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{Q>iH$ _hmamï´> {dÚmnrR>, nwUo
Xya{ejU {d^mJ
J¥hnmR> àíZ
_mJ©Xe©H$ Z_wZm CÎmao d
narjo{df`r _mJ©Xe©Z
E_². E. _amR>r
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2014-15
àVr $: 500
JwU {d^mJUr
A§VJ©V ‘y붑mnZ
df©
E_.E. ({ÛVr` df©)
EHw$U JwU
ê$nm§Va
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20
narjm
CÎmrU©VogmR>r
Amdí`H$
{H$_mZ JwU
40 n¡H$s 16
20 n¡H$s 8
EHw$U JwU
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{dÚmWu {‘Ìm§Zmo, Amnë¶mbm E‘.E. ^mJ-2 gmR>r (40 JwUm§Mo) J¥hnmR> boIZ H$amd¶mMo Amho. ¶m‘ܶo
EH$ XrKm}Îmar àíZ d Mma {Q>nm§n¡H$s XmoZ {Q>nm {b{hUo Amdí¶H$ Amho.
J¥hnmR> coIZmgmR>r _mJ©Xe©H$ gyMZm
1.
Amnco CÎma ZrQ> V`mar H$ê$Z gyMZonojm H$_r qH$dm OmXm àíZ gmoS>dy ZH$m. Amdí`H$ VodT>oM
àíZ gmoS>dm.
2.
CÎmamgmR>r Vwåhmcm BWo _wÔo {Xco AmhoV. Ë`m§Mm AmYmamgmR>r Cn`moJ H$ê$Z Ë`m _wX²Úm§Mm
{dñVma H$am.
3.
n[aÀN>oX nmSy>Z, n[aÀN>oXm§Zm erf©Ho$, Cnerf©Ho$ XoD$Z {c{hÊ`mMm n[anmR> R>odmdm.
4.
{XKm}Îmar àíZ d {Q>nm§À`m CÎmamgmR>r àñVmdZm d g_mamon Amdí`H$ Amho. àñVmdZo_YyZ
Vw_À`m CÎmamMr {Xem gy{MV hmoV.o VgoM CÎmamMm Ame` (content) d àñVmdZm `m§Mr g§JVr
amhm`cm hdr åhUyZ (5 Vo 7 Amoir) àñVmdZm {bhmdr.
5.
`mZ§Va Vw_À`m CÎmamMm _w»` ^mJ `oVmo. àíZmÀ`m AZwf§JmZo Amdí`H$ VodT>o n[aÀN>oX H$ê$Z
Vw_Mo CÎma {chm. _moR>çm àíZmMo CÎma 3 Vo 4 \y$cñHo$n EdT>o Va N>moQ>çm àíZmMo CÎma 11/2 Vo
2 \y$cñHo$n CÎma {c{hUo Ano{jV Amho.
6.
g_mamon (AmH$f©H$ nÕVrZo) àñVmdZm d _w»` Ame` `m§À`mer g§~§{YV 3 Vo 5 Amoir {chm.
Ë`m_Ü`o {dMmacoë`m àíZmÀ`m AZwf§JmZo Vwåhr Ho$coco {ddoMZ AmVm g§nco Amho - Ago gy{MV
H$am.
7.
CÎmao gwQ>gwQ>rV AgmdrV d ZdrZ _wÔm ZdrZ Amoirda {chyZ _wX²>Úm§Zm A§S>acmB©Z (AYmoaoIZ)
H$amdr.
8.
{df`mcm AZwgê$Z AgUmè`m g§X^©J«§Wm§Mm dmna H$amdm.
9.
EImÚm coIH$mMo qH$dm Aä`mgH$mMo, d¡km{ZH$mMo _V Zm|XdVmZm Vo AdVaUmV {chmdo. `m_wio
AmnU Adm§Va d BVa g§X^©J«W§ m§Mo dmMZ Ho$ë`mMo g_OVo.
10. ì`m»`m XoUo Amdí`H$ Agë`mg ì`m»`m Úmdr d CXmhaUo XoUo Amdí`H$ Agë`mg CXmhaUo
Úmdr. CXmhaUm§_wio Aä`mgmMo H$m¡eë` {XgyZ `oV.o
12. J¥hnmR>mVrb {XKm}Îmar àíZmV d {Q>nm§_Ü`o AmH¥$Vr (S>m`J«m_) H$mTy>Z CÎmao {b{hÊ`mMm à`ËZ
H$am.
dmaH$ar
g§àXm`
CXm.
_hmZw^md
g§àXm`
ZmWg§àXm`
nmM^º$s
g§àXm`
g_W©g§àXm`
XÎmg§àXm`
Vwåhm gdmªZm hm{X©H$ ew^oÀN>m!
narjog§~§Yr _mJ©Xe©Z
{dÚmWu {_Ìm§Zmo,
{Xcoë`m _wÚm§À`m AmYmao Ka~gë`m em§VnUo nwaogm doi XoD$Z Vwåhr J¥hnmR> àíZm§Mr CÎmao
{chmc. J¥hnmR>coIZ hm EH$m AWu narjoVrc àíZn{ÌH$m gmoS>{dÊ`mMm gamdM Amho. narjoVrc àíZm§Mo
ñdê$n J¥hnmR> àíZm§à_mUoM AgUma Amho. \$aH$ EdT>mM H$s narjoVrc àíZ ho AZno{jV AgVrc.
AMmZH$ nwT>o Amcoë`m `m àíZm§Mr CÎmao Amnë`mcm VrZ Vmgm§À`m _`m©{XV doimV OmñVrV OmñV
Mm§Jë`m nÕVrZo {chm`Mr AgVmV.
AZoH$Xm Amnë`mcm Ag§ dmQ>V§ H$s _r 4 Vo 5 nmZr CÎma {chÿZgwÕm _cm JwU _mÌ {_imco
ZmhrV. _r H${dVm§À`m Amoir, gw^m{fVo BË`mXr CX²Y¥V H$ê$ZgwÕm _cm H$_r JwU {_imco. Ag§ H$m
hmoV?§ Ë`mgmR>r Imcrc àíZ ñdV…cmM {dMmê$Z Ë`m§Mr CÎmao emoYm.
Omo àíZ {dMmacm Amho, Vmo g_OyZ KoD$Z Ë`mV Oo {dMmaco Amho, VoM AmnU CÎmamV {c{hco
Zm?
\$ŠV AmR>dVmV Ver CXmhaUo {Xcr H$s Zo_Š`m OmJr, `mo½` VèhoZo {Xcr?
_r n[aÀN>oX nmS>co H$m?
_r ewÕ {c{hco H$m?
narjo_Ü`o Ano{jV JwU {_i{dÊ`mgmR>r .....
1.
àíZ EH$Xm ZrQ> dmMm. H$m` {dMmaco Amho, Ë`mMr ImÌr H$am. CXm. ì`§H$Q>oe _mS>JyiH$am§À`m
cm¡{H$H$ M[aÌmMm n[aM` H$ê$Z Úm d Ë`m§À`m coIZH$V¥©ËdmMr _m{hVr Úm. `m àíZmMo XmoZ ^mJ
AmhoV - 1) _mS>JyiH$am§Mo cm¡{H$H$ M[aÌ 2) _mS>JyiH$am§Mo coIZ H$V©¥Ëd.
AmnU {c{hÊ`mÀ`m ^amV \$ŠV M[aÌm{df`rM Iyn {c{hVmo qH$dm \$ŠV coIZH$V©¥Ëdmda ^a XoVmo.
Ago Ho$ë`mZo CÎmamMm g_Vmoc {~KS>Vmo d Ë`mMm n[aUm_ JwUm§da hmoVmo.
2.
VgoM Vw_Mo _V {dMmaco Agoc Va Vo Z H$MaVm {chm`cm hdo Am{U _J Amnë`m _VmÀ`m
g_W©ZmgmR>r {ddoMZ H$am`cm hdo.
3.
MMm© H$am - ñnï> H$am - {deX H$am - nam_e© ¿`m Ago doJdoJio eãXà`moJ àíZmV Ooìhm
AgVmV Voìhm Ë`mMm AW© g_OyZ KoD$Z CÎmamMr _m§S>Ur H$am`cm hdr.
4.
20 JwUm§À`m _moR>çm àíZmgmR>r 3 Vo 4 nmR>nmoQ> \w$cñHo$n H$mJX CÎma Ano{jV Amho. 10
JwUm§À`m {Q>nogmR>r d g§X^m©gh ñnï>rH$aUmgmR>r 11/2 Vo 2 nmR>nmoQ> \$wcñHo$n H$mJX CÎma Ano{jV
Amho.
5.
àíZnoT>rVrc àíZm§Mr CÎmao Vwåhmcm XoÊ`mV Amcoë`m J¥hnmR>mÀ`m CÎmamÀ`m _gwÚmà_mUo V`ma
H$am. åhUOo narjoÀ`mdoir Aä`mg H$R>rU dmQ>Uma Zmhr.
6.
{c{hÊ`mMm gamd amoO H$am`cm hdm. Aja, ewÕcoIZ d _m§S>Ur gwYmaÊ`mgmR>r Aem gamdmMm
{ZpíMV Cn`moJ hmoVmo. VgoM doi nwacm Zmhr åhUyZ àíZn{ÌH$m AY©dQ> amhmV Zmhr.
J¥hnmR> àíZ d Z‘wZm CÎmao
E‘.E. (‘amR>r) ^mJ 2
M : 221 ""gm{h˶ g‘rjm''
EHy$U JwU : 40
{d^mJ A
à.1 g‘rjm åhUOo H$m¶ Vo gm§JyZ g‘mOemór¶ g‘rjoMo ñdê$n
ñdê$n gmoXmhaUmgh {deX H$am?
H$am? JwU : 20
àmñVm{dH$ - g‘rjoMo ‘hÎd, g‘rjm H$m H$amd¶mMr? ¶m{df¶r 5 Vo 7 Amoir.
g‘rjoÀ¶m {d{dY ì¶m»¶m, gm{h˶ g‘rjoÀ¶m nm¶è¶m, AmH$bZ, AmñdmX, AW©{ZU©¶Z d
‘y붑mnZ, g‘rjH$, ^mbM§Ð, Zo‘mS>o, h[aíM§Ð WmoamV, g‘rjoMo àH$ma, g‘mOemór¶, ‘mZgemór¶,
órdmXr g‘rjm, e¡br d¡km{ZH$ g‘rjm
g‘mOemór¶ g‘rjm, gm{h˶ g‘mO g§~§Y, boIH$mMr OS>U KS>U - g‘mOmVyZ, S>m°.VoZ Mm {gÜXm§V,
d§e, H$mb, n[apñWVr ‘hÎdmMr, ‘m³g© {dMma, nm¶m-B‘bm {gÜXm§V, CXm.{d^mdar {eéaH$a ¶m§Mm
"H$ù¶m§Mo {Z:ídmg' (H$Wmg§J«h), O¶§V ndma {b{IV "AYm§Va' (ZmQ>H$) - g‘mOdmñVd
g‘mamon : g‘mOemór¶ g‘rjoMr d¡{eîQ>ço ¶m{df¶r 3 Vo 5 Amoir.
à.2 {Q>nm {bhm.
{bhm. (4 n¡H$s H$moU˶mhr 2)
JwU : 20
1) AmXe© g‘rjH$mMo ì¶{º$‘Ëd
ì¶{º$‘Ëd (JwU)
JwU : 10
àmñVm{dH$ - g‘rjH$ hm boIH$ d dmMH$ ¶m§‘Yrb Xþdm. g‘rjH$m {df¶r 5 Vo 7 Amoir.
g‘rjH$mMo ì¶{º$‘Ëd, g‘rjH$mÀ¶m A§Jr Amdí¶H$ AgUmao JwU, g§doXZerbVm, a{gH$Vm,
àkm, ì¶mg§J, {díbofH$Vm, {M{H$ËgH$ ~wÜXr, ‘yë¶{ddoH$, ~hþlwVVm, H$ënH$Vm,
g‘mamon : g‘rjH$m§Mr ^y{‘H$m ݶm¶mYremà‘mUo AgVo ¶m{df¶r 3 Vo 5 Amoir.
2) gm{h˶mMr ^mfm
JwU : 10
àmñVm{dH$ - gm{h˶mMm H|$Ðq~Xÿ "‘mZd' åhUyZ ‘mZdr ^mfobm ‘hÎd, ¶m{df¶r 5 Vo 7 Amoir.
gm{h˶mMo ‘mܶ‘ ^mfm, {MÌH$boVrb {MÌmMo ‘mܶ‘ - a§Jaofm, {eënH$boMo ‘mܶ‘ - g§JrV
H$boMo ‘mܶ‘, ˶mà‘mUo gm{h˶mMo ‘mܶ‘ eãX, ~mobr^mfm, à‘mU^mfm, gm{h˶mÀ¶m ^mfoMr R>iH$
d¡{eîQ>ço - boIH$mMr ^mfm, gyMH$Vm, {MÌX{e©Ëd, b¶ Am{U Vmb, gm¢X¶©{Z{‘©VrMr j‘Vm, Zd{Z{‘©Vr,
AZoH$mW© gyMH$Vm, g§{X½YVm, {Z¶‘mo„§KZ, AmË‘naVm, ê$nH$-à{V‘m, àVrH$m§Mm dmna.
g‘mamon : gm{h˶mMr ^mfm ‘hÎdmMr ¶m{df¶r 3 Vo 5 Amoir.
3) g‘rjH$ : Hw$gw‘mdVr Xoenm§S>o
JwU : 10
àmñVm{dH$ - Hw$gw‘mdVr Xoenm§S>o ¶m§À¶m{df¶r 5 Vo 7 Amoir.
"‘amR>r H$mX§~ar : n{hbo eVH$' ¶mVyZ g‘rjm Ñï>rMm d ì¶mg§JmMm à˶¶, Hw$gw‘mdVr Xoenm§S>o
¶m§Mo ì¶{º$‘Ëd, àJë^ a{gH$Vm, B§JOr d ‘amR>r dmS²>.‘¶mMm Mm¡’o$a ì¶mg§J, gm‘m{OH$Vm, ‘mZdVm,
Añgb à{V^meº$s.
g‘mamon : g‘rjH$ åhUyZ Agbobo ñWmZ ¶m{df¶r 3 Vo 5 Amoir.
4) ’«$m°B©S>Mo {ÌñVar¶ àmê$
àmê$n
ê$n
JwU : 10
àmñVm{dH$ - ‘mUgmÀ¶m ‘ZmVrb d A§V‘©ZmVrb KS>m‘moS>tZm ‘hÎdmMo ñWmZ AgVo åhUOoM ‘Zmo{dkmZ
˶mMm CX²JmVm ’«$m°B©S> - ¶m{df¶r 5 Vo 7 Amoir.
{g½‘§S> ’«$m°B©S> (B.g. 1856 - 1939), ‘Zmo{díbofUmMm {gÕm§V, ‘mZgemór¶ g‘rjm qH$dm
‘Zmo{díbofUmË‘H$ g‘rjm,
{ÌñVar¶ àmê$n - ‘mZdr ‘ZmMo H$m¶©, 1) "BX§' (id) 2) "Ah§' (ego) 3) A{VAh§ (super ego)
OmUrd, ZoUrd, à{H«$¶m CXm. "~°[añQ>a' O¶d§V Xidr ¶m§À¶m ZmQ>H$mVrb ‘mder, nw.{e.aoJo{b[IV
"gm{dÌr' ‘Yrb gm{dÌr.
g‘mamon : ’«$m°B©S>Zo g‘rjm {díbofUmMr gmYZo A{YH$ Zo‘H$s d gj‘ ¶m{df¶r 3 Vo 5 Amoir.
M> : 222 ""AmYw{ZH$ JÚ-nÚ''
EHy$U JwU : 40
{d^mJ A
à.1 b{bVJÚmMo
b{bVJÚmMo ñdê$n
ñdê$n gm§JyZ "nmdgmAmYrMm nmDg'
nmDg' ‘YyZ {XgUmao em§Vm eoiHo$ ¶m§Mo ì¶{º$‘Ëd
ì¶{º$‘Ëd
g{dñVa {deX H$am.
JwU : 20
H$am.
àmñVm{dH$ - em§Vm eoiHo$ ¶m§À¶m OS>UKS>Ur{df¶r 5 Vo 7 Amoir.
b{bVJÚmMo ñdê$n, b{bVJÚmV g‘mdoe AgUmar ‘m{hVr, ñWidU©Z, nÌ, ñ‘¥{VboI, Jm¡adna
boI, àmg§{JH$ AmR>dUr Ago AmË‘{Zð>boIZ àH$ma, nmíd©^y‘r : bKw{Z~§Y, bKw{Z~§YmV "‘r' Mr
^y{‘H$m, "nmdgmAmYrMm nmDg', ˶m‘Yrb {df¶d¡{dܶ, AZw^dmg loð>ñWmZ, KQ>Zobm Jm¡U ñWmZ.
em§Vm eoiHo$ ¶m§Mo ì¶{º$‘Ëd - ì¶mg§J, nmR>m§Va, H${dd¥Îmr, {ZgJm©~ÔbMo ào‘, ‘mUgm§~ÔbMo ào‘,
a{gH$Vm.
g‘mamon : em§Vm eoiH$ ¶m§Mo {ZgJm©~Ôb AgUmao ào‘ ¶m{df¶r 3 Vo 5 Amoir.
à.2 {Q>nm {bhm (4 n¡H$s H$moU˶mhr 2)
JwU : 20
1) "A§YmadmQ>m' ¶m erf©H$mMr g‘n©H$Vm
JwU : 10
àmñVm{dH$ : A§YmamH$S>o ZoUmar dmQ>. O¶y ñdV:Mo eara {dHy$Z g‘¥ÜXr {‘idVo d ho H$aVmZm Zdè¶mbm
A§YmamV R>odVo ¶m{df¶r 5 Vo 7 Amoir.
"H$mX§~ar' ¶m gm{h˶àH$mam{df¶r, "A§YmadmQ>m' (1979) n[aM¶, gw^mf ^oÊS>o n[aM¶, "A§YmadmQ>m' Mo
WmoS>³¶mV H$WmZH$, nmÌ aMZm, {ZdoXZnÜXVr d dmVmdaU ¶m{df¶r
A§YmamMrM dmQ> - AZ¡{VH$ ‘mJ© - bmM, eara {dH«$¶, bmbgm, ImoQ>onUm, ImoQ>r à{Vð>m.
g‘mamon : "A§YmadmQ>m' ¶m erf©H$mÀ¶m g‘n©H$Vo{df¶r 3 Vo 5 Amoir.
2) "àdmgr njr' ‘Yrb gm‘m{OH$Vm
JwU : 10
àmñVm{dH$ - Hw$gw‘mJ«Om§{df¶r d ˶m§À¶m H$mì¶m{df¶r 5 Vo 7 Amoir.
amOH$maUmZo d ñdmWu hoVyZo ^abobm g‘mO, ‘mUwgH$sda ^a, emo{fVm§Mr ~mOy, AmemdmXr
Ñ{ï>H$moU, ào‘, {df‘Vm, ‘mZdVmdmXr Ñ{ï>H$moU, Aݶm¶mda ‘mV CXm.H${dVmMr erf©H$o .
g‘mamon : H$dr åhUyZ AgUmao Hw$gw‘mJ«Om§Mo ñWmZ ¶m{df¶r 3 Vo 5 Amoir.
3) AmJaH$am§
AmJaH$am§Mm g‘mOgwYmaUm{df¶H$ Ñ{ï>H$moU
JwU : 10
àmñVm{dH$ - AmJaH$am§{df¶r d ˶m§À¶m OS>UKS>Ur{df¶r 5 Vo 7 Amoir.
AmJaH$am§Mo ì¶{º$‘Ëd, ˶mdoiMr gm‘m{OH$ n[apñWVr, Y‘©{df¶H$ {dMma, {ó¶m§{df¶H$
{dMmagaUr, ‘mJmgbobm H$mi, {ó¶m§Mr X¶Zr¶ AdñWm, Añn¥í¶Vm, 춺$s ñdmV§Í¶mg ‘hÎd.
g‘mamon : g‘mOgwYmaUm{df¶H$ Ñ{ï>H$moZ ‘hËdmMm ¶m{df¶r 3 Vo 5 Amoir.
4) "A§YmadmQ>m' Vrb Jm¡U ì¶{º$aoIm
JwU : 10
àmñVm{dH$ - "A§YmadmQ>m' Vrb ‘w»¶ ì¶{º$aoIm d Jm¡U ì¶{º$aoIm, n[aM¶m{df¶r 5 Vo 7 Amoir.
Jm¡U ì¶{º$aoIm åhUOo H$m¶?, à‘wI ì¶{º$aoIm O¶y d AÀ¶wV, Jm¡U ì¶{º$aoIm - Jm¶Vm|S>o,
A{dZme gmIaXm§S>o, ‘{IOm, OmoËñZm, BVa Jm¡U ì¶{º$aoIm.
g‘mamon : Jm¡U ì¶{º$aoIm à‘wI ì¶{º$aoIm§Zm gmø^yV ¶m{df¶r 3 Vo 5 Amoir.
M : 223
""^maVr¶ gm{h˶emó''
EHy$U JwU : 40
à.1 ^maVr¶ gm{h˶emómMr Pmbobr dmQ>Mmb g{dñVa {deX H$am
H$am.
JwU : 20
àmñVm{dH$ - ‘wÐUH$bm {dH${gV Zgë¶mZo nÚaMZm åhUyZ gm{h˶emó åhUOoM H$mì¶emó ¶m{df¶r 5
Vo 7 Amoir.
H$mì¶ åhUOo H$m¶?, H$mì¶mMr à¶moOZo (hoVy), Mm§Jbo H$mì¶, dmB©Q> H$mì¶, g§ñH¥$V
H$mì¶emómMr dmQ>Mmb, ^aV, ^m‘h d X§S>r, CX²^Q>, dm‘Z, AmZ§XdY©Z, Hw§$VH$ d jo‘|Ð ¶m§Mo {dMma,
g‘mamon : ^maVr¶ gm{h˶emómMr dmQ>Mmb ^aVmnmgyZ jo‘|Ðmn¶ªV Pmbr ¶m{df¶r 3 Vo 5 Amoir.
à.2 {Q>nm {bhm (4 n¡H$s H$moU˶mhr 2)
JwU : 20
1) Üd{Z{dMma :
JwU : 10
àmñVm{dH$ - AmZ§XdY©ZmMm Üd{Z{dMma ¶m{df¶r 5 Vo 7 Amoir.
ÜdZr, AmZ§XdY©Z, JwU, Xmof, Ab§H$ma, ar{V, Am¡{M˶, Üd{Z{dMma, ÜdZtMo àH$ma.
g‘mamon : ÜdZr hm H$mì¶mMm AmË‘m ¶m{df¶r 3 Vo 5 Amoir.
2) eãXeº$s d {VMo àH$ma :
JwU : 10
àmñVm{dH$ - eãXmÀ¶m {R>H$mUr EH$ {d{eï> àH$maMr eº$s AgVo. {VÀ¶m{df¶r 5 Vo 7 Amoir.
eãXeº$s åhUOo H$m¶?, A{^Ym, bjUm, 춧OZm, ˶m§Mo àH$ma, gmoXmhaU.
g‘mamon : H$mì¶mV 춧OZm eº$sbm AgUmao ‘hËdmMo ñWmZ ¶m{df¶r 3 Vo 5 Amoir.
3) dm‘ZmMm ar{V{dMma :
JwU : 10
àmñVm{dH$ - ""ar{VamË‘m H$mì¶ñ¶'' ¶m{df¶r 5 Vo 7 Amoir.
{d{eï> nXaMZm ar{V, ""{deofmo JwUmË‘m'' dm‘ZmZo JwU d Ab§H$ma ho XmoÝhrhr eãXmWm©Mo Y‘©
‘mZbo, ar{V hm H$mì¶mMm AmË‘m, ^aVmZo ‘m§S>bobo Xhm JwU dm‘ZmZo ñdrH$mabo, dm‘ZmMo ar{V^oX,
g‘mamon : H$mì¶emómV dm‘ZmMm ar{V{dMma ‘hÎdmMm ¶m{df¶r 3 Vo 5 Amoir.
4) ag{dMma
JwU : 10
àmñVm{dH$ - Ab§H$ma, ar{V, Am¡{M˶ d ÜdZr ¶mnojm H$mì¶mV agmbm Agbobo ‘hÎd ¶m{df¶r 5 Vo 7
Amoir.
ag{df¶H$ {d{dY g§km§Mo ñnï>rH$aU, ZmQ>ç^md, bm¡{H$H$^md, ñWm¶r^md, gmpËdH$ ^md,
{d^md, agg§»¶m, agmMr H$gmoQ>r, ag{df¶H$ {d{dY {gX²Ym§V, ^Å>bmo„Q>, lre§Hw$H$, ^Å>Zm¶H$,
A{^ZdJwá, ag{d¿Zo.
g‘mamon : ar{V hm H$mì¶mMm AmË‘m Amho, àmU Amho ¶m{df¶r 3 Vo 5 Amoir.
M : 224 ""J«m‘rU gm{h˶''
EHy$U JwU : 40
à.1 "J«m‘rU gm{h˶m' Mo ñdê$n
ñdê$n ñnï> H$ê$
H$ê$Z
ê$Z J«m‘rU gm{h˶mMr na§nam g{dñVa {deX H$am. JwU : 20
àmñVm{dH$ - "J«m‘rU' ho gm{h˶mbm {‘imbobo {deofU ˶mMm CX¶, "J«m‘' dê$Z J«m‘rU, "J«m‘rU'
åhUOo JmdmH$S>rb ¶m{df¶r 5 Vo 7 Amoir.
J«m‘rU gm{h˶ - ì¶m»¶m (AmZ§X ¶mXd, ZmJZmW H$moVmn„o, dmgwXod ‘wbmQ>)o , J«m‘mVrb bmoH$m§Mo
OrdZ Vo "J«m‘rU', J«m‘rU gm{h˶{Z{‘©Vr ‘mJrb H$maUo (gm‘m{OH$, gm§ñH¥${VH$ d dmS²>.‘¶rZ H$maUo),
J«m‘rU gm{h˶mMo KQ>H$ (1) J«m‘g§ñH¥$Vr - IoS>çmVrb bmoH$m§Mo AÞ, Kao, nmofmI, ^mfm), 2) gUCËgd, 3) éT>r-na§nam-Mmbr[aVr, 4) ZmVog§~§Y, 5) ~mobr^mfm, 6) OÌm
J«m‘rU gm{h˶mMr àoaUm - ‘.’w$bo, ‘.Jm§Yr d S>m°.Am§~oS>H$a
J«m‘rU gm{h˶{Z{‘©Vr‘mJrb H$maUo (gm‘m{OH$, gm§ñH¥${VH$ d dmS²>.‘¶rZ H$maUo)
J«m‘rU gm{h˶ na§nam "JmWmgáeVr' ‘ܶo AmT>iVo, g§Vm§À¶m A^§Jm‘ܶo "J«m‘rU OrdZ' {XgVo.
1920 nyd© J«m‘rU OrdZ, gm{h˶, boIH$, hoVy
1920 Vo 1960 ‘Yrb J«m‘rU gm{h˶, ‘Zmoa§OZ
1960 Vo AmOVm Jm¶V, J«m‘rU gm{h˶, eoVH$è¶m§À¶m Xþ:I, ì¶Wm, doXZm, ˶m§Mo OrdZ gm{h˶mVyZ
Aä¶mgUo
J«m‘rU gm{hp˶H$ : ‘.’w$bo, lr.‘.‘mQ>o, J.b.R>moH$i, {d.g.gwIQ>UH$a, a.dm.{XKo, 춧H$Q>oe ‘mS>JyiH$a,
S>m°.AmZ§X ¶mXd d S>m°.ZmJZmW H$moVmn„o ¶m§À¶m nmgyZ S>m°.amOZ Jdg, S>m°.H¥$îUmV ImoV, S>m°.à{V‘m B§Jmobo
d S>m°.gXmZ§X Xoe‘wI ¶m§À¶mn¶ªV
g‘mamon : J«m‘rU gm{h˶mÀ¶m {dñV¥V na§nao{df¶r 3 Vo 5 Amoir.
à.2 {Q>nm {bhm. (4 n¡H$s H$moU˶mhr 2)
JwU : 20
1) J«m‘rUVm Am{U àmXo{eH$Vm
JwU : 10
àmñVm{dH$ - àmXo{eH$ gm{h˶mVyZ J«m‘rU gm{h˶mMm CX¶ ¶m{df¶r 5 Vo 7 Amoir.
J«m‘rU Am{U àmXo{eH$ gmå¶-^oX, àmXo{eH$ gm{h˶ J.b.R>moH$i, a.dm.{XKo d {d.g.gwIQ>UH$a
¶m§Mo gm{h˶ J«m‘rU gm{h˶ - 1960 Z§Va J«m‘rU gm{h˶ àdmh - J«m‘rU gm{hp˶H$ S>m°.AmZ§X ¶mXd,
S>m°.amOZ Jdg.
g‘mamon : AmO J«m‘rU d àmXo{eH$ Agm ^oX ‘mZbm OmV Zmhr ¶m{df¶r 3 Vo 5 Amoir.
2) J«m‘rU gm{h˶mMr Midi
JwU : 10
àmñVm{dH - J«m‘rU gm{h˶mÀ¶m àoaUoVyZ {Z‘m©U Pmbobr J«m‘rU gm{h˶mMr Midi ¶m{df¶r 5 Vo 7
Amoir.
‘.’w$bo, ‘.Jm§Yr d S>m°.Am§~oS>H$a ¶m§Mo H$m¶©, 1977, eoVH$è¶m§À¶m ì¶Wm, doXZm, Xþ:I d Aݶm¶
¶mbm gm{h˶mVyZ dmMm ’$moS>Uo, S>m°.AmZ§X ¶mXd, S>m°.ZmJZmW H$moÎmmn„o, S>m°.X.Vm.^mogbo, àm.^mñH$a
M§XZ{ed, am.a§.~moamS>o d dmgwXod ‘wbmQ>o B.
g‘mamon : AmOMo J«m‘rU gm{h˶ ¶m MidirMo ¶e Amho ¶m{df¶r 3 Vo 5 Amoir.
3) J«m‘rU gm{h˶mMr d¡{eîQ>ço :
JwU : 10
àmñVm{dH$ - eoVr d eoVH$ar hm ‘w»¶ H$Um Agbobo ho J«m‘rU gm{h˶ ¶m{df¶r 5 Vo 7 Amoir.
dmñVdXe©Z, J«m‘rU ^mfme¡br (~mobr^mfm), dmñVd Am{U H$bmË‘H$VoMr gm§JS>, gm‘m{OH$
Vi‘i, {ZgJ© d H$mù¶m AmB©Mo ñWmZ.
g‘mamon : J«m‘rU gm{h˶ J«m‘rU ‘Zm§Mm hþ§H$ma Amho ¶m{df¶r 3 Vo 5 Amoir.
4) J«m‘rU gm{hp˶H$ S>m°.AmZ§X ¶mXd
JwU : 10
àmñVm{dH$ - S>m°.AmZ§X ¶mXd M[aÌmË‘H$ WmoS>³¶mV n[aM¶ ¶m{df¶r 5 Vo 7 Amoir.
S>m°.AmZ§X ¶mXd ¶m§Mr H$mì¶g§nXm, H$WmboIZ, H$mX§~è¶m, d¡Mm[aH$ gm{h˶, BVa boIZ, J«m‘rU
gm{h˶ MidirMo CX²JmVo (à‘wI) g^m g§‘obZo ¶mV gh^mJ nwañH$ma, doJionU.
g‘mamon : J«m‘rU gm{h˶mV S>m°.AmZ§X ¶mXd ¶m§Mo Agbobo ¶moJXmZ ¶m{df¶r 3 Vo 5 Amoir.
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