)
Oxidation Protection Improvement
p
!!!
Boeing Phantom Works, super/hypersonic air breather
Burner
NASA Scramjet X43
Air-Inlet
Page 43
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
Oxidation protection is necessary to prevent degradation of CMC by Oxidation, Fiber burn-out
Oxidation coatings have to be developed and optimized:
on fibers, on composite, in matrix, as getter
Conditions for active
oxidation are theoretically
ppredicted in models
and observed in experiments
Passive oxidation:
formation of SiO2 with slow
growth
Active oxidation:
formation of gaseous CO and
SiO
Page 44
Keraman ® CMC for demanding
p
and Terrestrial Applications
pp
Aerospace
New application fields require extended qualification under further requirements
and adapted manufacture technologies for CMC
 Oxidation protection
 Joining technologies for complex shaped parts
(without bolts)and for special (metallic) I/F
requirements
 NDI Techniques (in-situ)
 Manufacture capability of large, complex parts
 Health Monitoring (integrated)
…… further…..your requirements ???
Page 45
Thank you for your attention
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