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DOCUMENT RESUME
ED 314 9J2
AUTHOR
TITLE
INSTITUTION
FL 018 274
Slaughter, Helen B.; Watson-Gegeo, Karen
Hawaiian Language Immersion: Evaluation of the
Program's First Year, SY 1987-88.
Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Social Science Research
Inst.
SPONS AGENCY
PUB DATE
NOTE
PUB TYPE
Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Hilo.
Jun 88
194p.; Drawings will film poorly.
Reports - Evaluative/Feasibility (142)
EDRS PRICE
DESCRIPTORS
MF01/PC08 Plus Postage.
Classroom Observation Techniques; Course Content;
Curriculum Design; Ethnography; Grade 1, *Hawaiian;
*Immersion Programs; Instructional Materials;
Kindergarten; Language Proficiency; Parent Attitudes;
Primary Education; Program Effectiveness; *Program
Evaluation; Second Language Learning; Student
Evaluation; Uncommonly Taught Languages
Content Area Teaching; Hawaii; *Hawaii Language
Immersion Program
IDENTIFIERS
ABSTRACT
The Hawaiian Language Immersion Program, implemented
at the kindergarten/first grade level in an elementary school on Oahu
and one on Hawaii, is described and evaluated. The program was
instituted at the request of parents of students who had attended a
Hawaiian language immersion preschool and was open to all students,
regardless of ethnicity or language background. Students received
instruction in language arts, mathematics, and other content areas
entirely in Hawaiian. Instructional assistance was provided by young
professionals from a Hawaiian studies program and by parent and
community volunteers. Lack of instructional materials was a
significant problem. Evaluation of the program was based on
ethnographic classroom observations, interviews with parents and
school personnel, and oral language assessment of the students in
Hawaiian and English. Evaluators found that the program had near
total immersion, that students appeared to understand and respond
appropriately to instruction in Hawaiian, that a range of topics and
content areas were being taught, and that there was unusually high
parent involvement and support. Almost all students had achieved
moderate to high Hawaiian proficiency for their age, others were
making zignificant gains in the language, and all were fluent in
English conversational discourse. Twenty-two recommendations are
made, including continuation of the program through grade 6 for
participating students, and extension to a new cohort of kindergarten
and first-grade students. A detailed account of the curriculum and
instruction is included in the report. (Author/MSE)
***************.***************************************************1***
Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made
from the original document.
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HAWAIIAN LANGUAGE IMMERSION
Evaluation of the Program's First Year
SY 1987-88
Helen B. Slaughter
Karen Watson-Gegeo
University of Hawaii, Manoa
Social Science Research Institute
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Points 0 view or opinions stated in this docu
ment do not necessarity represent official
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2
BEST COPY AVAILABLE
EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE FIRST YEAR OF THE
HAWAIIAN LANGUAGE /MMERSION PROGRAM
A Report to the P1
_Ag and Evaluation Branch
Department of Education
State of Hawai'i
and
Helen B. Slaughter
Karen Watson-Gegeo
Department of English
as a Second Language
Department of Curriculum
and Instruction
Prilcipal Investigators
Sam No'eau Warner
Bilingual Ethnographic Assistant
Eaunani Bernarth no
Bilingual Ethnographic Assistant
University of Hawaii, Minoa
Honolulu, Hawaii
June 1988
EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE FIRST YEAR LT THE
HAWAIIAN LANGUAGE IMMERSION PROGRAM
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Hawaiian Language immersion program was implemented in
two elementary schools, Waiau Elementary School on Oahu, and
Keaukaha Elementary School on the island of Hawaii, during the
1987-1988 school year.
The program consisted of a combination
kindergarten, first grade classroom at each site and enrolled 18
students at Waiau and 17 students at Keaukaha Elementary School.
The program was begun at the request of parents of students who
had attended the Panana Leo, a Hawaiian language immersion
program for preschool aged children and others interested in
preserving and reviving the Hawaiian language and culture.
The
program was open to any kindergarten or first grade student,
regardless of ethnicity or language background, whose parents
volunteered to have their child
or children in the program.
Approximately thirty-nine percent of the students at Waiau and
fifty-six percent of the
students at Keaukaha had
attended the
Panana Leo, while the others entered the program with little or
no exposure to the Hawaiian language at school entry.
The program was successful in providing a total Hawaiian
language immersion experience to participating students, and by
the end of the year all students had attained a functional to
proficient degree of fluency in the Hawaiian language.
Students
were instructed in language arts, mathematics, and in the content
ii
areas in the medium of the Hawaiian language.
Extra assistance
to the teacher in meeting the needs of two grade levels
of
students who entered at different levels of proficiency in
Hawaiian was provided through the Hawaiian Studies Kupuna program
and by parent and other community volunteers.
Worksheets and
some books were translated into Hawaiian, but the lack of
translated and readily available printed materials in the
Hawaiian language presented a serious problem for the program
implementors.
Teachers and other adults were constantly
translating materials for use in daily instruction, and the
provision of adequate printed materials was viewed as one of the
most important needs in future program implementation.
The evaluation, which was primarily formative and process
oriented, was based on ethnographic classroom observations,
on
and
an
interviews
of
principals,
teachers and parents,
alternative oral language assessment in Hawaiian and English.
The evaluators found that the program had a high degree of
implementation in terms of near total immersion in Hawaiian; that
students appeared to understand and respond appropriately to
instruction in the Hawaiian language; that a range of topics and
content areas were being taught in Hawaiian; and that there was
an unusually high degree of parental involvement and support for
the program.
A detailed account
of the curriculum and
instruction is found in the "Report on Classroom Observations"
section of the report.
Individualized oral language assessment
of a sample of two thirds of participating students in Hawaiian
iii
and English indicated that almost all of the students had
achieved moderate to high proficiency in Hawaiian for their age
level, that others were making significant gains in acquiring the
language, and that all of the students were fluent in English
conversational discourse.
The evaluation report contains twenty-two recommendations,
the most important being that the immersion program should be
continued for the present group of participating students, and
should be extended to a new cohort of entering kindergarten and
first grade students.
The recommendations are based partly on
the high level of successful implementation cbserved for a first
year innovative program, partly on research which indicated the
high level of success for early total immersion programs
elsewhere, and also from an acknowledgment of the importance of
the dual goals of the program in developing students with strong
bilingual proficiencies in their first and second languages and
of maintaining and reviving the Hawaiian language.
The
recommendations above are offered with the contingency that
participating students continue to progress in both the Hawaiian
and English languages, that students receive instruction in the
full range of the elementary curriculum,
and that adequate
resources (teaching staff, and curriculum materials) are provided
for implementation.
Among the recommendations, which are
explained in greater detail in the report, are the following:
.
The Hawaiian language immersion program should be planned
as a program that extends from kindergarten through grade
iv
six.
Students should continue
in total Hawaiian
immersion through grade three with the exception
that
English literacy instruction might be introduced for
twenty percent or less of the school day in grade three;
in grades four through six: instruction should be half
day in Hawaiian and half day ..n English, provided through
a team teaching method.
A whole language approach should be considered as a
curriculum alternative for the immersion program.
Provision of a full range of textbook,
tradebook and
other curriculum materials translated into Hawaiian is
needed.
Inservice training in elementary teaching methods,
curriculum,
and bilingual education is needed for
teachers and auxiliary staff.
There is a need for adequate badgeting and provision of a
coordinator for the program.
There is a need for recognition that the Hawaiian early
immersion program is a bilingual program.
Long-range planning is needed for the program.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION
1
PURPOSE AND DESIGN OF THE EVALUATION
6
First Year Evaluation Design
1.
2.
3.
7
Classroom Observations
Oral Language Assessment...
Interviews
Future Evaluation of the HLIP
14
14
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE HAWAIIAN LANGUAGE IMMERSION PROGRAM.
Student Participants:
Background
8
8
16
Grade Levels and Language
16
Total Immersion in the Hawaiian Language
18
Teachers, Auxiliary Staff and Volunteers
22
Curriculum and Materials
23
Administration and Relationship with Other Students,
Teachers, and Parents at the School
26
Parental Support
27
REPORT OF CLASSROOM OBSERVATIONS:
INSTRUCTION
CURRICULUM &
29
Instructional Schedule
29
Curriculum and Patterns of Instruction
31
Language Arts
Math Activities
Other Subjects:
and Music
32
46
Scien.:e, Social Studies,
Summary
LANGUAGE ASSESSMENT: HAWAIIAN LANGUAGE IMMERSION PROGRAM
CHILDREN'S COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE IN HAWAIIAN AND
ENGLISH
Children's Communicative Competence in Hawaiian:
Examples from Classroom Interaction
49
51
53
53
Assessment of Students' Conversational and
Narrative Discourse in Hawaiian and English
on the Language Proficiency Measure
LPM Results:
LPM Results:
Hawaiian Oral Language Assessment
English Oral Language Assessment
Results on the PPVT-R, English Vocabulary Test
RESULTS OF PARENT INTERVIEWS AND QUESTIONNAIRES
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
60
64
85
92
96
112
129
REFERENCES
APPENDIXES
Appendix A:
Proficiency Criteria for the
Language Proficiency Measure
Appendix B:
Students' Productive Hawaiian
Vocabulary Responses to Selected
Pictures from the PPVT-R
135
Appendix C:
Analysis of a Sample of Children's
Writing in Hawaiian
151
Appendix D:
Narrative Profile of Student
Language Proficiency
176
Appendix E:
Student's Narratives
177
Appendix F:
Parent Evaluation Questionnaire
183
133
EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE FIRST YEAR OF THE
HAWAIIAN LANGUAGE IMMERSION PROGRAM
INTRODUCTION
The
Hawaiian
Language
Immersion
Program
(HLIP)
was
established to provide early immersion education in the.Hawaiian
Language for kindergarten and first grade students during the
1987-1988 school year.
The program served a combination
classroom of kindergarten and first grade students at Waiau
Elementary School, in the Leeward School District, Oahu, and a
similar class at Keaukaha Elementary School, in the Hawaii
School District on the Island of Hawaii.
Classes were proposed
for the islands of Maui and Kaua'i but were not offered due to
lack of enrollment.
The Department of Education program was initiated at the
request of parents who had sent their children to Panana Leo, a
Hawaiian language early total immersion program for preschoolaged children that had been established in 1984, so that children
in that program could continue to develop in the Hawaiian
language.
However, the program was open to any kindergarten or
first grade child whose parents wanted him or her enrolled in the
program,
regardless of ethnicity or language background.
In
addition to the major goal of Hawaiian language development,
parents perceived the goal of the program as one of renewing and
reviving the Hawaiian language which has been dying out.
In this
sense the program is similar to immersion programs found
elsewhere such as the French immersion programs in Canada, and
10
the Maori immersion programs in New Zealand.
Preserving the
language is seen as essential in preserving the Hawaiian culture.
It is only recently that it was legally possible to use
Hawaiian as a medium of instruction in the public schools in
Hawaii.
Historically, since the overthrow of the Hawaiian
monarchy, English has been the official language.
In the 1978
state constitutional convention, Hawaiian was made one of the
official languages, along with English for the state, but it was
not until
1986 that Hawaiian could be used
instruction in the schools.
as
a medium of
In 1986 a provision was made
permitting the use of the Hawaiian language
as
a medium of
instruction in special Department of Education Programs, thus
enabling the DOE to provide a bilingual education program to
children for the island of Ni'ihau where Hawaiian is still the
primary language.
On the island of Ni'ihau, students entering
school in the kindergarten and grade one are first taught in the
home language of Hawaiian, and later make a transition to
instruction in the English language.
This is similar to
bilingual programs established for Hispanic students in the
mainland United States where students are first instructed in
Spanish and at a later time, such as the third or fourth grade,
make a gradual transition to receiving instruction in the English
language.
Some school districts have "transitional" bilingual
programs where students gradually move into total English
instruction, while others have "maintenance" programs where
students continue to receive some instruction in Spanish even
though the majority of their instructional day and most subjects
2
s:f
taken are in English.
The Culver City Spanish Immersion Program
in California is an example of a maintenance program.
In the
Culver City Unified School District, students are fully immersed
in Spanish in kindergarten and first grade; in second grade they
begin to receive literacy instruction in English but everything
else is taught in Spanish; in third grade instruction in English
language arts is expanded to 25% of the school day, with the
remainder in Spanish; and in grades 4-6 instruction is equally
divided between Spanish and English.
Longitudinal results from
the Culver City program indicated that students achieved at the
same or at a higher level than their peers in the English-only
classrooms on nationally normed tests of reading, language and
mathematics in sixth grade (Campbell,
1984, pp.
128-130).
In
addition, students attained remarkable fluency in Spanish oral
and writtsn language.
Immersion education is a unique form of bilingual education.
It is the opposite of 1,ilingual programs, such as the program on
Niihau, that provide instruction for students in their first
language (L1).
In early total immersion education, English
speaking students are immersed in a second language,
(L2),
in
this case Hawaiian, and receive all instruction in the medium of
the second language.
The teacher, who is bilingual and
understands what the children say in either English or Hawaiian,
communicates exclusively in Hawaiian except for the first few
days when simple instructions may be given in English.
Students
gradually begin to use more and more of the second language, i.e.
3
12
Hawaiian, until they use Hawaiian exclusively when in the
classroom.
While parents may support their child's second language
learning at home by interacting with them in Hawaiian, depending
upon a parent's bilingual language abilities, it is expected that
students will continue to develop their English language
abilities through their out-of-school life in communicating with
family members, peers, persons in the community, and through the
media, such as television and newspapers.
The few students who
entered the program from homes where Hawaiian is the primary home
language spoken are considered exceptions in the program,
as
would students who entered French immersion programs from French
speaking homes.
Studies of French immersion programs have shown
that students develop their English oral and written language
abilities to a level equal to or superior to that of their
counterparts in the English-only classrooms
Department of Education, 1984).
(California State
In reviewing a number of
studies, Swain (1984) found that:
Within a year of the introduction of an English
language arts component into the curriculum...the
immersion students perform as well on standardized
tests of English achievement as do students in the
This is the case even if
English-only program
English is not introduced until the third...or
fourth grade...Furthermore, in some instances the
initial gap is not only closed but the immersion
students outperform their English-only program peers in
some aspects of measured English language skills (p.
93)
.
In addition to maintaining normal
levels of English language
proficiency, students developed high levels of proficiency in the
4
..
second language without
any long terms deficit
in their
achievement in the academic subject areas (Swain, 1984, p. 107).
5
14
PURPOSE AND DESIGN OF THE EVALUATION
The purpose of the evaluation was to provide formative and
process evaluation information to program planners and decision-
makers regarding the implementation of the program, and to make
recommendations regarding the future development and evaluation
of the program.
A qualitative evaluation design, using applied
ethnographic methods onsisting of non-participant observation
and
interviewing,
was employed to
fulfill
this purpose.
Ethnographic research methods involve the systematic study of
behavior and
interaction
in
naturally-occurring,
ongoing
settings, with an emphasis on intensive, detailed observations
and in-depth interviews with those
press).
observed (Watson-Gegeo,
in
Over the past twenty years, a growing body of studies in
the fields of anthropology, education, and applied linguistics
have used ethnographic methods to study teaching-learning
interactions in mainstream, bilingual,
classrooms
(e.g.,
Trueba,
Guthrie
Glatthorn, 1982; Cazden, 1988).
methods
for using
&
and second-language
Au,
1981;
Gilmore
&
Slaughter (1981) developed
applied ethnography to
study program
implementation in school districts.
Qualitative evaluation, and ethnographic methods,
are
especially useful in studying new and innovative programs where
clear cut objectives have not yet been articulated, when
standardized test instruments are not available,
when an
experimental design is not appropriate, and when % program is
being developed as it is being implemented (Fetterman & Pitman,
1986; Erickson, 1986).
Qualitative or naturalistic evaluation is
also appropriate for studying
the naturalistic classroom
environment and program implementation in terms of its unique
local characteristics (Guba and Lincoln, 1981).
One of the purposes of an ethnography is to describe the
program from the viewpoint of the participants, e.g.
teachers,
administrators, parents and students, called the "emic" dimension
in qualitative evaluation, and then to build bridges between a
more general perspective, called the "etic" dimension and the
inside view (Guba,
1988).
Another purpose of qualitative
evaluation is to provide documentation that captures "the events
that
facilitate and hinder the
educational innovations.
accomplishments
of major
Documentation is defined as the careful
and systematic monitoring of appropriate components, processes,
and
interactions of
program implementation,
so
that the
innovation, program effectiveness, ced future reform effortb can
be improved" (Clark, 1988, p. 21).
First Year Evaluation Design
The first year evaluation design consisted
three components:
1)
of primarily
ethnographic classroom observations,
assessment of student oral language,
teachers, principals and parents.
and 3)
2)
interviews of
Parent interviews, which were
done at group parent meetings at each school were supplemented
with questionnaires.
Photography of both classrooms was also
used as part of the evaluation (English,
1988).
In addition,
student records and test data available at the schools was
7
6
reviewed.
A list of site observations is provided in Tables 1
and 2.
1.
Classroom Observations.
The principal investigators
were assisted in conducting classroom observations by
trained observers who were proficient in Hawaiian and
English.
Observations began as soon as the evaluators
received a Memorandum of Agreement from the Department
of Education and official University of Hawaii approval
for the project, and occurred periodically from December
1987 to June 1988.
Observations were recorded using
field notes and audiotaping, when feasible,
and were
transcribed into narrative protoco:s, including segments
of verbatim oral language discourse to portray classroom
speech and literacy events.
Observations sampled a
variety of activities during the school day and included
examples of direct instruction,
peer
interaction
and
indirect instruction,
non-instructional
events.
Observations were planned so that they did not interfere
with the ordinary course of classroom events, and were
prearranged with the principal and classroom teacher.
Participants were assured anonymity, and therefore,
pseudonyms are used in reporting classroom observational
data.
2.
Oral language assessment.
Assessment of students' oral
language proficiency in Hawaiian and English was
primary interest in the first year evaluation.
8
17
of
A sample
Table 1:
Site Visitations to WAIAU ELEMENTARY SCHOOL,
Pearl City, Oahu
Date
Purpose
Researcher(s)
12/07/87
Initial classroom observation;
Interviews, principal and teacher
Slaughter and
Watson-Gegeo
01/26/88
Classroom observation, interview
teacher, photograph learning environment
Slaughter
Watson-Gegeo
Warner
Bernadino
02/15/88
Observation; interview teacher
Slaughter
Warner
04/26/88
Parent Evaluation Meeting
Slaughter
Watson-Gegeo
Warner
04/29/88
Observation; English Language
Assessment, interview principal
Slaughter
Warner
05/04/88
Interview teacher and kupuna
Slaughter
06/02/88
Hawaiian Language Assessment
Warner
06/03/88
Observation of presentation to BOE,
DOE, paren*s and legislature
Warner
06/06/88
Observation; photograph classroom
learning environment, English language
assessment, Exit interviews; teacher,
kupuna, principal
Watson-Gegeo
Warner
Slaughter
Table 2:
Site Visitations to KEAUKAHA ELEMENTARY SCHOOL,
Hilo, Hawaii
Date
Purpose
IMP
Researcher(s)
01/07/88
Classroom Observation, Interview
principal, and teach
Slaughter
Watson-Gegeo
Warner
02/05/88
Classroom Observations, Hawaiian
classroom and English classroom
(KEEP-K); Interview principal and
teacher
Slaughter
Warner
03/15/e8
Classroom Observation, Hawaiian
classroom and English classroom
(KEEP-1); Oral language assessment;
Interviews: principal, teacher
Slaughter
Warner
05/09/88
Parent Meeting
Slaughter
Watson -Gegeo
Warner
05/09/88
Classroom Observation
English Language Assessment
Photograph Classroom
Slaughter
Watson-Gegeo
05/19/88
Hawaiian Language Assessment
Warner
06/03/88
Classroom Observation
Hawaiian vocabulary pilot study
Exit Interviews: parent volunteer,
principal, teacher
Slaughter
BArnadino
of 12 students at each site, or 24 out of 34 students,
(70%) were assessed on the Language Proficiency Measure,
(LPM)
a qualitative assessment which uses conversation
and storytelling from a wordless storybook to elicit
student discourse in their first and second language
(this was a modification of a method developed by
Slaughter, 1988; Bennett & Slaughter, 1982).
Students
were assessed in pairs to facilitate establishing
rapport with students and to generate conversational
topics appropriate to the age and experiential level of
the
students.
The
examiner
first
developed
a
conversation with two students, followed by asking each
of the students to look through a wordless story book
and then tell a story from it.
Each student told the
story from a different wordless story book written by
Mayer, and Mayer & Mayer (1975: 1974: 1973).
A person
the students associated with the English language
elicited language in English, and a bilingual research
assistant whom the students associated with the Hawaiian
language elicited the Hawaiian language,
days.
on separate
Teacher judgment was used to select students at
high, average and low proficiency levels in Hawaiian,
(and students for which parental consent was obtained)
for participating in the assessment.
A sub-sample of
the discourse in Hawaiian and English from seven
students, four judged high in fluency in the Hawaiian
language and three judged moderate to low in Hawaiian,
11
20
was analyzed using the LPM criteria for evaluating the
proficiency of conversational and narrative discourse.
will
This was exp%oratory work, and additional research
be needed for further development of these assessment
(A description of the
procedures to this population.
LPM criteria is found in Appendix A.)
Students were also assessed on the Peabody Picture
Vocabulary Test,
Revised education,
Form L,
(PPVT-R)
(Dunn and Dunn, 1981), by the DOE in the fall of 1987.
Kindergarten students were posttested on the PPVT-R in
spring at one school.
test
of
receptive
The PPVT is a nationally normed
oral
language
vocabulary,
a
"listening" or "hearing" vocabulary, that requires
students to point to the correct noun, adjective, or
action verb (gerund) out of a choice of four pictures.
from
The words on the PPVT were originally selected
words in these categories that could be illustrated with
line drawings from Websters's New Collegiate Dictionary
(1980;
1953),
and then reduced
to a testable
number
through pilot testing and statistical methods.
possibility of
The evaluation team investigated the
translating the PPVT into Hawaiian as a measure that
in Hawaiian
could be used to compare vocabulary growth
vocabulary growth in
and English, and/or to measure
It was decided that it was
Hawaiian over time.
do so since a)
premature at this stage in the program to
other children's
there are no norms for the test, or any
12
vocabulary test, in Hawaiian, and therefore any results
b) many terms on the
could be suspect and misleading,
test would require more than one word in a valid
Hawaiian translation, and the PPVT is a test that tests
vocabulary out of the context of real discourse
(see
pages 17 and 19 in the manual, 1981), c) it is unknown
whether or not the words on the test are as useful and
familiar
some
of
in Hawaiian as they are in English, and d)
the words
on
the
PPVT
do
not
have
a
straightforward translation into Hawaiian and the
authors of the PPVT abjure against removing any words
However, we felt that
for any reason from the test.
such a test might- be useful in the future evaluations of
the program because it is easy to administer, and
provides a potential for comparative and longitudinal
data.
Therefore, some preliminary work was done to see
if the children in the HLIP could generate Hawaiian
vocabulary associated with the pictures on the test.
In
this effort the usual testing procedures were reversed,
asking
students
to
"produce"
vocabulary
through
speaking, rather than identify pictures for vocabulary
through listening.
It is generally thought that
producing language is harder than simply listening.
The
results from this tryout were promising enough to
warrant further development of a Hawaiian version of the
PPVT if the program continues
report on this pilot study).
13
4 14
(see Appendix B for a
3.
Interviews.
Input into the evaluation from teachers,
parents and principals was sought through the use of
open-ended, ethnographic interviews.
Principals and
teachers were asked to help organize a parent meeting so
that the evaluators could elicit parental input into the
evaluation.
parental
In addition to ascertaining the level of
support
recommendations
for
for
the
program
program,
and
improvement,
their
it
was
important to ascertain their commitment for having their
children continue In the program.
Future Evaluation of the HLIP
A longitudinal evaluation design will need to be established
for each cohort of students that participates in the program.
Students achievement in oral and written Hawaiian and the
academic subjects should continue to be evaluated on an annual
basis through both observation of the on-going program and
through tests that are specially developed in Hawaiian for this
purpose.
Students' bilingual language skills in bcth Hawaiian
and English should be evaluated annually.
After a long range
plan is designed for the program, including the transition period
into English, and students have received English instruction for
one academic year, students' achievement on English language norm
referenced tests may be compared to that of a similar group of
students, or district averages, on normed referenced achievement
tests.
However, delaying summative evaluation judgments until
students are in fifth grade or beyond may give the program a more
impartial hearing.
14
Formalizing program objectives would help focus future
evaluations and would also be useful not only in program
evaluation, but in program planning and implementation.
The
program objectives that were established for the Culver City
Early Immersion Program would seem appropriate when adapted to
Hawaiian immersion:
1.
Students who participate in the HLIP will be able to use
Hawaiian to fulfill social and scholastic tasks related
to the domain of the school.
2.
Students will make normal progress
in achieving the
standard objectives of the elementary school curriculum.
3.
Students will maintain normal progress in the maturation
process of their first language (English).
4.
Students will develop positive attitudes toward the
Hawaiian language and culture while maintaining a
positive self-image as representatives of the Englishspeaking community
133)
.
(Campbell,
1972
&
1984,
pp.
124,
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE HAWAII LANGUAGE IMMERSION PROGRAM
This section will provide a general overview of the
implementation of the Hawaiian Language Immersion Program (HLIP)
during its first year in two combination kindergarten,
first
grade classrooms in two Department of Education Elementary
Schools.
Later sections of the report will present more datailed
information regarding classroom observations, oral language
assessment, and parent's evaluations of the program.
To avoid
unfortunate and premature comparisons between schools, classrooms
will not be specifically identified in the presentation of
observational data.
Student Participants:
Grade Levels and Language Background
The program served 18 students at Waiau Elementary School in
Pearl City, O'ahu and 16 students at Keaukaha Elementary School in
Hilo, Hawai'i.
Except for a few students who withdrew from the
program during the first week, and one student who moved to the
mainland in the middle of the year,
program remained
students who started in the
in the program for the entire year.
Some
students entered the program already at a relatively high level
of fluency in Hawaiian, while others had minimal or no language
skills in the Hawaiian language.
The students who spoke Hawaiian
had all attended the Panana Leo schools for preschool-aged
children in Honolulu and Hilo.
Only two students had spoken
Hawaiian as a first language from birth through the efforts of
Most
bilingual in Hawaiian and English.
parents who were
students came from homes where English was the primary medium of
16
communication, although some pal nts spoke Hawaiian and others
(not all)
had begun studying Hawaiian in order to help their
children.
Table 3 presents data showing that less than half of
the students (39%) at Waiau entered the program speaking Hawaiian
and slightly more than half (56%) of the students entering the
program at Keaukaha spoke Hawaiian.
At both schools the first
grade class was smaller than the kindergarten class.
Table 3:
Students Entering the Hawaiian Immersion Program
as Speakers and Non-Speakers of Hawaiian,
Fall 1987
School
Kindergarten
H Spk
Non-H
Grade One
H Spk
Non-H
Total
Keaukaha
5
5
4
2
16
Waiau
5
6
2
5
18
Total
34
Note: Students entering the program as Hawaiian
speakers had attended the Panana Leo. The one
student at Keaukaha who moved away at Keaukaha who
moved away at mid-year is not included in this
table.
Parents represented a wide range of
professions.
occupations and
That a high percentage of the students enrolled in
the program had not attended the Panana Leo school indicates
considerable interest in a Hawaiian language immersion program
among parents.
Parents of non-Hawaiian speakers mentioned that
they had heard of the program only at the last minute through the
media or word of mouth, and that they had had to make last minute
arrangements in order to place their child in the program.
At
Waiau most students were district exceptions, in terms of school
attendance boundaries, while at Keaukaha approximately 5 students
17
r:
One parent mentioned that it was
were district exceptions.
difficult obtaining the district exception needed to enroll the
at other schools
student in the program, and that administrators
obtained lacked
where the district exceptions needed to be
information about the program.
Parents enrolled their children
in the
in the program so that the child could develop proficiency
because they felt that maintaining the
Hawaiian language, and
Hawaiian language and culture was important.
stated that they liked
the small class
Some parents also
size offered in the
program.
Total Immersion in the Hawaiian Language.
From the
beginning
of
school
in
immersion program
students, except for
classrooms, teachers spoke only Hawaiian to
English. At
a few simple directions during the first few days in
Keaukaha, the program started on the first day of school when
full
students were placed in the immersion classroom for the
At Waiau, students began school in English-only
class day.
classrooms, and after three weeks were placed in the immersion
classroom.
Teachers and parents indicated that it was a
difficult adjustment at first for students who had never spoken
attending school all day
or perhaps heard Hawaiian before to be
However, the students gradually
in the immersion classroom.
Doubtlessly, the
became used to the new language context.
Hawaiian
presence of a good number of students who already spoke
the language.
helped the new students adjust more quickly to
separate from the other
At Keaukaha the students were kept
make the
students at lunch time and during recess in order to
18
complete.
students' immersion in the Hawaiian language more
supervised the
Parent volunteers, and sometimes cafeteria staff,
in the classroom so that the teacher
children's lunch period
could have lunch with the other teachers.
At Waiau, where such
HLIP students had lunch in
help was not as readily available, the
and went to recess at the
the cafeteria with the other students,
same time as the others.
who worked with students
The HLIP teachers, and other adults
in the classroom spoke exclusively in Hawaiian,
with the
in their
exception of a few loan words from English appearing
discourse from time to time.
In one classroom there was a sign
and this rule was
that stated "Only Hawaiian Spoken Here,"
implied in both classrooms.
Both teachers stated that by January
established
they felt that the students' Hawaiian was firmly
if they
enough so that it would not diminish student's Hawaiian
physical
received the services of special teachers for music or
in
education, but that in the main, keeping the students immersed
Hawaiian was essential for the success of the program.
in January, students
When the evaluators began observations
during the
were using the Hawaiian language almost exclusively
When students did
time that direct teaching of lessons occurred.
teacher or other adults, they
lapse into English in talk with the
reminded to do so by the
quickly reverted to Hawaiian when
interaction when
However, in independent or peer group
talked to each
the teacher was not present, students sometimes
teacher.
other in English.
19
Teachers provided a great deal of support and direct
teaching of student's language acquisition of Hawaiian.
For one
spoke in English the teachers could
thing, when students
understand the child's intentions and respond appropriately in
Hawaiian.
This is in sharp contrast to an English "submersion"
program where the teacher cannot understand the child's
language.
first
The Hawaiian immersion teachers could anticipate what
the child wanted to say and provide sczffolding to help the
student learn how to make his intentions known in Hawaiian.
An
example of a teacher assisting a student to formulate a
grammatical sentence when playing a question asking game,
is
illustrates this process (in the example below, student
indicated with an S and teacher with a T):
S:
Hiki is 'oe i kiia mea ma kahakai?
[Can you it at the
beach?)
T:
Hiki is 'oe [Can you]
S:
Hiki is 'oe
T:
ke 'ike [see]
S:
ke 'ike
T:
i kili mea [that thing]
S:
i kali mea
T:
ma kahakai? [at the beach?]
S:
ma kahakai?
Then the teacher asked:
Maopopo is
(it)?]
S:
'Ae. [yes]
T:
He aha ia?
[What is it?]
20
'oe?
[Do yot. know
S:
Papa. [Shell.]
T:
'Ae, he papa. [Yes,
(it's) a shell.]
(January 1988)
It is well known that students often go through a "silent"
period in acquiring a second language.
Depending upon an
individual's personality, receptive control of a language, i.e.
listening comprehension,
speaking.
may precede productive ability,
i.e.
This may be especially obvious in formal teaching
settings and the first attempts at speaking a new language may
occur in the more informal settings.
example
refused
to
respond
The child in the next
verbally
to
the
teacher's
elicitations, and yet later the same day, when outside of the
classroom, he-asked another adult for help in translating a word
into Hawaiian, phrasing the question in correct Hawaiian gmvar.
In the following, the teacher is asking the student about a
picture he had drawn:
T:
He aha keia mau mea? [What are these things?)
S:
[no verbal response]
T:
He papa? [Are they shells?)
S:
[nods]
T:
'0 wai keia? [Who is this?]
S:
[points to himself]
T:
'0 'oe? [Is it you?]
S:
[He nods]
Later as the student was sitting on the porch, putting his
shoes on to leave for the day,
volunteer:
21
3U
he asked the
classroom
'Anaki, he aha "sneaker ?" ma ka 'Biel° Hawai'i? [Aunty, what
is sneaker in Hawaiian?)
(January 1988)
Parents indicated at the Parent Evaluation Meetings in march
that their children who had entered the program speaking no
Hawaiian had been making remarkable gains in the language by that
time.
In our observations in May and June we observed very
and students appeared to be
little English being spoken,
relatively comfortable and fluent in Hawaiian.
(See the Report
of Classroom Observations section for examples of students'
fluent Hawaiian discourse.)
Teachers, Auxiliary Staff and Volunteers
Two teachers who were fluent in oral and written Hawaiian
were hired for the program.
One had an elementary teaching
certificate and the other had a secondary teaching certificate.
Each had had some previous teaching experience, but it was the
first year of regular classroom teaching at the kindergarten and
first grade level for each.
No special training for immersion
education was provided.
The presence of additional
adult teaching staff and
volunteers in the classroom was essential for _program success.
For one thing,
there were at the very least four different
instructional levels possible because of differences in entry
language ability in Hawaiian and grade level.
For another, there
was a great need for individual assistance on academic tasks and
sustained one-on-one oral language interaction in Hawaiian in the
program.
A third reason additional help was needed was that
22
there was a dearth of instructional materials to use for teaching
the various academic areas in the curriculum, and assistance was
needed for locating and translating materials.
The teachers were assisted from one to two hours daily by
one auxiliary staff member provided through the Hawaiian Studies
kupuna program.
Both of these "kupuna" were young professionals,
one a first year teacher and the other a teacher-in-training.
The kupuna assisted in small group language arts and mathematics
instruction.
At one school, parents who were Hawaiian language
teachers provided reading language arts
instruction to
grade students throughout most of the year.
first
At that school,
another volunteer provided science instruction twice weekly to
first grade students.
At the other school, a grandmother
provided voluntary help for part of the year.
At this school a
district Hawaiian studies resource teacher also provided
assistance.
At both schools, additional parents volunteered from
a few hours to a few weeks time.
Curriculum and Materials
Immersion progrru
are developed on the assumption that
students will receive a comprehensive education in all content
areas appropriate for their grade level, but that the curriculum
will be taught through the medium of the second language, in this
case Hawaiian.
The programs at Waiau and Keaukaha were
implemented with this goal in mind, and as the "Report on
Classroom Observations," (to follow), shows, the typical oral and
written language,
mathematics and content area
taught in the program.
subjects were
The curriculum is expected to "parallel"
23
0 c)
4.10:0
the curriculum taught in English to non-immersion students.
The
lack of printed materials in either Hawaiian or English presented
To be brief, there
a formidable problem for the implementors.
were not enough teaching materials
and
children's books
translated into Hawaiian, nor were there enough English language
textbooks and children's books to provide a ready source of
reference or supply of books to be translated.
Compared to the
normal supply of textbooks, teachers guides and children's trade
books, i.e. children's literature, beginning reading story books,
and non-fiction books for children, that would usually be
supplied to an elementary classroom,
these materials were in
short supply in the immersion classrooms.
For instance, although
translations for the basal reader series had been prepared by the
pa
Leo for the immersion program, the actual basal readers
were supplied for only one of the two classrooms.
At one of the
schools, a parent volunteer xeroxed the mathematics textbook so
that the teacher could use it.
Each classroom had a small classroom library of books, many
of which were translated into Hawaiian and had been donated by
the pa Leo group.
Yet there were an insufficient number of
books to stimulate the kind of voluntary readihg of a wide range
of materials that is so important for beginning readers.
The
teacher and Kupuna at one school often borrowed library books for
which they made translations, pasted the Hawaiian print over the
English print in the books, and then had to reverse the entire
process when the books were returned to the library.
24
33
In the fall,
the teachers produced a large number of
worksheets in Hawaiian to use in instruction.
By January, the
HLIP classroom's need for xeroxed worksheets had entirely overrun
In the spring semester, as
the school's budget for xeroxing.
teachers began to implement a more whole language and writing
process approach in the classroom,
children's writings in
Hawaiian became a source of instructional
materials.
activities and
However, teachers throughout the school year said
Hawaiian on
that they were constantly translating materials into
also
a daily basis to use in instruction. Kupuna and volunteers
provided translated materials.
The provision of an adequate amount of high quality
problem in
instructional materials is always somewhat of a
immersion programs, and indeed in many other types of innovative
programs as well.
In the case of the Hawaiian immersion program,
the problem of materials is especially acute since formal
elementary school instruction has not been given in the Hawaiian
language since the last century.
Neither is there
a large
collection of children's books and stories available in print in
Few authors are currently producing original
Hawaiian.
in many
children's literature in Hawaiian. Teachers were putting
overtime hours in order to keep up with the demand for printed
materials in Hawaiian.
If the program continues, and expands to
higher grade levels, the demand for adequate instructional
materials, textbooks, and tradebooks will need to be met.
Even
approach to the
if a more integrated and whole language
curriculum is adopted in the program, an approach supported in
25
studies of immersion education elsewhere (California State
Department of Education, 1984), students still need access to a
wide range of literature and non-fiction books written for
children.
Classroom Space
School sites were selected partly on the basis of the
agreement and support of the principal.
A central location was
chosen for the program at Waiau, and the Keaukaha program
located on Hawaiian homestead land,
pa Leo graduates live.
is
an area where many of the
Space for the extra classroom needed
for the program has been and will continue to be a problem if the
program continues.
At Waiau, the classroom was located in a
portable classroom; at Keaukaha, a small classroom was created
from a space located in the basement of the main building that
had formerly been a large storage area.
In that classroom,
windows were covered over with paper to provide bulletin boards,
and portable chalk boards were used.
The classroom, while made
into as attractive a learning environment as possible by the
teacher, was too small for a combination classroom.
The
availability of adequate space to implement the program remains
an important consideration in future program planning.
Administration and Relationship with Other Students, Teachers and
Parents at the School
Principals expressed support for the program, especially the
high commitment and energy put into the program by the teachers.
Principals were also concerned that the program be developed as a
truly "parallel" curriculum where students would develop
26
the
basic skills that student who were not in the immersion program
were learning.
In this respect, principals also adopted a
neutral stance towards the possible outcomes of the program in
terms of students' future English language achievement and
transition into non-immersion classrooms.
At one school the
principal helped to introduce a whole language approach, and felt
that classroom discipline and instruction improved remarkably
after this approach was implemented in mid-year.
Both principals
recommended that the program be continued for at least one more
year to give the program a fair chance to succeed.
According to interviews with principals and teacners, other
students, teachers and parents at the schools were interested and
favorably impressed with the children's language abilities.
At
one school the immersion children went on several field trips
with the regular classes.
Sixth grade students at that school
had become interested in the program and the language, and
invited the younger students to go to the zoo with them.
Since
all the immersion students can communicate in either English or
Hawaiian, communication among students was not a problem.
both schools,
At
the immersion students took part in school
performances in which they spoke or sang Hawaiian, and which were
favorably received by the others.
Parental Support
Parental support for the program was very high.
Parents in
general felt that they understood the goals of the program and
that they wanted their children to continue
in an immersion
classroom at least until after the third grade.
27
Parents were
especially concerned that there be long range planning for
program continuance.
A separate section provides more detailed
information regarding parent's evaluations and recommendations
for the program.
28
3
REPORT OF CLASSROOM OBSERVATIONS: CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION
The purpose of this section of the evaluation is to briefly
describe and illustrate the academic program, teaching-learning
activities, and classroom organization of the two Hawaiian
Language Immersion Program classrooms, based on observations made
by the research staff on site visits conducted from December 1987
to June 1988 (see list of site visitations, Tables 1 and 2).
Although a complete description of all the activ'ties observed
would be too lengthy for an evaluation report, what follows are
typical representations of our observational findings in the form
of a composite report on the two classrooms.
Instructional Schedule
Daily instructional and activity schedules in the two
At one of the two schools, the
instructional day began at 8:05 a.m. and ended at 2:15 p.m.
Following opening activities (attendance, calendar, etc.), the
classrooms differed slightly.
HLIP class in this school was engaged in language arts from 8:30
After morning
to 9:30 a.m., assisted by a university volunteer.
recess, the children selected books from the book corner for
fifteen minutes of sustained silent reading (9:45-10 a.m.).
Math
was taught from 1C11 a.m., with the teacher taking the first
graders and the kupuna taking the kindergarteners. Music usually
followed math (11-11:20 a.m.).
The class went to lunch and
returning to the classroom at 12:30 for
recess at 11:25 a.m.,
At 12:45 p.m. the
another period of sustained silent reading.
Then on Mondays, Wednesdays,
teacher read the children a story.
and Fridays from 1-2 p.m., the teacher taught social studies or
art.
On Tuesdays and Thursdays, .science was taught, with the
assistance of
a volunteer from the university.
Closing
activities from 2-2:15 p.m. ended the day.
At tha other school, the day began at 7:50 a.m. and ended at
During the first half of
2 p.m. (on Wednesdays, at 1:15 p.m.).
the year in the HLIP classroom at this school, the children did
language arts and individualized work at five "centers" in the
room until lunch time at 11 a.m. When they returned from lunch
at 11:40, first-grade math was taught until noon, and then
The lesson taught
kindergarten math from noon until 12:20 p.m.
from 12:20 to 1:15 p.m. varied depending on the day -- physical
education, science, or music. Children were free to choose their
own activities or to continue on other work from 1:15-1:45 p.m..
About mid-year in this classroom, the teacher began moving the
class towards more of a whole-language approach to language arts.
The morning then involved a variety of language arts activities
(reading, writing, oral language activities, and listening
The
activities), with the children divided into ability groups.
teacher and the kupuna each took one of the kindergarten groups,
While two
and the teacher also instructed the first-grade group.
groups met, the third group worked at the listening center,
29
supervised by a volunteer.
Kindergarten math
(taught by the
teacher) and first-grade math (taught by the kupuna) were
conducted simultaneously later in the morning.
A period of
sustained silent reading took place right after lunch, during
which two children were selected to read aloud to the teacher and
to the kupuna, respectively. The afternoon schedule continued as
in the fall, with physical education, science, and music.
During
closing activities,
a few children were called on to read
passages from their homework journals.
Both classrooms had special whole-class activities at the
beginning of the school day, the end of the morning session, and
the end of the school day.
In one classroom, the day typically
began with the teacher writing the date on the board and
a
message for the children, such as, '0 kiia ka la 'ehl o Iinuali.
Nui na keiki maikei i loko o kiia papa i xiia li (Today is the
seventh of January.
There are many good children in the class
today).
After the morning bell rang, the teacher called on the
child whose turn it was to lead the opening song.
For example,
one morning about mid-year she called on Leinani (kindergarten
non-Panana Leo girl), who walked to the front of the room and
said in a strong, clear voice, "E ka kikou i luna" (Let us
stand).
The children did so, and then she said, "E himeni ana
kikou is Hawa'i Pono°I. Mikaukau" (We are going to sing "Hawai'l
Ponoq." Ready). The children replied "'As" (yes) in chorus,
and Leinani continued, "E holomake (begin).
After singing the
song, she told them, "E noho kikou i lalo" (let us be seated),
and everyone sat down. Another child was then called on by the
teacher to lead the next routine, reciting the days of the month
which had passed so far, and reading the teacher's sentences
about the date from the blackboard.
The child would also ask a
series of questions, as in the following exchange which occurred
about mid-year when Ni'ehu (kindergarten girl,
graduate) was taking her turn:
Ni'ehu:
Li 'ehia kiia?
What is today's date?
Students: Li lehi.
The fourth.
Ni'ehu:
Mahina hea kiia?
Which month is this?
Students: Iinuali.
January.
Ni'ehu:
PS'ahia kiia?
What day is this?
Students: He POsalima keia.
It's a Friday.
30
3
Li
Penana Leo
When visitors attended the class, they would be greeted and the
children would be led by a volunteer in a welcoming chant.
A similar set of activities started the day in the other
classroom, as well.
On Mondays, children would volunteer for or
be assigned their duties for the week:
holoi
(wash-- responsibility for washing the desks, assigned to two children),
kiwele (drying--handing out paper napkins to each child at lunch
time), kauno'o kahakiii (drawing center--straightening it up),
kaunoso kikau leka (letter writing center--straightening it up),
milama puke (maintain book--straightening up the book corner),
hi'awi pepa (passing out papers),
ho'oma'ema'e ke kahi holoi
(cleaning up the sink area), and so on. Guests present would be
greeted, and then a child would lead the class in Ka haliligelo
no ka Hae o 'Amelika (the Pledge of Allegiance) in Hawaiian.
After that the children sang "Hawai'i Ponoq," led by a student.
Another student then led them in repeating the date, month, and
day of the week, and counting the days of the month lapsed so
far.
The children also counted the number of name cards for the
boys and girls present, and added them together.
Then the class
sang another song before being dismissed for the morning's first
lessons.
Before being dismissed for lunch, children in both classes
said the I Ola no ke Kino (The Life in Our Bodies), as follows:
I ola no ke kino i ka mi'ona o ka 'Spa.
The life in our bodies comes from the food in our stomachs.
I miiona no ka 'Cipa i ke aloha o ka makua.
The food in our stomachs comes from the love of our parents.
E pa pa'akai kikou me ka mahalo.
Let us eat salt together with respect.
tra loa'a h&j is kikou ka 'ai a me ke aloha.
For the fact that we have food and love.
Closing activities for the day in both classrooms included
giving out stickers for academic and behavioral accomplishments,
In one
saying a closing speech, and singing closing songs.
classroom, children also took turns (a few per day) reading from
their homework journals.
Curriculum and Patterns of Instruction
Observations
were
made
throughout
the
day
in
both
classrooms, with a particular focus on language arts and
mathematics Instruction.
In this sub-section, language arts and
mathematics curriculum and instruction will be described and
Much briefer
illustrated with excerpts from lessons.
descriptions of other activities will be given.
31
Language Arts (Mikau
Language arts instruction over the year was tailored around
curriculum goals for the HLIP classes, including: teaching the
children sounds, words, and basic grammatical structures in
Hawaiian; developing children's skills in understanding arid
producing elaborated language in the form of description,
narration, and explanation; developing children's ability to
communicate effectively with others and internally with
themselves; teaching literacy skills; and developing in the
children the uoa of literature to extend and enrich their
experiences.
Reflecting curriculum goals, the walls of both classrooms
were decorated with language arts posters and displays that
varied across the year. Above the blackboards in the rooms (and
sometimes taped on the top of the desks) were carefully handprinted cards of the Hawaiian alphabet in both capital and small
letters.
During the first half of the year, posters were used to help
teach children concepts and vocabulary in Hawaiian. For example,
one such poster illustrated Hawaiian words for parts of the body.
It 'depicted a boy and girl playing together, with lines
connecting the boy or girl's arm, leg, head, etc., to its
Hawaiian label. Similar posters were used to teach movement
concepts (e.g., running, walking) and activity words (e.g.
playing, working). The parts of a bicycle were illustrated on one
hand-made poster, and yet another taught Ni mea i ke kula (school
things), with Hawaiian words for chair, desk, bowk, pencil, glue,
etc.
Posters in both rooms showed the words in Hawaiian for the
numbers from one to ten, and for counting by tens from one to
100.
Other posters included one for the months of the year and
another for the days of the week.
Later in the year, wall and bulletin board displays
emphasized text, including the words of Hawaiian songs, the
pledge of allegiance, traditional Hawaiian proverbs, and words
for the short
memorized Hawaiian speeches which the children
said at the be inning of the day, at lunch, and at the end of the
day in both classrooms.
By mid-year, the children's own writing was an important
reading source for them on the walls and in the form of books for
the book corner.
This was especially true because of the
relatively narrow range of translated reading materials available
to the children in each classroom.
In one of the classrooms in
late spring, for instance, of the 75 titles (many of them short
books with limited text) at the book corner 6 were wordless
picture books, 27 were English text, and the remaining 42 were in
Hawaiian.
Of the Hawaiian texts, 25 had been produced by the
children.
In the other classroom, of the 51 titles available in
late spring, 2 were wordless picture books, and the remaining 49
32
41
were in Hawaiian.
the children.
Of the Hawaiian texts, 11 had been produced.by
In line with curriculum goals, teachers in both classrooms
used a variety of instructional strategies and many materials
which they produced themselves, to increase students' knowledge
of the alphabet (pi'api), and teach them sounds (kani), syllabic
units (huahakalama), and sight words (hua'alelo) in Hawaiian.
Children learned to read (heluhelu) and write (kikau) letters
(huapalapala), words, sentences, paragraphs, and stories,
including dialogue.
In one example of a whole-class lesson on the huahakalama
(syllabary), the lesson focussed on the distinction between pu
and pfl (an excerpt from this lesson appeared in an earlier
section of this report).
The teacher called on students
individually to identify various pictures of things for which the
Hawaiian word began with one of these two syllables.
She set up
the activity by explaining: Loa'a ia'u kekahi mea, ho'omaka keit&
mea me ka 'pu" a i 'ole ka "pa" (I have something, it begins with
"pu" or "pu ").
Some of the items on the ...picture cards included
pupa (spoon), pua'a (pig), pueo (owl), pupa (shell), pulelehua
(butterfly), and pukaaniani (window).
After the children, one by one, had identified several of
these, she put a card (without showing it to them) into a bag on
her lap.
She explained, Pono no 'oukou e ninau ia'u i kekahi
ninau, a laila, pono no e no'ono'o he aha is (You have to ask me
a question, and then you must think what it is). She modeled the
question, Hiki is 'oe ke 'ai me kiia mea? (Can you eat with this
object?). The children immediately comprehended, and eagerly
raised their hands to be called on.
Once the activity was
understood, she asked, Ninau ia'u 'hiki' -- he aha kekahi ninau?
(Ask me, 'Can' -- what's a possible question?).
She called on
Kealoha, whose hand was raised.
Kealoha asked, Hinau ka manu
ka huamoa i loko? (Does a bird lay eggs in. it?)
The teacher
accepted the question and responded affirmatively, and Kealoha
correctly guessed panana (nest).
Several rounds of this game
were conducted with different pictures.
Sometimes four or five
children asked questions before one of them figured out which
With regard to one object, for
object card was in the bag.
instance, children asked, Can it fly?
Can you eat it? Can it
travel? Is it blue? before a fifth child asked, "Does it have a
smell?" and correctly guessed pua (flower), the card with a red
flower.
This lesson gave children practice in making up
questions around a finite set of known picture-word combinations,
through which they could explore and express their knowledge of
descriptive and functional vocabulary associated with the
depicted items.
A variety of reading-group activities were carried out in
In one example which occurred
both classrooms over the year.
about mid-year, the language arts segment began with a half-hour
33
42
The children had brought various objects to
sharing activity.
school related to the theme of a skill or activity "I can/am able
to do," such as a skateboard, a puzzle, a pair of roller skates,
One by one individual children went before the class,
a yoyo.
questions posed
showed the object, talked about it, and answered
The teacher's questions included whether the
by the teacher.
how, and
activity done with the object was difficult and if so practice.
do with
whether it had become easier for the child to
lesson for the day,
These questions were related to the reading
child faced in
which involved a story about the difficulties a
learning to ride a skateboard.
After the sharing period, the class broke into kindergarten
The kindergarten lesson, taught
and first-grade reading groups.
"big book" version of the
by the teacher, involved a translated decoding practice with a
basal reader story, and it combined
focus of the lesson was
comprehension emphasis. The grammatical
The teacher began the lesson by
on the verb hiki (be able to).
him in
asking for volunteers, selected Nimaka, then assisted
sounding out words as he read them from the page of the big book.
(Book text is enclosed in quotations; overlapping speech is
Of
marked by a brackot on the left of the overlapped utterance.
Panana
Leo,
the children in this excerpt, only Nimaka attended
kindergarten at the
and Kainoa was the most English-dependent
Nimaka are boys,
time of this lesson. Niipo, Kekua, Kainoa, and
Pualei and Kapua are girls):
Teacher:
Pehea, hiki is wai ke heluhelu i kiia?
Let's see, who can read this?
'Ae, hiki is 'oe, Nimaka.
OK, can you, Nimaka? (choosing him from several
who have raised their hands)
Nimaka:
"Ra-ku-a- e- ai"
(sounding out kOkua mai)
Teacher:
-mmmai.
(models mai, correcting his ai)
Nimaka:
"-mai."
(The teacher asks Nimaka to sit down, and he does so)
Teacher:
NSipo:
Nana wau me ko'u lima. E nini kikou a pau i ka
hua'alelo.
I'll use my hand. Let's all look at the words
(pointing to the words to be read).
.(unclear).
That means that
(translating what the teacher said, for Pualei).
34
43
Nimka:
"KO -ku -a."
(sounding out kokua)
Teacher:
KOkua.
Help (pronounced smoothly).
Nimaka:
-a
(joining in with the teacher a bit late)
Teacher:
"KOkua mai."
(repeats verb phrase to model)
Nimaka:
"K5kua mai."
(repeats, imitating teacher's intonation)
Teacher:
"K5kua mai."
(reiterates)
Nimaka:
'Ae.
Yes (confirming he understands it).
Teacher:
Heluhelu 'oe i keial Niipo.
Read this, Niipo (indicating the next line).
Nimaka:
"'A'ole-"
"Not-"
(continuing to read on).
Teacher:
"'Alole-11
(confirming Nimaka's reading)
Nimaka:
"-hiki ia'o ke hele."
"-I can't go" (misreading ia'u as
Teacher:
'Ae,
hiki ia'u ke hele."
Yes, "I can't go" (correcting his misreading).
"K5kua mai-8
(repeats the first part Nimaka read to cue him)
Nimaka:
"KOkua- kOkua
hiki ia'u ke hele."
"Help- help, I can't go" (rereads the whole
sentence)
Teacher:
.
'Ae, maika'i, Nimaka.
Yes, fine, Nimaka.
The teacher then directs the children to look at the picture and
Niipo says that the girl fell
describe what they see in it.
down.
There is a short interruption as the teacher talks to a
child who wants to go to the bathroom. Then:
Teacher:
Kapua, he aha hou a'e?
He aha kiu e 'ike nei ma
ki'i? Ua 'Melo 'o Niipo ua hi'ule ke
kaikamahine. Pehea 'oe?
Kapua, what else is there? What do you see in
this picture? Niipo said that the girl fell
reviewing what the previous child had said).
How about you?
Kapua:
Aki, 'a'ole 'o is maopopo ka hana 'ana.
But, she doesn't know how to do it (referring to
the girl in the story not knowing how to ride
the skateboard).
Teacher:
'A'ole maopopo is ia i ka hana 'ana?
She doesn't know how to do it?
(Kapua nods affirmatively)
Teacher:
'Ae.
Yes.
Later after talking about other aspects of the picture, the
teacher moves on to other pictuA:es, engaging the children in
predicting what will happen before reading the text.
Part of
that discussion:
Teacher:
'Ae e nini kikou i ke ki'i. He aha kina e hana
nei?
Yes, let's look at the picture. What is he (the
boy in the story) doing?
Pualei:
Ke ho'okomo nei 'o is i kali mea ma 15.
He is putting that thing over there (points at
picture in which boy is putting pillows around
the torso of the girl).
Kainoa:
Ka pillow.
The pillow.
Teacher:
Ke ho'okau nei 'o ia i ka uluna ma luna ona?
He is putting pillows on her? (modelling sentence
and providing Hawaiian term for pillow)
Pualei:
'Ae.
Yes.
Teacher:
No ke aha, Kainoa? No ke aha ke kau nei '0 ia
kiia ma luna ona?
Why, Kainoa? Why is he putting it on her?
Kainoa:
Because she going-
Teacher:
No ka meaBecause-
Kainoa:
No ka mea she going fall down.
Because she is going to fall down.
Teacher:
No ka mea [e hilule ana '0 ia.
Because she is going to fall.
[e hi'ule ana 'o ia.
-she is going to fall (students joined
in, in unison).
Students:
Teacher:
Students:
ia i labor 'eha ana 'o ia?
Pehea ini hi'ule
What if she falls, will she be hurt?
'Ae.
Yes.
Kekua:
'A'ole.
No.
Teacher:
'A'ole, 'a'ole, no ka mea loa'a ka uluna.
No, no, because of the pillows.
ninon:
But she going 'eha over here.
But she's going to be injured over here (pointing
above the area protected by the pillows).
Teacher:
'Eha ana 'o ia ma lung?
Is she going to be hurt up above?
Kapua:
'Ae.
Yes.
Teacher:.
'Ae paha.
Maybe so.
Kekua:
'A'ole paha.
Maybe not.
Niipo:
'Ae paha.
Maybe so (=I think so).
Teacher:
'Ae paha, 'a'ole paha, e 'ike ana kikou i kai ka mo'olelo. 'Ae, ho'omau kikou.
Maybe so, maybe not, we are going to find out in
the- in the story. OK, let's continue (reading).
illustrates
This short excerpt from a kindergarten reading lessonof words and
how the teachers scaffolded children's sounding out
It also illustrates the
development of oral reading skills.
acquisition of Hawaiian
teacher's scaffolding of children's
37
46
language for those like Kainoa who were non-speakers of the
language at the beginning of the year.
Moreover, the children
are shown assisting each other to learn Hawaiian
in two
instances: 1) when Niipo code-switches to English to explain the
teacher's instructions to Pualei (both of them non-speakers of
Hawaiian upon entering the class), and 2) when all join the
teacher in chorus to complete the Hawaiian sentence that Kainoa
was unable to complete by himself. (Notice that Pualei
demonstrates her developing comprehension and production skills
in Hawaiian during this same excerpt, when she volunteers to
answer the teacher's question.)
As mentioned above, Kainoa was the most English-dependent
child among the kindergarten group at the time this reading
lesson was conducted.
He was also one of the youngest in the
class.
It is interesting, then, that the above segment shows him
actively and eagerly engaged in the lesson,
and speaking
Hawaiian. The segment provides evidence of: his comprehension of
the meaning of the picture: his understanding of teacher-student
discussion of the picture: carried out in Hawaiian; and his
reasoning about what will happen.
He creatively predicts that
should the girl fall, she may hurt her upper back, which is not
protected by the pillow.
The teacher accepts this prediction as
a possibility, though she knows it runs counter to what actually
happens in the story.
In entertaining his answer, however, she
shows respect for the children's reasoning process.
The
interaction also demonstrates the warm interpersonal relationship
that the teachers in both classes enjoyed with their students.
About mid-year in the other HLIP classroom, a language arts
class for three children who were slow to learn to read showed
instructional interactions between the teacher and the children
similar to those above.
One of the children was Keahi, a firstgrade boy, non-speaker of Hawaiian at the beginning of the year,
and slow to pick up the language.
The other two (Kahealani and
Ni'ehu) were kindergarten girls who had attended Panana Leo, but
were slow to learn to read.
The lesson began with reading
practice, in which the children took turns reading simple
sentences
(e.g., '0
i kahakai
They live
hand-printed in large letters on sheets of white paper
Honu keia.
'0 Mo'o kiia. He hoaaloha liva. Noho liva
-- This is Turtle.
They are friends.
This is Lizard.
at the beach).
After they had practiced reading these and similar sentences
for while, the teacher brought out a wordless picture book
involving a story about a mother cat, her kittens, the boy of the
The
family who owned them, and a girl who lived next door.
teacher first showed the children the cover page, which depicted
The
five kittens, each holding h number from one to five.
children counted the numbers in unison,
and the teacher
The
"Yes, there are five of them" (in Hawaiian).
teacher then asked a series of questions, and the children
When no answer was forthcoming, the
volunteered responses.
confirmed,
teacher gave them informational cues and scaffolded their
answers.
She confirmed their correct responses with "pololei"
(correct), by repeating (and therefore modelling) the response,
or by giving praise (e.g., maika'i, good/fine).
If a response
was off-track, the teacher repeated the student's answer,
changing the intonation to signal a yes-no question in Hawaiian,
indicating she had some doubts and inviting a re-considered
response from the student.
in this lesson:
The following are typical exchanges
Teacher:
Hau'oll lo ia. No laila, he aha kina hana
i kiia manawa?
He is happy. So what is he doing now?
Keahi:
Noho i lalo i kona paikikala a me holo i
loko nei me kona paikikala.
Um. Sitting down on his bike and riding in here
with his bike (pointing to the picture).
Teacher:
Pololei. Holo 'oe i ia 'ano, ka paikikala?
Right.
Do you ride one like that, a bike?
Keahi:
'Ae.
'Um.
Yes.
Teacher:
Students
Holo 'o ia me ka lohi a i 'ole me ka 'iwiwi?
Did he ride slow or fast?
:
'Awiwil
Fast!
Teacher:
A hele 'o ia i hea?
And where did he go?
Keahi:
Mmmm.
(thinking).
Teacher:
Hele 'o ia i hea? IIa hale 'o ia i hea?
He went where? Where did he go?
Keahi:
I hea, 'o ka keike, kaikamahine, um hale.
Where, the gir- girl, um, house (gives contentcorrect response but hasn't mastered possessive
with common nouns yet).
Teacher:
Maika'i. Hele 10 ia i kekahi- ko ke
kaikamahine hale. He aha kina hana?
Yes.
Good. He went to a- the girl's house.
What did he do?
(notice she modeled correct
use of common noun possessive)
Ni'ehu:
Pe'ahi lima.
Waved.
'Ae.
39
48
Teacher:
Pe'ahi lima 'o is is ia. I kou mana'o, he aha
kina hang?
Waved to her. In your opinion, what's she doing?
?:
(unclear response, but apparently a novel answer)
Teacher:
(laughs heartily)
Keahi:
'A'ole!
No!
Teacher:
' A'ole paha.
Maybe not (=I don't think so).
Keahi:
Kau ka lima i luna!
Raise your hand! (reprimanding student who gave
previous answer).
Teacher:
'Ae.
Yes.
Keahi's engagement in this lesson, his use of Hawaiian, and his
reprimand to the student who spoke without raising,her hand, all
represent important changes in his attitude.
For several weeks
at the beginning of the year, he strongly resisted learning
Hawaiian. To return to the lesson, later in the story the mother
cat hides her kittens irom their human owners.
The teacher asks
the children why she does so, and when no one seems to know the
answer, she explains as follows:
Teacher:
Kahealani:
' A'ole makemake ni mikuahine i ka pole a holopi
if likou, 'es, no ka meal li'ili'i loa na
pipit 'oiai likou i ka manawa 'akahi no likou
a hinau 'is. Li'ili'i loa likou, ' a'ole i wehe
'is ko likou mau make, ' a'ole hiki ke nini,
No laila, ' a'ole makemake ni mikuahine
lei.
ni pole a holopi is likou, as hope magi.
The mothers don't like people to touch them, you
see, because the babies are very small during the
time that they have just been born. They are so
small that their eyes haven't been opened and
can't look about, you see. Consequently, the
mothers don't like people to touch them lest
they become ill.
' A'ole wau i holopi.
I didn't touch them (interpreting the teacher's
explanation as if it were an accusation).
Grammatically, the teacher's explanatory passage contained a high
Besides simple verb sentences, compound
level of language.
sentences using causal (because) and consequence (no laila)
conjunctions, verb negation, and possessive plurals, the passage
40
contained advanced structures using 'oiai (while), and 'akahi
(just recently).
The latter two were combined into a relative
clause (a construction very difficult even for most second
language teachers of Hawaiian to master), two passives, and ma
hope (lest). During the reading lesson, therefore, the teacher's
linguistic input for the children included modelling several
levels of complexity in Hawaiian, which was appropriate given the
varying levels of Hawaiian language skills represented by the
children.
As an example of a first-grade language arts lesson, we turn
to one towards the end of the year.
The children sat at tables
in a circle with the teacher as she led them in reviewing and
rereading a story they had worked on before.
They began by
reading words from the text that had been written on flashcards.
The teacher called on them individually to respond, and they did
so readily.
Some of the words were: komo mai (come in), aana'o
(opinion/think), pehea (how), aki (but), paha (perhaps), kiia
(this), kill (that).
Then the teacher led them in a discussion
of the story.
Of the five children who participate in the
segments below, Kealoha and Nilei, both girls, are Panana Leo
graduates.
(Excerpt slightly edited due to its length.)
Teacher:
Naikei ko Lipaki hale?
Is the Rabbit's house good?
Kealoha:
['A'ole.
[No.
Kamaile:
[N0000.
Teacher:
No ke aha? He aha ka pilikia?
Why? What is the problem?
Nilei:
He mau'u ia.
It's grass.
?:
He mau'u.
Grass.
Kealoha:
Hele ka ua i loko.
The rain goes inside.
Kahele:
He mau'u ia, hiki i ka ma- hiki i ka ua ke hale
i loko.
It's grass, the grass can- the rain can go inside.
Teacher:
'? :
'Ae, pehea, no laila, pehea, pulu i loko?
Yes, and what, so, what, does it get wet inside?
'Ae.
Yes.
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50
Teacher:
'Ae, he pilikia keia.
Yes, this is a problem.
Kahele:
No ka mea, aia keia-.
Because this was-.
Teacher:
Ho'omana'o
'Ae, huli 'oukou i ka 'ao'ao 'ehi.
'oukou i keia 'ao'ao?
this
Yes, turn to page four. Do you remember
page?
Kealoha:
"E komo mai e Pea."
whisper, in a
"Come in, Bear" (reading in a
friendly, inviting tone).
Nilei:
"E komo mai e Pea."
"Come in, Bear."
Teacher:
Mai heluhelu: ha'i mai lain.
Don't read, tell me.
Kealoha:
"Makemake 'co ia e-"
"He likes-."
Teacher:
A waiho ka puke ma lalo ke 'oluolu.
Uh, put the book down, please.
(Kealoha complies) ...
Kealoha:
me ni
Ke ki'- ke ki'i nei 'co ia i ni pole a ia
ma
mea a ka POpoki a pau a e komo ana 'o
lalo o ka ua, a laila ho'opau paha.
Fetch- he is fetching the bowls and all of
the
Cat's things and putting them under
rain, then that would end it maybe.
the story with the children,
The teacher continues reviewing
characters and action that require
asking them questions about
form, and also to interpret
them to relate events in narrative
story, she also
As she guides them through the
their meaning.
of it to look at the pictures (and
has them page through the textLater
in the lesson, the teacher
to assist their recall).
will read which part -- the children
chooses among volunteers who
vying for a chance to take a part.
excitedly raise their hands in
reads Rabbit, and Kealoha
Kekai (boy) reads Bear; Kahele (boy)
(girl, Panana Leo graduate) reads Turtle.
Teacher:
Kekai:
'Ae, ho'omaka 'oe, Kekai.
Yes, begin, Kekai.
Makemake 'oe i keia
"He hale nui loa keia.
hale, e Lapaki?
this
"This is a very large house. Do you like
house, Rabbit?"
42
51
Teacher:
Maika'i loa kou heluhelu
Your reading was very good.
Kahele:
'A'ole
"Makemake no au, aka, he nui loa.
keia ka hale..kapono niu- nou."
"I do like it, but it's too big. This is not
the right house for yoL-for you."
Kealoha:
"-no,u."
"-for me."
Kahele:
-no,- no,u. (laughs)
-for- for me.
Kealoha:
"Loa'a ia'u ka hale kapono nou, Lipaki.
"I have the right house for you, Rabbit."
Kahele:
",0, e hele kikou, e Honu."
"Oh, let's go, Turtle."
Teacher:
He aha ka mana'o o Pea...e pili ana i kiia hale?
What does Bear think...about this house?
Kamaile:
Nu-i loa.
It's too biig.
Kahele:
He nui loa.
It's too big.
The discussion continued on what was positive and negative about
the house, including its size, the materials it was built of, and
whether it was suitable for Rabbit, before returning to take
In the above segment, the
turns reading aloud from the text.
teacher scaffolds the children's review of a story they have read
before, and has them re-read it aloud. In portions not displayed
above, when they are unable to answer the question, she sends
The segment
them back to the text to read and find the answer.
also illustrates children correcting each other's misreadings.
Writing in both classrooms was often closely linked to
reading.
The kindergarten reading lesson which focussed on the
verb/concept of hiki (be able) and the drawing and writing
After the children had
following it illustrate this link.
returned from recess that morning, they drew a picture about
something they had the ability to do, then wrote one or two
The teacher
sentences under the picture, using the word hiki.
helped Kainoa, the academically weak child in the class, to
construct the sentence, Hiki i makou ke pilani kinip50 (we can
play ball). The other children wrote their own sentences without
assistance.
Some included:
43
52
Kahele (1st grader): Hiki ia'u ke hana peku kinipap8.
I can kick balls.
Kekai (1st grader):
Hiki e ko kale hale.
My car can go.
(Target form: Hiki i ko'u }tea ke
hele.)
Nimaka (kindergarten): Hiki ia'u ke kalate.
I can do karate.
Kealoha (1st grader): Hiki ia'u ke 'ai i ka 'aikalima.
I can eat ice cream.
Kealoha (2nd drawing): Hiki ia'u ke nana i ke anuenue.
I can look at the rainbow.
(Target
form: Hiki
ke nana i ke
anuenue.)
A more complete analysis of one drawing and writing assignment
towards the end of the year for the above classroom is given in
the appendix of this report.
On Wednesdays in that the class,
language arts centered on Re Reiki Hiwahiwa, the beloved or
special child of the week.
One child was chosen for this honor
each week.
In a whole-class meeting, as one-by-one, the children
said a sentence in praise or description of the special child,
the teacher recorded the sentence on a large chart in brightly
colored ink.
Each statement of praise began with ft 'Melo '0
[name of child giving the statement] ([Name] said), then followed
with the statement of description or praise, such as "0 au ko X
hoaaloha" (I am X's friend). The chart was then put on the wall.
Later in the morning, the children drew a picture about the
honored child, and wrote stories to go under the picture. In the
appendix of this report, an analysis is conducted of children's
drawings and stories from one of the Reiki Hiwahiwa lessons. The
analysis shows that the children engage with the subject of the
drawing, their written stories and drawings are integrated, and
they show evidence of an author's voice and a sense of a reading
audience.
The sentences written by the children are
grammatically correct, flow logically, and form cohesive stories.
Teacher-led .iting assignments in both classrooms often
tied into reading or science lessons, and resulted in childwritten books tor the book corner. In these cases, sometimes the
children wrote and Llustrated the books themselves. Other times
the teacher copied sentences as children said them in a wholeclass meeting, and then the children drew pictures to illustrate
the text.
In addition to assignments that linked drawing and writing
to reading group stories or content in other subject areas,
children in the two classrooms wrote letters to fellow class
members, as well as to children in the other HLIP classroom.
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53
Both classrooms had a mailbox area for children to "send" and
"receive" mail.
Letters were often personal and thoughtful
expressions, typical of children their age. When the children of
one class wrote to those in the other class, examples of thoughts
they expressed included: "My brothers name is (X).
Do you have
brothers and sisters?
How many do you have?
What are their
names?" Or "I hope you're doing well.
I hope I get to see you
sometime." All of the letters were written in Hawaiian.
Children also listened to taped Hawaiian speech to improve
their listening and comprehension skills, and these lessons were
also linked to reading and writing.
In one classroom, each week
the teacher prepared a written text which she duplicated for the
children and also tape-recorded.
The children listened to the
tape as they read along on their own copies, which had been
pasted onto a page of their listening center notebooks.
After
doing this, they drew a picture about the text, then underlined
the words in the text which they thought tney could read.
Later
a teacher validated their judgment by using a card with a window
so that only one word showed at a time, and going backwards
through the story having the child read only the words he/she had
previously underlined as known.
In this way, the children could
not predict words from the text. Then the children wrote those
words which they had read correctly onto small pieces of paper,
and put them into their alphabet envelopes. Later, they took out
the words and used them in making up and writing sentences. The
text of one of these lessons is as follows:
He 11 maika'i kaia
This is a good day
He la maika'i kaia Ua hale mai kekahi mau malihini e
anti i ka kakou ham. Hau'oli lakou a ho'olohe i ko
kakou 'Melo Hawaii 'ana a me to kikou heluhelu 'ana.
Maikali ko kakou kakou 'ana kehiShi. Ua hole kakou i ka
hale waihona puke a Nana i kekahi hiigke li'ili'i. Ha'aheo
nui ki kakou kumu. Pau ka
ua hog kakou i ka
lumi. Ua 'ai kikou i ka mea 'ono a me ka hau wai hua 'ai.
VA 'ono loa. He la maika'i kale.
This is a good day, some guests have come. To look at
what we do.
They're happy to hear our speaking Hawaiian
and our reading. Our writing is also good. We went to
the library to do a performance. Our teacher is very
proud.
After the performance, we returned to the room. We
ate frozen dessert. It was very delicious. This is a good
day.
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54
rlth Activities (Makemakika)
Math instruction in the two classrooms included teacherdirected whole-group lessons and games by grade level, individual
activity in the form of worksheets, and small-group studentChildren were taught concepts of number,
negotiated math games.
minus numbers, shape, sets, and money; they learned to count,
add, and subtract; and they learned to judge relationships of
left and right, similarity and difference, quantity, and length.
Many of the concepts were reflected in an end-of-the-year written
test for the kindergarten children, in which the following
questions are examples:
E kahalina i ka mea ma ka hema (circle the object on the
left).
Ho'olikelike a laila kahalina i ka hui me ka helu nui a'e
(match the objects and then circle the group with the
larger number).
E kahalina i ni mea i like ka nui (circle the objects which
are the same size).
E kahalina i ni mea i like ke kinona (circle the objects
which are the same shape).
E kahalina i ka hui me ka helu i emi iho (circle the group
with the smaller number).
E kahalina i ka i'a lehl (circle the fourth fish).
As the above test questions indicate, the Hawaiian language
has a substantial vocabulary for teaching mathematics concepts
For example: helu (number/count), ho'ulu'ulu
and operations.
(addition), ka ha'ulu'ulu (plus sign), ho'olawe (subtraction), ka
ho'olawe (minus sign), h3lonui (multiplication), pu'unaue
(division). Similarly, a long list of Hawaiian words are
available for teaching concepts of shape, including: kinona
(shape), huinakolu (triangle), linapoepoe (circle), huinahilike
(square), pa'apoepoe (sphere), pa'a'iliono (cube), huinahihi6
(rhombus), etc.
of skill-oriented teaching materials and
techniques were used in the two HLIP classes. Number flashcards,
charts with varying numbers of different objects on each line,
and 8x12 cards drawn to represent dominoes with varying numbers
of dots are examples of the materials which the two teachers
Whole-group lessons
designed and used for whole-group lessons.
were also taught at the classroom blackboards or with the aid of
A variety
a small slate.
'1
1 teachers used a variety of worksheets
tailored to kindergarteners and to first-graders, some reproduced
All
from commercial mathbooks, others designed by the teachers.
materials were translated into Hawaiian.
In one example of a board lesson on subtraction about
halfway through the year, the teacher drew ten consecutive boxes
of the
on the blackboard. She asked. (in Hawaiian), "If we think several
number 10, what do we think of?" The children offered
46
55
The teacher
"toes," and "money."
answers, ihcluding "fingers,"
unison, from 1 to 10. Then
and the children counted the boxes in
of
the teacher drew an "X" in the two boxes at the right-hand end
out?"
how many have I crossed
the series. "If I cross out these,
The teacher asked,
"Two."
The children responded,
she asked.
The children answered, "Ten." As
"How many are there in all?"
she said, "So ten minus
the teacher wrote "10-2=" on the board,
The children replied,
How many aro there remaining?"
two.
the equal sign, and said,
"Eight." The teacher wrote "8" after children
counted the boxes
"Let's count them." And she and the
problems of:
together. The lesson continued for the subtraction
The teacher then gave
10-4 = 6; 10-5 = 5; 8-2 = 6; and 9-2 = 7.
problems,
the children a two-page worksheet of subtraction
of their fingers for
offering them plastic rods to use instead
counting out answers, should they have difficulty.
other
In a first-grade math lesson later in the year at the Then
HLIP classroom, the teacher wrote "11-" on the blackboard.numbers
with varying
she held up a series of cardboard dominoes
example, 5 dots on the upper
of dots on the top and bottom, for
would ask a
half, and 4 dots on the lower half. In Hawaiian, she
numbers, if you subtract
child (for example), "Which of these two
The child would then figure out the
it from 11, gives you 6?"
on the board as
answer and writs the number (in this case, 5)
After three or four such problems, the
follows: 11-5 = 6.
Holding up a dice
teacher changed the pattern of the problem.
"If
you
take 7 away from
with 5 and 4 dots on it, she might ask,
11, which of these numbers do you end up with?"
In one
classes.
Math games were used frequently in both
child tossed a pair of
example of counting in tens (sets), each from a central pool as
dice and collected the number of cubes
As soon as the
indicated by the number of dots on the dice.
in for a larger 10child had 10 small cubes, he/she turned them
turned in for a
Ten of these larger cubes could be
cube piece.
The winner of the game was the person with'the
100-piece cube.
most cube count.
less on language than some
Although math skill depends interactions
around math games
school subjects, word problems and
their listening and
gave children opportunities to expand to practice their
and
Hawaiian,
in
reasoning skills
in a first-grade math group towards the
conversational skills.
of several word
end of the school year, the following is one
demonstrate their
which children
in
problem examples
in
understanding of the form of the problem and the language
members):
which it is expressed (Nilei is one of the group
Teacher: Pehea kiia? Eia kekahi mau ho'omikalakala
Pehea keia?
polopolema, 'ae, kili mea me ka mololelo.
kanaki,
ki?
Makemake
'A, makemake 'o Nalei i 'eiwa mau
'o is i 'eiwa, aki 'elua ina kanaki i kiia manawa.
'Ehia hou a'e kanaki pono e loa'a ii is?
47
56
How about this? Here are some problem exercises, yes,
with a story. How about this? Nilei wants nine
candies. She wants nines but she has two candies
now. How many more candies must she obtain?
Kahele:
'A'ole makemake wau i ke kanaki.
I don't like candy.
boy?:
'Ehiku.
Seven.
Teacher:
Maikeq.
Good/fine.
In the example of
a math game cited earlier,
in which
children rolled dice to acquire cubes, the teacher demonstrates
the rules of the game as follows (all boys, all Panana Leo
graduates):
Teacher: No laila ma ho'okahi manawa, 'a'ole pono e loa'a
ka 'umi is 'oe.
In loa'a is 'oe 'umi, hi'awi
i ka mea li'ili'i i loko nei, a kili i kali mea.
Ka mea lanakila ka nee me ka nui o kiia mau 'umi.
'Ehia mau 'umi a loa'a is 'oe ho'okahi haneli?
ini loa'a is 'oe 'umi o kiia mau mea, hiki
is 'oe ke ki'i ho'okahi o kiia. A waiho i kali
mau mea i laila. Ka mea me ka nui loa i, nui o
kiia mau mea, 'o is no ka mea e lanakila.
So, at any one time you shouldn't have ten.
If
you have ten, put the small ones (worth one) in
here (indicating a central pool of cubes) and get
one of these (holding up a 10-piece cube). How
many tens must you get to make a hundred? Yes
(acknowledging a child's answer of "ten ").
If you have ten of these (10-piece cube), you
can get one of these (holding up a 100-piece cube).
And then put those (10-piece cubes) there (back in
the pool). The person with the most (cubes) is
the one who will win.
At the end of the game, the children count their cubes by tens
and then by ones.
No one has reached 100.
Kamoana has 60.
Kamakani counts his and finds he has 89. Kapono counts up to 62.
The teacher then says with surprise: 'Eono wale no? -- Only six
(tens)? Kapono recounts and finds he actually has 72.
Kamakani (looking at the other children's clusters of cubes):
No laila 'o wau ka mea lanakila.
'0 wau me
Kaleo.
So then, I'm the winner. Kaleo and I.
(He looks again at Kaleo's cluster of 10-unit cubes, and
then realizes he alone is the winner, exclaiming:).
48
Loa'a 'o Kaleo kanawalu wale no.
Kaleo has only eighty.
During mathematics seatwork when the children were doing
worksheets that accompanied whole-group lessons, the teachers and
kupuna sat with the children or walked around the tables, for
individual consultation.
As in language arts seatwork, these
instructional interactions were characterized by warm personal
relationships between the teachers and children, and a focus on
the child's individual abilities and needs.
Often the teacher or
kupuna sat with an arm around the children, speaking in a low,
gentle voice, and giving the children verbal as well as nonverbal encouragement as they worked their way through a math
problem.
Other Subjects: Science ('Epekema),
Social Studies. And Music (Mele a me Pile Ho'okani)
Both of the HLIP classrooms emphasized language arts and
mathematics, but other subjects were taught, as well.
Science
was taught in both classes, though not on a daily basis.
Occasionally outside volunteers assisted with science lessons. In
one classroom, the Houghton Mifflin basal science book for
kindergarten was used, because the first-grade science text
arrived late in the year.
The teacher used the kindergarten
science "big book," with many hands-on experiments for the
children.
In general, the science lessons in both classrooms
were aimed at developing knowledge and skills associated with
water, colors (primary and secondary), plants, and animals.
The
children learned to predict and to validate in such experiments
as growing seedlings in pots, some of which were kept in the dark
and others given exposure to the sun.
Science lessons were
usually integrated with language arts (as mentioned earlier).
For instance, one language arts lesson linked to a science unit
on animals of the sea involved children drawing pictures on the
theme "My favorite sea animal." To accompany each drawing. they
wrote one or more sentences elaborating this idea.
The lesson
was further supported by a bulletin board display of Ni Waiwai o
ke Kai (the riches of the sea), illustrated by fish and other sea
Some examples of the
animals drawn and cut out by the children.
sentences children wrote to go with their language arts
assignment are:
Kealoha:
Keanu:
10 ka nai 'a ko'u punahele no ka mea nani
'oia a ahinahina.
The dolphin is my favorite (sea animal)
because he's beautiful and grey.
(Target: '0 ka nai'a ka'u punahele no ka
mea nani 'o ia a ' ahinahina.)
'0 ka naia ko'u punahele no ka mea (unclear)
hiki ia 'oe ke hele maluna o ka naia.
The dolphin is my favorite (sea animal)
because you can ride it.
49
58
(Target: '0 ka nai'a ka'u punahele no ka mea
ua hiki is 'oe ke hale ma luna o ka
nai'a.)
(Kealoha, a first-grade girl, is a Panana Leo graduate; Keanu, a
first-grade boy, is not.)
In the other classroom, language arts
lessons that produced child-composed books for the book corner
focussed on a favorite subject of children island-wide,
dinosaurs.
Social studies was not taught as a separate subject
in
either of the two classrooms, being instead integrated with other
subjects, especially language arts and Hawaiian cultural studies.
In one classroom, for instance, a volunteer came for several
weeks to teach the children a variety of social and cultural
topics.
One topic was the importance of kalo (taro) to Hawaiian
life And culture.
The volunteer taught the children how to
clean, prepare, and pound taro, and they also were able to taste
it.
Another time the volunteer brought in squid, and they talked
about the parts of it (connecting to the science unit on
animals), how it is caught and prepared, and they tasted it both
raw and cooked (tied in to local culture studies).
In language
arts,
the children read and discussed stories about people's
feelings, and talked about the feelings of characters as shown in
pictures.
Music was
classrooms.
in the curriculum of both
In one classroom, the children learned rhythm
also
included
instruments (including cowrie shells as percussion isntruments to
accompany a kneeling hula), body movement, and bells (playing
chords and switching).
In both classes, the children were taught
many songs in Hawaiian, including an alphabet song, various
traditional Hawaiian songs, and songs translated from English.
Many of these illustrated the nature of Hawaiian poetry, as well
as teaching Hawaiian values.
For example, here are the words to
one such song:
Male Ho'okipa
Hospitality Song
Ua hiki pono mai i mua o mikou
Someone has arrived in our presence
He mau malihini e launa p5 ai
Several guests who have come to socialize
Aloha, aloha heahea ni keiki
The children call out greetings
"He hale makamaka kipa mai"
"This house is open to you, welcome"
50
r9
Pai a'e i ke leo, kinaenae i ke aloha
Lift up your voices, greetings of love
E hea i ke aheahe a me ka la
Call out to the breeze and the sun
E
'olu mai
To blow cool and gently and shine warmly (=make this a nice
day)
Summary
As the above report of observational findings indicate, a
strong academic program was emphasized in both HLIP classrooms
during the first year.
As in English-medium kindergarten and
first-grade classrooms, activities in the HLIP classrooms were
organized around stated curriculum goals, and followed a daily
and weekly schedule.
Daily academic and organizational routines
in the HLIP classrooms, such as opening and closing activities
each day, classroom rules, and patterns of interaction during
lessons, were familiar to anyone who has spent time in elementary
classrooms, except that they were carried out in the Hawaiian
language, .and were often integrated with Hawaiian values and
culture.
Curriculum content was consistent with other elementary
classrooms of the same level.
In addition to a focus on academic subjects, children in the
HLIP classrooms were learning to speak, read, and write Hawaiian.
Hawaiian was the medium of instruction for all subjects, and the
only medium of communication betweer teachers and students after
the first day or two of the year.
(Children's communicative
competence in Hawaiian and English is discussed further below.)
Two other important characteristics of the HLIP classrooms
were the rapport between teachers and students, and students'
active engagement in and enthusiasm for their work. The teachers
promoted a warm, affectionate relationship with the children.
This relationship was commented on by classroom volunteers and by
parents (the results of parent interviews and questionnaires are
discussed elsewhere in this report).
One parent commented, for
example, that she had often heard the children call the teacher
"mama.
The teachers' emotional closeness to the children, and
the confidence in the children that they projected, was
undoubtedly an important factor in the HLIP children's academic
engagement.
Children took their school work seriously, and were
on task a high proportion of the time.
Parents frequently
commented that their HLIP child liked school and "found excuses"
to attend school even when ill.
Older children in both schools
regarded the HLIP children's ability to speak Hawaiian as
something special.
For instance, sixth-graders in one school
volunteered to assist the HLIP teacher on a class field trip, and
used the experience to learn some Hawaiian themselves.
Positive
feedback from the teachers, other adults, and older peers and
51
1
siblings towards their growing communicative competence in
Hawaiian undoubtedly increased the HLIP children's motivation for
doing well in school and improving their Hawaiian language
fluency.
It seems clear that one importance of the program has
been to give the HLIP children a sense of appreciation for
Hawaiian language and culture, and for those who are ethnically
Hawaiian, a sense of pride in their own heritage.
5261
LANGUAGE ASSESSMENT: HAWAIIAN LANGUAGE IMMERSION PROGRAM
CHILDREN'S COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE IN HAWAIIAN AND ENGLISH
Children's Communicative Competence in Hawaiian: Examples from
Classroom Interaction
In the above section on classroom esservations,
students' communicative competence
HLIP
in Hawaiian was partly
demonstrated through some of the examples
used to illustrate
instructional activities. For example, children were shown
participating appropriately in language arts, mathematics, and
science lessons.
They were shown leading classroom routines at
the beginning and end of the day, and prior to lunch.
Many functional uses of language were also noted.
For
example, Nimaka was shown translating one of the teacher's
instructions from Hawaiian to English for Pualei (both of them
kindergarteners, both Hawaiian non-speakers at the beginning of
the year); and children in one reading group were shown joining
the teacher in chorus to complete the Hawaiian sentence that a
child was unable to complete by himself.
Children were also
shown reporting events and experiences, discussing pictures and
stories (describing, narrating, predicting, evaluating), reading
silently and aloud from translated basal texts, and composing and
writing multiple sentences on a given topic.
provide
other
examples
to
illustrate
In this section, we
children's
growing
communicative competence in Hawaiian, and their functional uses
of language during the year.
In addition to language arts lessons,
sharing activities
offered especially rich opportunities for the children to
53
62
in Hawaiian. Teachers
demonstrate their communicative competence
activities to scaffold or support children's
also used these
appropriate uses of Hawaiian
learning of new linguistic forms and
to express ideas and to interact socially.
As illustrated
each other's Hawaiian, or
earlier, students sometimes corrected
At mid-year
supplied the correct form when a speaker hesitated.
with the language arts lesson
in the sharing activity associated
demonstrates her
on hiki mentioned earlier, Kamanu (first-grader)
the class
ability to converse and answer questions as she shows
her kima'a huila (roller skates):
Students: U'i e Kamanu.
It's beautiful, Kamanu.
Teacher:
Kawai, he aha kiia?
Kawai, what are these?
Kawai:
Skates.
Teacher:
Eimala huila.
Roller skates.
Students: la.
Oohl (with dawning realization)
Teacher:
'Ike 'oukou i ni huila?
Do you see the wheels?
(several respond affirmatively)
hula hoop but didn't
(Kamanu then explains that she has a Lula hoop aki 'a'ole
want to bring it -- Loa'a ia'u kekahi
brouiht her skates
au um makemake e lave mai -- and so
instead).
mua au i hana ai i
Teacher: Pehea, i '1 i ka manawa
kiia meal ua hi'ule 'oe i kekahi mau manawa?
How about on um on the first time that you did
few times?
this (activity), did you fall down a
Kamanu:
'Asole.
No.
54
63
Teacher:
Kamanu:
'A'ole?
(in tone of disbelief)
No?
'A'ole!
No! (forcefully = No way!)
Teacher:
Ua holo pololei 'oe?
You went straight?
Kamanu:
ke ho'omaka au e hi'ule,
'Ali, ke
ho'okomo au i k5ia mea i Lilo, a laila,
ho'oku'u au i lalo.
No, whenever I fall, whenever I begin to fall,
I put this thing down (indicating the brake, a
flat, round rubber tip on the front of the
skate), and then I let it (the skate) down.
Teacher:
la, maika'i, maika'i. Aki 'ano pa'akiki i
k5ia hana?
But isn't this activity somewhat
Oh, fine, fine.
difficult?
Kamanu:
'A'ole, hiki ia'u ke hole ma
No, I can go on
Teacher:
I kegia manawa?
Kamanu:
'Ae, me ka- ma ku'u mama hill, hiki ia'u
ke hale i lalo, a, um, pono au bend li'ili'i.
Yes, on the- on my mom's hill, I can go down, and,
um, I have to bend a little.
Teacher:
like, manrio wau pa'akikl
Yes, I think this is difficult.
Now? (-now, rather than when she first began)
(several children give denials)
No ka manawa mua, pa'akiki.
For the first time, it's hard.
Kamanu:
Eels ana au ma ka Ice Palace. Ua maika'i wau,
'31elo ku'u
I'm going to go to the Ice Palace. I was good,
my mom said.
Teacher:
10, hiki is 'oe ke holohau kekahi?
Oh, you can ice skate, too?
Kamanu:
A'o ana ko'u pipa ia'u, aki, aka,
ua- ua hele 'o ia i ka manawa 'o ia li'ili'i, ua
hele 'o ia ma ka Ice Palace.
My dad is going to teach me, but, but,
No.
'A'ole.
55
64
he went- he went when he was small, he went to
the Ice Palace.
Teacher:
'Ae, 'ano pa'akiki kali 'ano hang kekahi.
Yes, that kind of activity is also rather
difficult.
In this segment, Kamanu maintains her point that she found it
easy to learn to roller skate, and when challenged by the teacher
She admits,
on this point, explains how she managed not to fall.
though, that she does have to bend a little when going down the
Other
hill near where she lives, in order to keep her balance.
than giving her the Hawaiian term for roller skates, the teacher
does not interrupt the flow of the conversation to insist on
complete sentences or attempt to reformulate her Hawaiian (here
the teacher's restraint is strongly supported by second-language
acquisition research).
The teacher's primary focus is correctly
on Kamanu's reasoning process and her ability to respond
appropriately at a discourse level.
Later in the same sharing period, kindergartner Nimaka and
first-grader Kealoha demonstrated their grammatical competence in
Hawaiian as they commented on another child's sharing item.
Kapua
(kindergartener) had been assisted by her older sister
Kealoha in describing her large plastic bag.
When the teacher
asked what the bag could be used for, Nimaka commented, "Hiki is
'oe ke komo i loko o ke kini 'Opala" (You can put it inside the
garbage can") -- using for "to enter" the word komo, which is the
root morpheme for the correct word ho'okomo, "to cause to enter"
or "put into."
Thus, although he was not sure about the correct
word, he succeeded in identifying the correct root.
56
65
When the
item for Kapua, her
teacher asked what was difficult about the
("It's difficult
sister Kealoha answered, "Pa'akikl nina e wehe"
that is, to separate the two plastic sheets
for her to open,"
constituting the bag)
a very competent use of the Hawaiian
structure "for him/her to" + verb.
children were able to
By the end of the year, several of the
sentences in Hawaiian, as when Ka'olu
construct very complex
(kindergaLten boy) asked during the calendar portion of the
"'Ehia mau 1a i koe, hale ana kikou i ke kula
morning opening,
school?, a
kauwela?" (How many days are left before we go summer
complicated sentence in Hawaiian).
of their growing
Some of the most interesting indications
demonstrated by
communicative competence in Hawaiian were
children in talk around activities that the teachers participated
For example, during free activity
in partially or not at all.
Kanalu
in one of the classrooms,
time
about
mid-year
(kindergarten boy) began talking to one of the Hawaiian-speaking
whether the team was going
members of the evaluation team about
The researcher said it
to have lunch with the children that day.
Kanalu then
other members of the team.
would depend on the
Hawaiian word for
skillfully constructed a sentence with a
liva e 'ai, a laila
hypothetical possibilities, saying, "Ina bele
to eat,
hele 'oe e 'ai, 'ae?" (If they go to eat, then you'll go
the point with another
yes?) and went on to further clarify
hypothetical question using ini.
consistently made by the
Many of the errors in Hawaiian
For
developmental in nature.
children appear to have been
57
66
example, the sentence by Ni'ehu (kindergarten girl) is typical of
a common error in the children's speech:
lohel" (I can't hear!)
.
Hiki (be able)
verb and thus difficult to learn.
subject, wau (I)
"'A'ole hiki wau ke
is an irregular stative
Ni'ehu used a nominal case
instead of the correct form ia'u (to me).
Her
positioning of the subject after stative negation was correct,
however.
negation.
Regular nominal case subjects precede the verb after
This kind of error was one focussed on in the lesson
about hiki mentioned earlier.
Similarly, Kapono (first grader)
wrote as caption to his
drawing of a dinosaur, Loa'a 'o Staracysaurus 'eono kiwi (The
has six horns)
-- target: Loa'a is S.
'eono kiwi.
S.
His
grammatical error could be developmental because Hawaiian
speakers first learn the grammatical rule that subjects take
nominal case marking.
However, they must then learn that
(logical)
subjects of stative verbs take a causal agent case
marking.
This major reversal poses difficulty even for second-
language learning university students.
Loa'a
(to be gotten,
possessed, obtained, acquired, caught; and to exist)
is a very
commonly used verb, and so it is not surprising to find children
using it as an active verb with nominal case marking.
Although teacher-guided talk is important in acquiring
language,
conversational practice among peers
oriented to
academic tasks and also in non-academic activities -- is crucial
to children's language learning.
This is especially important
when a group of children includes both speakers and non-speakers
of the language being acquired.
An example of how peer-peer
58
67
interaction can give children practice in comprehension occurred
about mid-year, when two first-graders, Kealoha (Panana Leo
graduate) and Keanu (non-speaker on entry to HLIP) were working
side by side on
drawings in the same notebook.
Keanu announced
proudly of his picture, "Nina" (Look at what I did).
Kealoha
said to the observer, "Nina i kina hana" (Look at his work -modelling for Kealoha a more well-formed version of utterance,
with a pronoun substitution).
Then she said to Keanu, "Hana 'oe
i ka niu" (Make a coconut), adding that she was going to "Hana au
i ka lau.
grass.)
grass."
Hana 'oe i ka mau'u" (I'll make leaves.
Keanu agreed in local English dialect,
You make
"I
go make
At this point in the year, Keanu was not yet-a strong
speaker of Hawaiian, but as this example indicates, he was
comprehending well.
A few seconds later the teacher walked past, and hearing
Keanu speak English, said to him, "'alelo
Keanu" (Speak
Hawaiian, Keanu), and asked Kealoha, "Re kakua nei 'oe is is i ka
laelo Hawaii ?" (Are you helping him speak Hawaiian?).
then spoke to Keanu,
exactly.
Kealoha
inviting him to repeat, and he did so
She went on to ask him a question about the drawing in
Hawaiian, which he answered appropriately.
Keanu then said to
her, "Hana 'oe i ka papa" (Make a shell), following the model set
up earlier in the conversation by Kealoha.
pictures of shells with spots on them.
huahakalama "pu ""
They both drew
Kealoha said, "Hana i ka
(Make the syllabic unit "pu" -- the one
focussed in the language arts lesson that day), and she wrote
pu'u on the drawing.
Keanu read it aloud.
5968
In summary,
observations during classroom lessons, when
and off-task talk,
children were engaged in unsupervised on-task
children gained
as well as on the playground, indicated that the
of the year,
communicative competence in Hawaiian over the course
and learned to use it for a wide range
of communicative
functions.
Assessment of Students' Conversational and Narrative Discourse
Proficiency Measure
'In Hawaiian and English on the Language
Students were assessed using procedures from the Language
Proficiency Measure
(LPM)
which i8 an alternative assessment
competency in
approach for determining bilingual oral language
English and in another language (Slaughter, 1988; Powers,
Johnson, Slaughter, Crowder, & Jones, 1985).
Students were
assessed in groups of two, separately in English and in Hawaiian
by different examiners.
A basic form of communicative competency
is to be able to participate in conversation on a variety of
is based on
The U.S. Foreign Service Oral Interview Test
By analogy, the LPM can be thought
this premise (Wilds, 1975).
Using the LPM
of as a child version of the oral interview test.
up a causal
procedures, an examiner attempts to IhLt'ike
conversation with the student so that he or she is free to talk
topics.
information is
on topics where the cognitive background of the
well know to the student.
The purpose of the test is to assess
for
the listening and speaking abilities that are necessary
the knowledge of
normal communicative interaction, not to test
Following the
students on various subject matter contents.
the examiner asks each
assessment of conversational proficiency,
60
69
storybook, in order to
student to tell a story from a wordless
discourse. The
assess the student's ability to produce narrative
i.e. a story, is believed
ability to produce narrative discourse,
to be important in early literacy development.
by
In general, the elicitation of conversational discourse
The
assessing two students at a time proved highly successful.
student at a
original LPM procedure was designed to assess one
instrument to
time, but it was decided in this study to adapt the
facilitate establishing
the assessment of pairs of students to
research on Hawaiian
rapport with students, and because other
that a "talk story" context would
children had suggested
Hawaiian children
facilitate the elicitation of discourse from
Assessing two
(Watson-Gegeo & Boggs, 1977; Watson-Gegeo, 1975).
generating
students at a time provided a superior context for
that
conversation, as students had the advantage of an audience
Often the second
as well as an adult.
included another
child would build upon a topic introduced by the first child,
language sample and facilitating the
thus enriching the
elicitation procedure.
out by this method.
Shy children were more likely to be drawn
The only weakness of the technique was when
these cases the
one child dominated the conversation, and in
the other child to participate by
examiner would try to encourage
saying "And what do you think?"
In some cases,
child also adopted this approach,
the dominant
allowing entry
into the
conversation of the first child.
the student to
Narrative discourse was elicited by asking
time, and then
first look through a wordless book, taking their
61
70
There has
tell the story, using the wordless book as a prop.
been a great deal of research in studying narrative discourse
using wordless books, one outcome of which is that as students
begin to read, their wordless storybook stories begin to resemble
book-like language (Purcell-Gates,
1988).
Sometimes their
prosody, namely the "linguistic variation in pitch,
loudness,
speed and rhythm (including pause) of speaking:"(Crystal,
p. 33), resembles that of oral reading.
1979,
Having two children take
turns telling a story during the same assessment session
generally worked well, although with the younger children the
examiner sometimes had to remind the non-active child to not
interrupt the narrating child's story.
Younger children,
i.e.
kindergarten, tended to look hurriedly through the book and tell
the story more simply, while older children, i.e
first graders,
took more time looking through the book and told longer, more
detailed stories.
Older children also tended to be more
interested and responsive to each others stories,
laughing or
showing interest in the pictures, while younger children mainly
focused on their own book, although this wasn't always the case.
It is important to recognize that oral language contexts
produce different surface features in language than do written
language contexts.
In brief, oral language must be analyzed and
evaluated on the basis of criterial established for oral, not
written language.
In this study, we used criteria originally
established for the LPM for assessing the discourse
t Aspanic
students as a basis for the evaluation, but were cautious about
overgeneralizing this criteria especially in the case of Hawaiian
62
71
discourse.
The analysis of conversational
discourse involved
assessing the student's ability to interact with and make sense
to the examiner in speaking and listening (see a breakdown of
this in Appendix 8) .
Specific categories used in conversational
analysis included 1) the ability to produce elaborated talk on a
topic, 2) the ability to produce complex meaning relationships,
3) the ability to produce complex grammar relationships, 4) the
ability to provide adequate background information when talking
about a topic, 5) the ability to produce an explanation of how to
make or do something, and 5a) the ability to participate actively
in the conversation by initiating, shifting or changing topics.
The analysis of narrative discourse categories included 6)
the
ability to produce a complete story with a full plotline, 7) the
ability to produce complex meaning relationships, 8) the ability
to produce complex grammar relationships, and 9) the appropiate
use of verb tense variation in storytelling (Appendix A).
also noted the use of quotative speech,
We
i.e. he said, she said,
and sound effects in telling the story.
In the following analysis, the results from the assessment
of Hawaiian discourse will be presented first, with the English
discourse presented second.
The `results include a general
discussion of student's language proficiencies followed by
examples of discourse from selected students.
Transcripted
materials will be presented using E (for Examiner), and either S
(for student 1) and S2 (for the other student in the pair) or the
initial of the student's first name (psuedonuym).
cannot
be
transcribed because
63
72
it
was
Language that
inaudible
due
to
difficulties with the recording equipment or the softness of the
student's voice will be indicated by empty parentheses
(
),
and
data that the transcriber is unsure about, i.e. the transcriber's
best bet, will also be put into parentheses.
Pauses of
approximately one second will be indicated with a period,
for
instance...indicates a pause of three seconds.
Overlapping
speech is indicated with glosses or brackets.
Explanatory
material is placed in brackets, e.g.
LPM Results:
[
3.
Hawaiian Oral Language Assessment
All 22 of the students were able to carry on acceptable
conversation in Hawaiian and were judged as Moderate to very
Proficient according to the LPM.
Two resorted to English about
50% of the time during the conversation pat of the assessment,
and used hawaiian for about 85% of the time during the narrative
The
These two were judged as Functional on the LPM.
segment.
children were able to converse on a variety of topics and had no
problem listening and comprehending the Hawaiian spoken by either
the examiner or the other student present.
They were able to
respond fluently and appropriately in answering, or asking
questions (including asking for help), and were able to introduce
new topics of conversation.
Some of the topics were games,
movies seen recently, helping out at hone,
islands, go-carts, and pets.
traveling to outer
Nearly all of the students were
The
able to give explanations for performing various tasks.
narratives told from wordless story books varied in length and
complexity.
Many students used expressive voice and intonation
in using dialogue and sound effects in their narratives, which
64
73
were cohesive with a beginning, middle, and end.
A few of the
younger students had less skill in telling a story from a
wordless storybook, however, the majority of the stories were at
a moderate to proficient level.
Excerpts of the conversation and narrations of seven of the
students are presented.
and
All seven were of part-Hawaiian ancestry
were selected as representative samples of the classes.
The
proficiency of the students selected ranged from high, moderate,
to low.
Three of the students were first graders.
Two of %mese
selected were highly proficient in Hawaiian, while the third was
moderately proficient.
The former two were graduates of two
different Panana Leo schools and spoke Hawaiian upon entry into
the immersion classroom.
The latter attended a kindergarten
class in a regular English medium public school and did not speak
Hawaiian upon entry into the program.
Of the four kindergarteners, two were high, one moderate and
one low in proficiency in Hawaiian.
The former two were Panana
Leo graduates and the latter non-Panana Leo students.
aforementioned
Panana
Leo
graduates had
been
exclusively in Hawaiian by both parents since birth.
One of the
spoken
to
Neither of
the non-Pa Leo graduates spoke Hawaiian before entry into the
program.
Table 4 presents the language proficiency ratings obtained
from the LPM in Hawaiian and in English for the seven students
(except where the assessment data was insufficient to make an
evaluation.).
On the LPM there are two proficiency categories,
"proficient," which is seen as an optimal
65
74
level
of
language
lk&
Table 4:
Language Proficiency Ratings of Proficient, Moderate, or
Flanctional for Selected HLIP students on the LEM in
Hawaiian and English
Conversation
Student
La.
1
2
3
4
5
Narrative
5a
6
7
8
Totals
9 F M P La.
Rating
IlmilOMOMNOWAWMOOMPOWNW~11WWWOOMMO010.1d0.1104104.00101~4.0......0~11.1111011.NO11WOIMOIM...... IMPIWOMMIO
Grade
H PPPPPY PPPP009 H
E PPPPPY PPPP009 E
H PPPPPY MPPP018 H
E PPPPPY MPPP018 E
Kealoha
Kapono
H MPPPMY PPMPO3 6
Keanu
H
Prof
Prof
Prof
Prof
Mod
E PPPPPY ****-Grade E
Male
H PPPPPY PPPP009 H
Prof
E PPPMn/aY PPFP116 E
Prof**
P P P M P Y
P P P P O
K a h e a l a n i
H
Leinani
E PPPPPY PPPP009 E
H PPMMMY PPMPO 4 H
Mod
E
E
N/A
Kainoa
Note:
1
8
H
5
Prof
Prof
F MFM5 3
0
H
Ftinct
E PPPPPY MMFF22
5
E
Mod
H
F F M n/a F N
P = proficient, M = moderate, F = functional, Y in yes, N =
no. N/A is non-applicable in that the language skills could
not be evaluated because of inadequate data (the student
may have this skill) . A (*) indicates that the tape
recording was not audible and therefore no assessment could
be made. Mele's (**) rating of proficient is based on
examiner judgment that she could have given a satisfactory
explanation (#5) if it had been elicited.
which is seen as
development for the age group, and "moderate"
that the student
A "functional" level indicates
satisfactory.
at the level of
can manage to get along in a language but is not
None of the students in either
a native speaker of the language.
assessed, were found
this small sample, nor any of the students
to be "limited" in speaking either language.
of individua.ized
The following description are the results
assessments of the seven
children with respect
to thair
proficiency in Hawaiian.
1-H Kealoha (Grade 1, female:
Background.
Proficient)
Kealoha was a first grader who had attended a
two and a half
PEnana Leo Hawaiian total immersion school for
She then attended a regular public school kindergarten
Immersion class.
class before entering her Hawaiian Language
years.
entering the class.
Thus, she was a speaker of Hawaiian when
Kealoha is extremely proficient in Hawaiian.
Proficiency.
Her thoughts are
fluidly without hesitation.
She speaks very
She is
very clear in both her conversation and her narrative.
in
both able to respond to and ask questions appropriately
This includes asking for help when having difficulty,
Hawaiian.
in her narrative
say, in recalling a Hawaiian_word. For example,
characters in
of One Frog Too Many, she had forgotten one of her
the story.
K:
E:
S:
A laila-,o Wai kia?
this?
He cried and cried and cried. Then - Who is
Ka poloka?
The frog?
tra ug, ag, ug '0 ia.
Ka pgpg?
The baby?
67
76
E:
Ka mimi? Mimi.
The mother? Mother.
K:
Mimi.
Okay,
"Kala mai."
Mother. Okay.
me.
ua hele mai ka mama a 'Melo
'o
ia,
The mother came, and she said, "Forgive
11
[Note:
K = Kealoha, E = Examiner,
S = Other student
present]
She has a wide range of vocabulary knowledge but does use
loan words from English when communicating (lady bug; this word,
ponu, was actually invented recently.
It
is not
in the
dictionary and probably not known to the teachers yet either).
She used the word "pokie" instead of the English "splinters" in
trying to be understood in Hawaiian.
It was only when that
failed that she resorted to English reluctant as evidenced by her
drooping voice, "That thing, splinters".
She is able to initiate topics in addition to shifting to
topics initiated by others and giving explanations of complex
situations or events.
She is able to use direct and indirect
quotative speech quite well.
K:
For example:
Kihea au is ia "Paula Akana," A lalelo ko'u fate, "E
'alai° loe is Paula Akana, e, a ua rolelo wau "Aloha" a
u'i ,o ia ma ke kiwi.
I call her "Paula Akana." And my tutu said, "you tell
Paula Akana, er, that I said hello and that she is
beautiful on television."
In structuring her narrative, she constructed a beginning,
middle and end to her story.
She also used appropriate storylike
intonation in her quotative speech during the narrative.
In the
following
K:
Ua kaumaha ka poloka a ua 'Blelo ka, ka keikikine, "Mai
hana pili!" no ka mea po'opa'a 'o ia.
68
77
The frog was sad and the, the boy said, "Don't do that!"
because he (the frog) was so hard-headed.
She used a very loud and staccato voice to stress each syllable
of the command.
She also provides sufficient background information so that
it is clear what she is talking about.
She uses complex
sentences with conjunctions, relational terms, and a variety of
subordinate clauses.
K:
Va noho ka poloka ma laila no ka wi 15'ihi a ua hale
likou no ka mea ua hana'ino 'o ia i ka Eoloka pipi; a ua
kaumaha 'o ia. Aki ua hau'oli loa ka pepi.
The frog stayed there for a long time, and they went off
because he had mistreated the baby frog, and he was sad.
But the baby was very happy.
She uses a full range of grammar in Hawaiian, from simple
sentences
(locative,
equational,
simple
verb,
verbless,
possessive) to compound sentences (joined by a m and
aka` = but,
no ka
= because, no laila = so, a laila = and then, ini =
if-then), and more complex sentences.
In addition she seems to
be progressing well in areas in which Hawaiian is much more
difficult to acquire than English.
moving quite well
As examples, she seems to be
in acquiring the
conventional use
of
possessives, the stative verb loa'a (to have, obtain, acquire,
find, get, catch, exist), getting these correct about 75% and 50%
of the time, respectively).
2-H Kapono (Grade 1, male:
Background.
Kapono also attended Panana Leo for about 2
and a quarter years.
HLI class.
Proficient)
Thus, he spoke Hawaiian before entering the
Proficiency.
Kapono is very fluent in Hawaiian.
He tends to
speak in a very excited manner and, thus, in conversation, tends
to backtrack and repeat some of his sentences.
communicates very well.
However,
he
He has a large vocabulary, uses a full
range of Hawaiian grammatical structures, ranging from simple to
compound to complex.
very
clearly.
He is able to explain very complex matters
Below
is
his
explanation
of
the
game
"Chasemaster" using the "Jan ken a po" way of decided who is it:
K:
In
lanakila ka mea, ini um lanakila ka mea, um ini
loa'a i kekahi keiki ka pepa a loa'a kekahi keiki ka
a laila ke it ke keiki me ka 'epi ka mea holo, a
laila pono ke keiki me ka pepa e ki'i is ia.
A kekahi
manawa pi'ani mikou ii "Duck Duck Goose."
If the one winds,
um the one wins, um if one guy has
paper and the other guy has scissors, then the, the guy
with the scissors is the one who runs away, and then the
guy with the paper has to catch him. And other times we
play "Duck Duck Goose." of the game "London Bridge is
Falling Down"
K:
Hele 'elua mau keiki, aia ho'okahi keiki ma
'5, aia
ho'okahi keiki ma '5, a laila hele kekahi keiki i loko o
ko mikou lima, a laila ini loa'a mikou is i,
i kili
keiki hele ana i loko, ko kikou lima, a laila, pono
mikou e kili a likou a himeni i kekahi mea
ale.
Two children go, one child is over there, and one child
is over there, and then another child goes inside of our
arms, and then we go and sing, and then if we get ththat child going inside th- our arms, then we have to
catch him and sing something else.
Kapono uses quite a variety of connectors and clause
subordinators in Hawaiian (and then, but, therefore, if...) and
can relate ideas very clearly.
the examples above.
A couple of these are shown in
He also uses a large number of relative
clauses in his speech.
As mentioned earlier, relative clauses
are much more complex in Hawaiian than in English.
explanation he uses four of them
70
78
In one short
(actually five,
two are
basically the same).
correct, and 2
are
outright, 1 is half
Of these, 1 is correct
incorrect.
However,
only
1
of the 2
is
juxtaposition of a simple sentence
incorrect by virtue of simple
verb markers
In the other case, Kapono uses
with a head noun.
clause, which
indicative of another more complex type of relative
although not correct here,
indicates that he is probably on his
way to figuring them out.
K:
helu, a laila pono pono ni
Pono, pono kekahi keiki e
kali keiki 'e a/e, no
keiki '5 a'e e ni- e nini ana
maopopo kin5
in
lows, in maopopo Poe, kali
laila, in
keiki ua pe'e
keiki ua helu a laila, pono la- pono
ke keiki i hekai. A laila
ana a hele i ka wahi a'ohe owahi, a laila, ' a'ole hiki,
ini, ini holopi o' is i ka iii helu, 'a'ole hiki '0
'a'ole hiki um ke keiki i ua
One child has, has to
is a ki'i i kekeiki ua pe'e.
to lo- that other
count, and the other child has, has
if there is, if you
child is going to be seeking, so,
knows and then, that
know, if that child who had counted
go to the place where
child who is hiding has, has to Then
if, if he touches
the child who counted isn't at.who counted can't, can't,
that place, and then the child
he can't catch the child who had hidden.
Kapono is very clear about providing background
In addition,
information for his listeners.
He can respond to and ask
He
assistant in communicating.
questions, including asking for
in addition to initiating
can shift topics initiated by others
topics.
beginning, middle and end.
His narrative was clear, with a
He also used quotative speech.
his sentences were
laila).
in
Most of the connectors he used
(a laila)
"and then"
and "therefore"
(no
clear and consisted of
Despite this, his narrative was
several topics.
quite a bit of elaboration in
71
3-H Keanu (Grade 1, male:
Background.
Keanu,
Moderate)
a first grader,
attended one or two
English language preschools before entering
English medium kindergarten class.
a
public school,
He did not speak Hawaiian
before entering this program.
Proficiency.
At the first evaluation visit, 2/5/88, Keanu
appeared able to comprehend most of the classroom talk well
enough to function academically.
However, his spoken Hawaiian
was limited to highly routinized classroom language.
At the time
of the LPM, 6/2/88, he had made a great deal of progress.
Keanu speaks with good facility in Hawaiian now.
He does
not hesitate except when trying to recall vocabulary or deal with
vocabulary he does not know (sting, golf course, chase).
He is
able and tends to ask for help with such vocabulary items about
half the time, rather than just using the English lexical item in
his Hawaiian.
Although his vocabulary is not as large as the
highly proficient students, he does have a fairly good range of
vocabulary.
He can carry on a conversation very well.
shift topics and initiate topics readily.
He is able to
He is also extremely
good about providing backgroUnd information to the
listener,
often by fronting and thereby calling attention to new topics.
K:
'Ae. Ua hele w-, makemake au e hele i kauaii.
A ko'u
cousin, loa'a 'o is i ka Mario Brothers a me ka mea, ka
mea makemake wau e pi'ani.
Yes.
I went, I want to go to Kauei. And my cousin, he
has *Mario Brothers and the one, the one I want to play.
[*Mario Brothers
about]
is
a video game Keanu knew
I
knew
He can use prepositions,
verbless, equational,
infinitives.
locative)
simple sentences
(verb and
as well as sentences using
In addition he used several more difficult
structures, including possessive phrases, correctly (a difficult
area as noted above), and was the only one of the seven to use
'possessive number' sentence and a fancy adverbial phrase,
respectively below:
K:
Tune, 'I, pono wau e, ma hope o kili kanahikukamiono,
kili ko )co'u cousin A hinau.
my cousin day birth
that's my
(June, well, I have to, after the 26th,
cousin's birthday.)
[This is really
consists of two
error: the 26th
kanahikukamiono
difficult in Hawaiian as it is actually
His date, though was in
possessives.
is iwakiluakamiono, not
(76th)]
K:
'Ehi mau la o ke kula, lee?
There are four days of school, right?
K:
A ua hana wau i ni mea a pau 112
And I did everything well, not
12A, 'a' ole
ho'okahi hewa.
a single mistake
(Lit.
And I did everything with excellence...)
He used loa'a correctly nearly half the time of the time,
and so I would say he is probably developing there.
K:
Loa'a is likou nui ni pua.
They have a lot of flowers.
At this point his use of relative clauses consists of
embedding a simple sentence into a head noun.
But, indeed, he is
thinking in relative clauses in Hawaiian.
He also used words, such as
'because',
and
'when'
'but',
'and',
'and then',
in fashioning compound and more complex
sentences.
Interestingly, however, he used the English terms (as
loan words) to connect his Hawaiian clauses.
He did, however,
use no ka mea (because) twice indicating that although he knew
the Hawaiian term,
he tended to use the English terms more.
About a week and half after school had ended,
opportunity to talk with him.
I
had an
I noticed that he was doing this
very thing again, so I called his attention to it by beginning to
speak like him, using 'if', 'but', 'and then' and 'because' in my
sentences as we spoke.
He immediately smiled and said in
Hawaiian, "Not" and then proceeded to correct my Hawaiian (plus
English terms) by supplying the Hawaiian terms for 'because'
ka Rea),
'if'
(ins),
'and then'
(a laila) and 'but'
(akE).
(no
He
seemed to know that I was "having fun" with him.
His narrative did have a beginning, middle, and end.
Although it was mostly strung together by "and then",
coherent.
Kt
it was
He used quotative speech as in:
And then ua 16lelo 'o ia, "A hui hou"...
And then he said "See you later, "...
He seems to be moving towards being quite Proficient by LPM
standards.
4-H Mele (Profi.lient)
Beh.lkground.
Both parents are competent speakers of Hawaiian
Mele attendei: a PUnana Leo for 2 and a half years and
could speak Hawaiian fluently before entering the Hawaiian
language immersion class.
Mele is very proficient in Hawaiian.
She has a large
vocabulary and speaks and thinks fluidly in Hawaiian.
She can
communicate very clearly,
expressing her thoughts and feelings
She can ask and respond to questions readily in
very well.
conversation.
She shifts topics and initiates topics as well.
[1'4 a= Mele, S = other student]
S:
'Ae, hiki ke pu i ni kine hana'ino ini holo likou me ke
ka'a.
One can gun down the bad men if they flee by car.
Yes.
M:
Ua
'Ae, makemake au e 'Melo e pili ana i ko'u pipi.
ua lilo ko'u pipi i kekahi mka'i ma mua.
My father became a
dad.
Yrah, I want to talk about
police officer before.
Mele is able to give explanations.
M:
'Ae, aki ke pena nei ko'u pipi i ko'u hale i ke'oke'o
ma ka laina wale no.
Only on
Yes, but my dad is painting my house white.
the lines.
15masomaso is a me mikule. Mikuse ka mea aia ma hope,
'ama'oma'o aia ma mua.
The part in the back is brown,
It's green and brown.
and it's green in front.
She also tends to try to give explanaitons for many things.
For example, in her narrative:
M:
lino loa
Ke ialelo nei likoue "Mai nahu i kona
'oat"
They are saying, "Don't bite his leg!
terrible!"
You are really
is a me is ia.
That's why the turtle carried him and him.
'0 is ke kumu cal hipai ka honu
Her narrative had a beginning, middle and end.
She uses
in the
both indirect and direct quotative speech as indicated
Along with such speech she tended to use
example above.
That
intonation which fit the mood and message being conveyed.
character in delivering the
is, she would take on the role of the
75
84
lines.
She used connectors such as "because" (no ka mea), and
"and then" (a laila).
M:
As an example:
Hau'oli kiia poloka no ka mea mana'o
kiia, 'a'ole 'o ia i mL.aa'o he poloka.
ia he makana
This frog is happy because he thinks that this is a
present, he doesn't think it's a frog.
She uses a wide frange of grammar.
Like the others she is
still developing on some of the more difficult structures as
would be expected.
Her Hawaiian is very good.
Proficient)
5-H Kahealani (Kindergarten, female:
Kahealani,
a kindergartener, attended a Panana Leo.
appears to be very young for her grade.
She
She spoke Hawaiian
before entering the HLI classroom.
In some respects Kahealani is a bit quiet in the classroom,
and although this examiner had heard speak,
surprised by her ability to speak Hawaiian.
a kindergartener.
I was somewhat
She is very good as
She speaks fluently and fluidly, although she
seems to "hold back" a little in the interview, perhaps being a
little shy.
However, at times when she becomes excited or very
interested in the goings on, her voice loses its mousey, warbling
quality and becomes very clear and forceful.
Her grammar seems
to be quite good.
She seems to have a fairly good vocabulary.
loan word (syrup).
She seemed to "invent" some words in Hawaiian
to get her meaning across.
ka
the
She used one
For example she used
po'e
people play
3
ka
the
pele
bell
What I believe she actually meant was:
76
85
ka
the
po'e
kani
people play
[The Target Hawaiian is ka
pile
musical-instrument
ka
the
po'e
the people
ho'okani
play
pile
musical instruments
The meaning she intended was clearly "music making people"
musicians.
She was very close in terms of her thinking.
or
She
also used sound effects to get across the meaning for a word she
didn't know the name of,
I
believe,
instead of switching to
Note
English.
...aia i loko o keia mea "Hmbmbmbm".
(he) was inside of this "Boom, b-boom-boom" thing
to mean he was inside of the drum.
Kahealani did code switch once in her direct quotative
speech during her narrative.
Taken by surprise the examiner
asked for clarification and she switched immediately back into
Hawaiian.
K:
A ua huh ni po'e a pau i kona, ua hula so ia is ia,
ia is ia, '0 ia a ia a so ia a ia. A laila ua
lo ia, "Go to your room!" ua 'Biel° i kali.
so
And everyone was angry at her, he was made at him, he
at him, he at him, and he at him (pointing). And then
he said, "Go to your room!", he said that.
E:
He aha?
What?
K:
'Melo so ia, "Hele i kiu lumi!"
He said, "Go to you room!"
She uses connectors very well ("and then," "but," "because,"
"if").
Once she did use "caz"
(because)
in connecting two
clauses in Hawaiian.
K:
In
hale mai kasas3hua, pono wau a hele ma laila a
If bus comes, I have to go there and
[sentence completed later in interaction]
77
86
E:
Ma hea?
Where?
X:
I
to
S:
In hele mai ke ka'a'ahua.
If the bus comes.
X:
A hele wau ma ka wall, a a ini 'a'ole, ini 'a'ole ki'i
ko'u pipi ia'u pono wau e hele wiwae i ka hale, i ka'u
hale, aki ina ki'i mai ko'u papa ia'u, pono wau e hele
me ii ia.
And I go to the wall, and and it not, if my dad doesn't
come for me, then I have to walk home to my house, but
if my father picks me up, then I have to go with him.
She was also able to give an explanation.
In reference to
explaining how she feeds her dog:
K:
aia kahi 'eke a ki'i wau i kekahi pole, hele wau me
kili a komo i loko 0 kla pole no ka
There is a bag, and I get a bowl, I go like that (shos
movement) and put it in the bowl for the dog.
'Ae, a laila pehea?
Yes, and then what?
A laila, pau ke pole, a laila pani ka 'eke.
Then, after the bowl is finished, then I close the bag.
'Ae. maika'i.
Yes, fine.
Aka aia kekahi pohaku ma luna o ka 'eke.
No ka mea
pono ko'u papa e komo ma luna.
But, there's a rock on the bag because my dad has to
put it on top.
'0.
'0 iaT Maopopo f a 'oe no ke aha?
Oh. Really? Do you know why?
Aaaah, hele ka flies i loko.
Aaaah, the flies go inside.
On a few occasions, comprehension of her intended meaning
was hindered because she failed to provide sufficient background
information for the listener as to who or what she was referring
to.
In general, however, her language was clear and coherent.
Kahealani's narrative had a beginning, middle and end.
For
example, she began with:
K:
Kekahi
ua loa'a kekahi keikikine i kahi poloka me
kekahi honu a me kekahi 'Ili°.
One day, a boy had a frog, and a turtle and a dog.
and ended with:
K:
A laila ua hele 'o is a pi'ani me kona poloka i loko o
kona lumi. Pau.
And then he went and played with his frog inside of his
room.
The end.
It was quite clear, although on occasion, she resorted to
using deitic terms and pointing at the book leaving a little bit
of a problem with reference.
the case.
Her invention of words turned out to be a way to
elicit help,
possible.
In general, however, this was not
as the examiner offered the Hawaiian terms when
Overall she is quite proficient.
6-H Leinani (Moderate)
Background.
Leinani, a kindergartener, did not speak any
Hawaiian when she entered the HLI class.
Leinani can communicate in Hawaiian quite well.
respond to and ask questions.
She can
She was able to give
an
explanation and can shift topics initiated by others as well as
initiate her own topics.
For example, she initiated a couple of
topics:
L:
No'eau, loe'a ka surfpops i loko o laila.
No' eau, there are su:Zpops in there.
L:
No'eau, no ka aha loa'a ka pahu ma laila?
No'eau, why is that box over there?
and
Her speech is fluid and she can relate ideas and communicate
in simple, compound and rather complex language.
She has a good
vocabulary range, but does use English loan words
(surfpops,
syrup, butter) when she does not know the Hawaiian word.
She
uses conjunctions and other connectors (but, and then, because,
if) as in:
L:
'Ai
wau i ka niu a laila inu wau, ak-a
li'ili'i.
I eat the coconut and then drink the milk, but just a
little.
She also elaborated on a few topics.
L:
For example:
'A'ole hiki ke aloha ka mea.
A loa'a kanakolu moa,
'extols hiki ia'u ke ho'o- ke ho'omake is likou, a no
laila ho'omake ni kine.
You can't love a chicken. There were thirty chickens.
I couldn't ki- kill them, and so the boys killed it.
Her narrative did have a beginning,
middle and end.
However, she was somewhat difficult to follow at times in her
narrative as she did not always provide enough background
information for a listener to comprehend what she was talking
about.
This was not a mere matter of deictics, but was, rather,
a question of ambiguity in pronoun
or noun referent (ex:
the
big and little frog being referred to as "the frog").
She did use quotative speech with appropriate accompanying
prosodic features such as intonation.
For example, she used a
calling voice (high dropping to low on the word "Frog").
L:
A laila, ke nini nei 'o ia, "Ma hea ka'u
And then, he was searching, "Where's my
[unfinished sentence]
S:
Poloka.
Frog.
80
89
L:
ue
"PoLokai! Ma hea ka'u poloka?" A laila ua use a ua
Kiia ma 'ane'i, aki kiia mea, 'a'ole maika'i so
'o ia.
ia.
"Frog!
Where's my frog And then he cried and cried,
him here, but this one, he wasn't good.
She did not attempt any relative clauses, however, she has a
She is not yet fully
Hawaiian grammar.
solid basic grasp of
conventional with the usage of loa'a and possessives.
However,
she does use these functionally.
7-H Kainoa (Low)
Background.
a
Kainoa,
kindergartener,
being very young when he entered the class.
was described as
He spoke English for
a very long time and had trouble adjusting to the class
initially.
At the first observation, he spoke some of the
most of the
routinized classroom Hawaiian and could comprehend
However, he did not
classroom language to function in class.
appear to be fluent by any means and often spoke in English.
During this assessment he appeared to have gained much in
proficiency in Hawaiian.
He seemed to comprehend everything said
to him by the examiner and was able to respond appropriately.
However, certain topics seemed to trigger him into speaking
English (basketball, an Intendo video game)
vocabulary is probably not familiar to him,
off into speaking English.
for which the
Thus, he would go
His vocabulary is probably not very
large at this time, by compared with others.
He has surely
acquired many of the high frequency words of the classroom and
peer interaction, however.
K:
Hiki no ke
'Ae, palani 'o (student name) me '0 wau.
unfinished]
Yes, (student name) and I played. Can [sentence
81
S:
Pi'ani au, hiki ke kick high.
I played, I can kick high.
K:
'A'ole (student name).
'0 wau pi.
Me too. Not (student name).
S:
'Ae hiki wau.
Yes, I can.
K:
I can shoot baskets.
And then, and then (student name)
(demonstrates again.
Hehehe.
goes (demonstrates shooting with hands.)
He goes
You did that.
At times he had disagreements with the other student, and
sometimes this was carried on in English, while other times, in
Hawaiian
(as above in Hawaiian).
When he asked questions to
elicit help, he tended to use English as well.
In general Kainoa seemed to be capable of expressing most
simple verb sentences,
(past, present, future, imperfect).
The
imperfect was surprising as some of the more proficient students
use a less conventional form of this structure.
Note the example
below:
E ui ana ka poloka.
The frog was crying.
K:
He could also use some more difficult structures such as
hiki (to be able).
K:
Hiki ia'u ke kuke i ka Inikalima.
I can cook ice cream.
S:
'A'ole hiki ke kuke i ka 'aikalima.
You can't cook ice cream.
They both laughed about
true.
Kainoa's statement knowing
it wasn't
Still the grammar was perfect!
Kainoa used few conjunctions.
In fact there was only one a
However, he used
or a me
('and').
English.
He used no other connectors.
82
14.
'and then' and
'then'
in
Although he is able to express many ideas in Hawaiian
through simple sentences, he seems to be much more comfortable in
English.
He speaks much more quickly and confidently in English
in general.
However, at times, like when contradicting a peer,
he can be quite confident in his Hawaii (as in the first example
set above).
Kainoa's narrative had somewhat of a beginning and an end.
His "middle" was characterized by some English, although 85% of
it was in Hawaiian.
(This is in contrast to his conversation
where the topic variation 6eermd to lead him to speak Hawaiian on
various topics he was less familiar with.
He used English to ask
"What is this?" a couple of times during the narrative.
The
following is an example of his use of English in the narrative.
E:
He aha ki likou e hana nei?
What are they doing?
K:
Looking for 'ai.
Looking for food.
K:
A me ka mama loa'a ka poloka me ka 'ai. Makemake ka
mama, maka'u ka mama a.be ka poloka.
Ka tfitiikEne, ua
hale ka poloka, ua lele and, and then, and the food all
or
(
)
And mom, she had the frog and the food.
The mom, the
mom was afraid of the frog.
As for the grandfather,
the frog went, jumped and, and then and the all the
food (
N:
).
'Ae.
Yes.
K:
And then the poloka is, what is this?
N:
K!'aha.
Glass.
K:
Ki'a
Gla
83
92
N:
Kilaha.
Glass.
K:
Kilaha.
Ua hele ka poloka i loko o ka kilaha a me ka
pipi ua
maka'u. A me ka pipi, a me ka kine, ua
'Biel° lino i ka pipi.
The frog went inside of the glass and the
father was afraid.
And the dad, and the man, spoke
Glass.
badly to the dad.
In general his sentences involving predicate adjectives
(stative verbs in Hawaiian) followed an English sentence order:
K:
Ka honu
kaumaha...
The turtle sad
The turtle was sad
where the subject is fronted.
Target:
numaha ka honu
sad
the turtle
Interestingly his sentences which
involved active verbs (intransitive and transitive) and also the
stative verb loa'a generally followed typical Hawaiian VSO (Verb Subject- Object) sentence order as in:
K:
A
me ua
hale ka poloka.
and
past go
the frog
And the frog went.
Nakemake ka
poloka ke 'ai
want
the frog
to eat
The frog wanted to eat.
Kainoa did have some very good clear sentences and even used
fronting at times to clarify his message (the following example
was spoken entirely in Hawaiian):
K:
A me ka mimi, loa'a ka poloka me ka 'ai.
And as for the mother, she had the frog and the food.
In general, however, comprehending Kainoa's story was possible,
but required listening and observing very carefully.
He did not
use quotative speech, his language was not complex, and he seldom
used compound sentences.
Before taking on the task of narrating the story,
Kainoa
expressed reservations that he would be able to perform the task.
he was encouraged and went ahead.
As mentioned he did speak
mostly in Hawaiian during this segment of the assessment and was
able to tell a story in Hawaiian.
LPH Results:
English Oral Language Assessment
All 24 students who were assessed on the LPM were able to
carry on an acceptable conversation in English.
Often students
would begin conversing in English on a variety of topics as soon
as the examiner (Slaughter) and the two children left the
classroom to walk to
carried out.
a
small room where the assessment was
Students had no difficulty in either their
listening or speaking fluency as determined by their quick
responses in answering and asking questions, and by raising new
topics of conversation.
Students talked on a range of topics
such as caring for pets, surfing, helping out at home, languages
spoken by others in the family, and favorite television shows or
movies.
A few of the kindergarten students sometimes abruptly
changed topics, but this is not unusual for this age student.
The English spoken by students was definitely similar to other
first language English speakers, even in the case of two children
who had been raised at home in the Hawaiian languge.
Hawaiian
creole English, or pidgin, was observed on occasion in some of
the student's speech and-is believed to reflect the speech
community in which the children interact,
rather than being a
result of their participation in the HLIP.
Students displayed a
range of abilities to tell a story from a wordless storybook,
with a few of the younger students indicating an unfamiliarity
with book handling skills.
well as in length.
The stories ranged in complexity as
Many students told excellent stories from the
85
94
wordless story book.
speaking in an appropriately expressivo
voice, producing a cohesive narrative with a beginning, middle
and end, and adding dialogue and on occasion, sound effects.
The following accounts will briefly describe the English
language competencies of the seven students discussed above
regarding their Hawaiian language proficiencies.
1.
Kealoha.
English).
(Grade
female:
1,
Proficient in Hawaiian
Kealoha was enthusiastic about participating
in the assessment process.
She and her classmate Kahele
talked about their baby siblings at home, summer school,
helping at home,
and told short narratives about
incidents in their favorite movies.
Both students took
time to look over the wordless story book thoroughly,
and Kealoha vo:lnteered to tell her story first, asking
the examiner whether it should be told in English
Hawaiian.
Kealoha's story was well constructed,
or
and
told in a fluent interesting way with dialogue and sound
effoects accompanied by facial expressions.
Halfway
through the story, the other child walked aroild the
table so he too could see the pictures, and laugh at the
funny incidents in the book.
(See Appendix E for
Kealoha's narrative).
2.
Kapono.
English).
(Grade 1,
male:
Proficient in Hawaiian and
Kapono had greater strengths in English
conversation that ht. did in telling a narrative.
conversation,
In
he was able to talk about complex
relationships, as he did when explaining the complex
86
95
multilingual language backgrounds of various family
members and their relationship to each other.
He used
complex syntax as seen in the following excerpt from the
conversational part of the LPN:
E:
And what do you do after school?
K:
I always play on the playground and after that,
when my mom comes, we always go to the store.
And whenever we get back home, I do my homework
first (and play with my puppy).
While he used some com:ilex syntax in his narrative,
he often told the story piecemeal, so that the listener
had some difficulty following the plot.
His voice was
more difficult to hear on the tape recording when
telling the story, than in the conversation, which may
also had an affect on the evaluation.
An excerpt from
the beginning of his narrative follows:
One day, one kid went to
present
.
.
.
(
he opened the present
to give his mom the present
and
.
3.
Keanu
.
(
)
.
.
.
. we have a baby.)
(Grade
1,
.
.
)
.
.
. so .
he wanted
.
.
one
.
(
he wanted to say (to the data
But the dad didn't want it.
male).
(Moderate
in Hawaiian,
Proficient in English conversation; audiotape of English
narrative almost inaudible, and hence, unscoreable).
Keanu
was
a
very
self-ccafidant
conversationalist in English.
and
proficient
He elaborated on and
initiated topics readily, elicited interest in his
87
96
conversation from the examiner and other peer, and
responded well to questions.
For instance, he gave a
complex description of surfing:
K:
I like the boogie board.
I can catch big ways.
With the boogie board
I put it up. I can go
all the way over there.
drown.
4.
I
Yeah, if it comes down I (drown).
Mele (Kindergarten:
and English).
If I put it down,
Female).
(Proficient in Hawaiian
Mele began questioning and talking to the
Examiner in English as soon as they left the HLIP
classroom.
She had a fluent control of English, and was
enthusiastic about taking part in the assessment.
Although the other child being assessed at the same time
was restless and interrupted the process, this did not
seem to affect Mele's performance.
The children were
excited that one of the wordless books was the same as
one in their classroom library.
first in telling the story.
Mele volunteered to be
her narrative is fairly
well formed for the kindergarten level,
having a
beginning, some cohesive action sequences in the middle
and an ending
(see Appendix E for Mele's narrative).
her narrative shows a combination of some picture
description and some story plot elements.
5.
Kehealani (Kindergarten, Female) (Proficient in Hawaiian
and English). Kehealani was an energetic conversational-
ist who had plenty to say about a number of topics and
provided quite a bit of detail on various topics.
She
and her classmate, another kindergarten girl, espe:ially
enjoyed talking about their pets:
E:
Oh,
so two different dogs had puppies?
That
must be an awful lot of puppies around there.
K:
But (dog's name) only had one and (the other
dog's name)
had more. than ,ne.
She doesn't
like people to look at her puppies, only people
that she knows!
E:
Oh, I can see that she doesn't trust the people
if they're strangers then.
Yeah, she wants to
make sure that she can trust them.
So do you
(directed to the other child) have any pets in
your house?
S:
Yeah!
One dog and one kitten and one baby
kitten, three baby kittens.
K:
I know them.
S:
Cute, yeah?
K:
Yeah, the kitten scratches!
S:
And (they sleep on you, yeah)
[Both children
laugh]
E:
So what do you feed the kittens?
S:
Baby food.
K:
And then, their only eat this mush, the babies,
and eat this kind of food.
S:
No, they eat from their mother!
K:
They can eat, they can eat (stuff) catfood!
S:
Yeah?
89
K:
But, the, you know the babies can eat from the
mother and the baby cat food, right?
S:
Yeah.
K:
From the mother, t
s for drink, and from the
cat food, that's for eat!
S:
hmm [laughs softly]
Kehealani's story was well formed.
She looked only
very briefly through the book, One Froa Too Many, and
sponteneously, without being asked, began to tell the
story which was longer than some of the other stories
told by this age student.
There were a few spots in the
book where she began labelling the pictures, but in the
main she told a cohesive story.
The story had an
appropriate openiig which was stated in the first
person.
(She soon dropped the first person, and told
the story in the third person).
A brief excerpt
follows:
I had a present.
I opened the present and
there was a frog in it, a little tiny kind of frog
and I put it down and the frog (said), "I'm bigger
than you!" [child laughs]
6.
Leinani (Kindergarten:
English
language
evaluation)
female)
sample
Leinani
was
too
(Moderate in Hawaiian;
scanty
teamed
to
with
make
an
another
kindergarten student who demanded an excessive amount
of
the
examiner's
attention,
interrupted Leinani when she was
90
99
and
continually
talking.
Leinani
would have to be assessed again,
to form a fair
evaluation of her English proficiency.
From what data
was obtained, Leinani was fluent in English.
Under the
assessment conditions she was understandably reluctant
to talk very much, and showed little enthusiasm when
telling the story from the wordless book.
7.
Kainoa (Kindergarten:
Moderate in English)
male)
(Functional in Hawaiian;
Kainoa is five and a half and is
one of the youngest boys in his class.
He was fluent
and proficient conversationalist, bringing up a number
of
topics,
responding appropriately
to
examiner
initiated topics, and encouraging his classmate in the
language assessment to participate too.
When I
(the
examiner) asked Kainoa to talk about his favorite TV
show, he instead changed the topic and for a five year-
old gave a comprehensive explanation about how to make
hot chocolate:
K:
(We drink cocoa too)
S:
(I don't got cocoa)
E:
Tell me about that
K:
You gotta put milk in it and then you gotta put
it in a dish.
S:
You take milk
K:
You gotta take milk and you've gotta stir it.
It's hot, you gotta put ice, and stir it so you
can drink it, it not gonna be hot.
9100
Kainoa had a few book handling skills,
and had
difficulty in using the wordless book to tell a story.
In fact, he had so much difficulty in understanding what
was required that his pal volunteered to help him, but
Kainoa said,
"No! Only one person," and continued with
his labeling, "a dog and a boy, a sister and mommy, ana
daddy, and a pussy."
Shortly after that, the examiner
asked the other child to tell his story, hoping that
this would model how it was done.
to his friand's story,
reading.
When Kainoa listened
he thought his friend was
Even when reassured that the wordless book
contained no words to.read, he still may have thought it
had something to do with reading.
Perhaps he did not
have the book handling skills to realize that print is
required for reading.
His narrative improved a little
after he listened to his classmate's story, but Kainoa
still had one of the lowest overall ratings on forming
narrative text (see category 6 in Table 4).
Results on the PPVT-R, English Vocabulary Test
Students were tested on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test
(PPVT) in fall 1987 as a part of the regular DOE testing program
for kindergarten stuents.
First grade HLIP students were also
given this test as part of an effort to establish a longitudinal
data base for the project.
school in spring 1988.
Students were posttested at one
At the other school the principal did not
think retesting on the PPVT was necessary at this time.
92
101
As shown in Tables
5
and
the vast majority of HLIP
6
students entered the program with receptive English vocabulary
scores that were in stanines 1-3, or far below average for their
age. level.
However, two first grade students scored above
average at stanine 7 on the pretest.
All of the students who
were pre-posttested on the PPVT showed raw score, i.e. the number
correct, gains (Table 5).
All but one student had gains in terms
of percentile rank on the test, indicating that they were getting
slightly closer to national averages.
Without comparative data on how other similar students in
Hawai'i scored on the PPVT
it
conclusions about these results.
is difficult to draw any
Furthermore,
the number of
students for which pre-test data was obtained is too small for
computing statistical tests.
The data does, however,
indicate
that the HLIP students are increasing their English vocabulary
knowledge while attending school immersed in the Hawaiian
language.
In general the PPVT has a moderate to high correlation
with other vocabulary tests, and moderately well with yther
achievement tests on predictions of school success (PPVT Manual,
PP. 61-68).
Students tend to score lower on the PPVT then on the
Stanford-Binet intelligence test.
-211. summary, the PPVT provides
a limited amount of information about students' English language
vocabulary and should be used in a larger context of more
comprehensive data and other information about student language
development.
93
102
Table 5: PPVT-R Form L, Raw Scores, Percenteles, Stanines and Age Equivalent
Scores HLIP
Students at Waiau Elementary School
Student
PPVT Pre-Test (Fall 1987)
%ile Sta A-E
PPVT Post-Test (Spring 1988)
RS %ile Sta A-E
NM IOW= eimr1111111M1101.11MMINMUIPOIIIMIHNNINDIMINPOIPMMIN
RS
WI??
%ile
.~1~8~=1NNIOOMONIPINDIMOMEDONISelee
Elpfuleartm
1
34
4
2
3-7
45
8
2
4-2
6
2
37
7
2
3-9
49
12
3
4-5
5
3
30
1
1
3-4
46
4
2
4-2
3
4
40
13
3
3-11.
47
11.
3
4-3
-2
5
eine
anal
Immo
45
2
3.
4-2
n/a
6
6
-1.
1
2-1
42
3
3.
4-0
3
7
17
-1.
1
2-7
71
52
5
6-1
8
....
....
..
52
--
55
4
4-10
...
--
..
n/a
9
.
28
54
22
3
*
n/a
10
27
1.
1
3-2
43.
6
2
3-1.1
5
42
3
1
4-5
55
9
2
4-10
6
67
77
7
5-9
86
84
7
*
7
101011M
*Missing from student's file. In addition, there were six students who
did not have ppin scores.
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103
Table 6:
PPVT-R, Form L, Raw Scores, Percentiles, Stanines and
Age Equivalent Scores for HLIP Students at Keaukaha,
Fall, 1987
Student
RS
PPVT Pre-Test (Fall 1987)
%ile
Stanine
A - E
Kindergarten
1
40
5
2
3-11
2
42
7
2
4- 0
3
49
13
3
4- 5
4
50
14
3
4- 6
5
41
5
2
6
34
6
2
3- 7
7
44
18
3
4- 1
8
29
2
1
3- 3
9
39
14
3
3- 0
20
53
5
2
4- 8
21
54
5
2
4- 9
22
92
86
7
8- 0
23
55
9
2
4-10
24
34
*
*
*
Grade 1
*Data not in student's file,
In addition,
there were two students who did not have
PPVT-R scores.
.
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104
*
RESULTS OF PARENT INTERVIEWS AND QUESTIONNAIRES
The evaluators interviewed parents of the HLIP children in
group meetings held on the evenings of 15 March at Keaukaha and
26 April at Waiau.
A questionnaire (the Parent Evaluation form;
see Appendix) was distributed at the end of the meetings, and the
teachers later provided copies of it to parents who were not
present.
Twelve parents (all of them mothers) attended the Keaukaha
meeting, and 13 parents (6 fathers, 7 mothers) attended the Waiau
meeting.
Rate of return for the parent evaluation form was high
for a survey questionnaire: 12 of the 14 Keaukaha and 10 of the
12 Waiau parent evaluations were completed and returned to the
evaluators.
The 12 Keaukaha parent questionnaires accounted for
13 of the 16 children in the class.
The 10 Waiau parent
questionnaires accounted for 12 of the 17 children in the class
(the 18th child is the teacher's daughter).
In this section of the report, we combine results from the
two sets of parent evaluation forms with comments made during the
group meetings.
Reasons for Child's Participation in HLIP
The first question on the parent evaluation form was, "Why
did you want your child to participate in the Hawaiian Language
Immersion Program?"
Keaukaha and 7
The majority of responses
(12 of the
of the Waiau questionnaires) mentioned the
importance of reviving and maintaining the Hawaiian language and
cultural heritage,
and parents' desire to have their children
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165
share in that heritage and contribute to it.
one mother said,
At a parent meeting
"My kids already understand that without the
language, we'll die as a people, without the language we'll lose
our culture and our history."
Several parents of Panana Leo graduates wrote on the
questionnaire that they wanted to continue their children's
education in the Hawaiian language.
Four parents said they felt
pride and love towards their own Hawaiian cultural heritage, and
wanted their children to experience these same feelings.
father put it during a parent meeting,
As one
"I want my son to
understand culture and values from a Hawaiian point of view."
Parents also mentioned that they wanted their children to learn
academic subjects in Hawaiian, the language of their heritage.
One parent at Keaukaha said she also wanted her child to gain a
"broader sense of values and ways of looking at the world that
come with being bilingual."
Here are some of the verbatim comments .wade by parents on
the questionnaires with regard to why they wanted their children
in HLIP:
Being of Hawaiian ancestry, I want my child to perpetuate
our Hawaiian language and history.
I want to
see them [her sons]
proud of what and who they
are.
My son started with the Panana Leo 0 Hilo program at the
age of 2 1/2. He did so well that I wanted him to
continue. Seeing him grow in our heritage and loving
it is just wonderful to me.
This [program] should have been offered
the people.
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106
many years ago to
Satisfaction with Child's Progress in School
Parents were asked about the academic progress of their
children.
On the parent evaluation form, parents were asked if
they are satisfied with their child's over-all progress in school
(question #2) and in English (question #7).
They were also asked
whether their child is learning to speak Hawaiian (question #4).
Tables
and
7
8
show tabulated responses
from the evaluation
forms, by classroom:
Table 7
Keaukaha Parent Satisfaction with Child's Progress
satisfied with
child's over-all
progress
yes
satisfied with
child's progress
in English
child is learning
to speak Hawaiian
12
11
12
somewhat
0
1
0
no
0
0
0
undecided
0
0
0
12
12
12
Totals:
Table 8
Waiau Parent Satisfaction with Child's Progress
satisfied with
child's over-all
progress
yes
satisfied with
child's progress
in English
child is learning
to speak Hawaiian
10
9
10
somewhat
0
1
0
no
0
0
0
undecided
0
0
0
10
10
10
Totals:
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107
In summary,
all
22
sets
of parents who repondeci to the
questionnaire are satisfied with their child's over-all progress
in school,
and 90% of them are satisfied with their child's
progress in English.
All of the parents said that their child is
learning to speak Hawaiian.
On the parent evaluation form for question #2, parents were
given an opportunity to comment further on their satisfaction
with the progress of their child in school.
respondents chose to comment at some length.
Many of the
The following
examples from the questionnaires are supplemented by comments
made by these and other parents in the group parent meetings:
Keaukaha
Question:
Are you satisfied with the progress your child is
making in school?
Selected Parent comments:
1.
Yes,
she is starting to read in Hawaiian and her
number concepts are equal to that of any child in a
DOE English kindergarten.
(At the parent meeting, this mother further commented
that her two pre-school children, her HLI program
kindergarten child, and her second-grade child who
attended Panana Leo all sit together at home and read
stories in Hawaiian.)
2.
Most definitely. My son knew no Hawaiian before
coming here,
but
is now fluent enough to converse
with his grandparents and maternal great grandmother.
He has progressed greatly in the 6 months here.
(At the parent meeting, the mother said that her son,
a first-grader, had gone to kindergarten in English.
She feared he would fall behind academically because
he knew no Hawaiian, but this has not been the case.)
3.
[My son] learned a lot of Hawaiian being that this
is his
first exposure to the Hawaiian language.
I
was concerned about
how much of the language he
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108
would be able to learn
but
he's doing quite well
for his age.
4.
My son
[kindergarten child]
first grade level in math.
has advanced to the
He's starting to read
now. He'staking everything in like a sponge.
(At the meeting,
this mother said that originally
she had wanted to put her son into private schooling
after Panana Leo, but he is doing very well in
kindergarten and "is excelling into grade 1 level,"
so she is happy with the program.
She said he
surprised her by how well he is doing.)
5.
[My two kindergarten sons'] Hawaiian is exceptional.
They are writing and pronouncing out words.
(At the parent meeting, this mother said that she
didn't expect her children to learn as much Hawaiian
in a 6-hour school day as at the much longer Panana
Leo school day. Yet her children have progressed a
lot, and are even speaking Hawaiian in their sleep.
They do kindergarten kinds of academic activities at
home, all in Hawaiian.)
6.
[My son] is very excited about learning anything and
everything. He is exceptionally talented in working
with numbers, and his imagination was, and continues
to be very active. He enjoys writing stories on his
own,
aside from the homework, which he does in
Hawaiian (without my help).
(At the parent meeting, this mother said that her
son also speaks Hawaiian in his sleep.
She added
that he's always been verbal and bright, but now he
is more so--as much as he could be in any situation,
whether speaking Hawaiian or English. He is also
beginning to pick up phrases from other languages he
hears.)
7.
months,
and
It has been almost 7
my
daughter
has really learned a lot.
She speaks a lot of
comes
the language at home and when her classmate
over to our house, they both communicate most of the
feel so happy for them and
proud to see and hear the children speaking in
time in Hawaiian.
Hawaiian.
Hawaiian.
8.
I
[My daughter] writes names
She knows her numbers well.
and words in
[My daughter] did not attend any pre-school, English
[Now that] she can speak [Hawaiian]
or Hawaiian.
she loves to correct me and I
better than mom,
I read
We teach each other.
appreciate that.
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109
Hawaiian
well so I'll read her a story and ask her
questions afterward.
I
am very satisfied with her
kindergarten year.
,
(At the meeting,
this mother commented that her
daughter's grandfather recovered his Hawaiian by
speaking to his
granddaughter.
In fact, her
daughter already corrects the mother's Hawaiian.)
Waiau
Question:
Are you satisfied with the progress your child
making in school?
Selected Parent Comments:
1.
My sons entered the program not speaking the
language. It was a difficult beginning.
But they
have come a long way in this first year, and I am
satisfied with their progress.
(At the parent meeting,
this
mother
said
her
sons help each other with
their
Hawaiian
at
home,
and also correct her Hawaiian.
She
is
pleased with their
report
cards.
Before
Christmas,
she
and her sons
went
shopping
togsther. They were asking her for things in the
store in Hawaiian, to the surprise and comment of
other shoppers.)
2.
I'm satisfied with how
I am surprised
that
he
arts, etc. [in Hawaiian].
[my son] is progressing.
is doing math, language
(At the parent meeting, this father said that his
son knew only a few words at the beginning of the
year. Around Christmas time the boy suddenly began
correcting his father's Hawaiian, and really talking
more.
He can go back and forth rapidly between
Hawaiian
and English depending on the language
understood by the person with whom he is talking.
This man's daughter is a third-year high school
student in Hawaiian language, and is amazed at
her younger brother's
speaking
ability,
which
is beyond her own.)
3.
Definitely.
(At the parent meeting,
this mother
commented that now that her son can speak Hawaiian,
he gets more attention from his Hawaiian-speaking
He is teaching his mother and his
grandmother.
younger brother to speak Hawaiian.)
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110
is
4.
[My daughter]
learning all the appropriate
is
skills needed at grade 1.
5.
Corsidering
that
he
never went to preschool or
even heard the
Eawaiian language until he walked
first
into the class the
day,
I
feel
he has
made a lot of progress with his skills and language.
(At tne parent meeting, this mother commented that
her son is teaching his brother Hawaiian, and also
talks in Hawaiian to the baby.
He speaks English
to his parents.
6.
At the parent meeting, another mother said that
she was pleased with her two daughters' progress.
They had quickly learned how to read this year.
The older daughter is already reading simple children's books in English by herself at home, and the
younger one is learning, too.
She said that both
girls learned to pronounce and read Hawaiian words
at school,
and that they apply that knowledge to
reading English words and books at home.
Student Satisfaction with the Program
Question #3 on the parent evaluation form was,
"Is your
child happy to be participating in the Hawaiian Language
Immersion Program?"
Table 9 shows tabulated responses from the
evaluation forms by classroom:
Table 9
Keaukaha and Waiau Children's Attitudes to HLIP Classes
Child is happy in HLI Program
Keaukaha
Waiau
12
10
somewhat
0
0
no
0
0
12
10
yes
Totals:
In summary, all of the parents reported that their children are
hapey being in the HLI program.
Several parent evaluation forms
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111
included further comments about the children's contentment in the
HLIP classroom, and parents attending the group meetings also
discussed their children's experiences in the program:
Keaukaha
Question:
Is your child happy to be participating in the
Hawaiian Language Immersion Program?
Selected parent comments:
1.
Yes, yes, yes.
She enjoys her classmates, and her
teacher. [My daughter] did not attend any preschool, so all of this was new to her.
My
main worry was her reaction to a classroom setting.
On her first day she didn't understand a thing
(naturally) but the next day she was excited about
continuing and going on.
2.
3.
she
really enjoys
is willing to learn.
Yes,
[My son]
the class and I know she
is recognized around his school as being
one of the
kids
in the immersion class, which
makes him feel very good about himself.
Even the
sixth graders are friendly to himl
At first
he
didn't want to go to first grade in Hawaiian,
but
once he got started and realized ha vas getting all
the same curriculum, he loves school,
and it's
hard now to get him to leave.
(At the parent meting,
that
this
mother
said
her son
goes
beyond
assigned homework to write
his on stories at home,
loves his
and that he
work.
She also
said
that
the
boys in the
classroom are like brothers to each other.)
4.
At first
[my daughter] was
lost
and
a
bit
[others
She's- my only child in elementary
are older] and hearing a foreign language and being
afraid.
in a
classroom environment has been such a huge
adjustment. But as she went to school each day,
she's
become
a
lot more open in expressing
She uses it
herself and speaking Hawaiian language.
every day when
she's
playing teacher at home or
with friends.
5.
I can see it in his work.
[My son] is very happy.
He loves to go to school.
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112
6.
I had a hard time getting [my son]
to
go
to
school when he was in pre-school last year but this
year I'm having trouble getting him to stay at home
when he's really sick.
7.
It has
contributed
to
[my daughter's]
concept enormously, because many of her
self-
older
cousins make positive comments about her ability to
speak Hawaiian.
Waiau
Question: Is your child happy to be participating in the Hawaiian
Language Immersion Program?
Selected parent comments:
[My son]
1.
is very happy to be in this program, and
has expressed the desire to continue in the
and second grades as part of this program.
first
(At the parent meeting, this mother said that her son
entered the program knowing no Hawaiian.
The first
few weeks of the program were exhausting for him. At
first he
was
self-conscious and wouldn't speak
Hawaiian at home.
Now he is happy and speaking
Hawaiian.)
[My son]
2.
always
asks
if
there's
school.
From
the beginning he always went to school happily. He
enjoys the class.
3.
At this point in time,
in September
when my son first started, it was no.
Besides
the
stress of a new school,
friends,
teachers,
environment, he had to contend with learning a new
language.
But after 3-4 months he really settled in
and is enjoying himself.
yes!
However,
Program Alternatives Preferred by Parents
Three questions on the parent evaluation form were concerned
with parent preferences for the future of the program.
#8 and #9,
Questions
respectively, asked whether the parents planned to
have their HLIP child continue in the program next year, and
whether they would like to have a younger child (if any)
participate.
also
Question #13 asked how many years the parents want
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113
their HLIP child to be taught in Hawaiian prior to the
introduction of an English component during part of the school
day.
Table 10 reports the results of questions #8 and #9:
"Do
you plan to have your child continue in the Hawaiian Language
Immersion Program net year if it is offered?" and "If you have a
younger child, would you like to have that child participate in
the Hawaiian Language Immersion Program?"
Table 10
Keaukaha and Waiau Parental Intention to
Continue/Enroll Child in HLIP
desire HLIP child to
continue:
Keaukaha
yes
Waiau
desire younger child to
participate:
Keaukaha
Waiau
12
10
12
10
no
0
0
0
0
undecided
0
0
0
0
12
10
12
10
Totals:
In summary, Table 10 shows that all of the parents at Keaukaha
and at Waiau intend to have their HLIP child continue in the
program if it is offered next year, and would_ enroll another
child in the program if given the opportunity.
Of the parents at
both schools who offered additional (enthusiastic) comments,
several emphasized that they wanted their children to continue in
the program through the elementary school years.
two children in an HLIP classroom wrote,
One parent with
"I would never get
involved in anything that I could not see continuing."
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114
Another
wrote,
"This is only the beginning of what can be a very
successful and innovative program for Hawaiian people, culture,
and language."
Question #13 asked parents "How many years do you want your
child to be taught in Hawaiian before an English component is
introduced during part of the school day?"
Table 11 tabulates
the parental responses for this question.
Table 11
Introduction of English Component into HLIP: Parental
Preference for Grade Level
begin English
instruction:
Keaukaha
after Grade 3
8*
in Grade 3
3
in Grade 2
0
Waiau
7**
other
Totals:
12
*One parent wrote, "Hawaiian through elementary
school"; another, introduce English after
Grade 5; and another, introduce English after
Grade 6.
**One wrote after Grade 5; another, in Grade 6;
another, "as late as possible."
***This parent wrote, "in Grade 1."
****This parent wrote, "unable to judge."
In summary, responses to question #13 indicate that approximately
over 90% of the parents at Keaukaha and 80% of the HLIP parents
at Waiau prefer an English component to be introduced into the
school day no earlier than Grade 3.
Moreover, approximately 70%
of the HLIP parents at the two schools actually prefer English to
be introduced after third grade.
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115
These parent views are
in
keeping with the research literature on timing for introduction
of the mainstream language, and with the recommendation of this
report.
In another question on the evaluation form, parents were
asked whether they feel they know as much about language
immersion education as they would like.
Although about 60% of
the parents felt they know quite a lot about immersion education,
about 40% commented that they would like to learn more.
Parents' Assessment of HLIP: Strengths of the Program
Parents were asked at the parent meetings and on the parent
evaluation forms to assess the Hawaiian Language Immersion
Program.
On the evaluation form, question #10 asked, "What are
some of the things about the program that you like?"
Most
parents responded with multiple answers, both at the parent
meeting and on the form.
On the questionnaires, the majority of parents at both
schools
(75% at Keaukaha and 60% at Waiau)
curriculum and classroom organization.
cited issues of
Typical comments about
the strengths of the program were: the children are receiving the
same curriculum --especially, a strong emphasis on language arts
and mathematics
and learning the same skills as children in
English-medium classrooms; the emphasis on Hawaiian language
taught in a culturally relevant way;
and in comparison with
regular public school classrooms, the favorable student-teacher
ratio.
About 45% of the parents in both classrooms also cited the
quality of the teachers and support personnel as a strength of
the program.
They praised the teachers for being caring,
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116
enthusiastic, committed, and academically-oriented, and for the
personal attention they give to individual children.
One parent
said that she is very happy with "the desire of the teachers to
see each child really =ceed, not only in ability to speak
Hawaiian, but academically as well."
Another strergth of the program frequently mentioned was
strong parent and community involvement in the program.
Several
of the parents are now studying the Hawaiian language in order to
be able to converse with their HLIP children.
They are also
heavily involved in fund-raising and other activities for the
HLIP classrooms.
One parent commented,
"There is much more
parent involvement in the Hawaiian immersion class than in other
classess at the school."
Several parents emphasized their children's developing of a
positive self-concept and enthusiastic attitude toward school
since attending the HLIP class.
closeness among the children,
They praised the warmth and
thm: parents, and community.
one
parent summarized:
[I like] the atmosphere that is projected in the classroom.
My daughter loves going to school -- I hr e never had her
say "I hate school." It's always "Como
Mom,
I have to
go to my Hawaiian school." Also, I not
that the Hawaiian
"spirit" of life is being learned.
Basically learning to
love, share what you have, and helping others. It shows at
home as well as in the classroom.
,
Parents' Assessment of HLIP: Improvements Needed
Question #11 on the questionnaire asked, "What are some of
the things that you would like to see improved?" in the program.
Again, parents gave multiple answers on the forms and in the
parent meetings.
108
117
A large majority of the parents --75% at Wiau and 80% at
Waiau -- said that the greatecyt need in the program is
materials translated into Hawaiian.
for
Those mentioned by parents
include reading, writing, math, and science books; story books;
workbooks; culturally relevant curriculum materials;
teachers'
resource materials; posters and other visual aids.
Parents
expressed concern that materials are in such short supply that
the teachers are often translating one day ahead of the students,
and that (as a parent in one of the meetings expressed it) the
students are "running through things so fast they can't keep up
with" the children.
Another major concern of parents is with staffing.
Some 45%
of the parents at the two HLIP classes strongly felt that
additional teachers should be hired to continue the program at
higher grade levels, and that more teacher assistance is needed
in the classrooms.
They also argued that kindergarten and first
grade should be taught as separate classes
English-medium classrooms
-- as it
is
in
not combined into one room with
several different ability levels.
Parents were concerned that
Hawaiian language immersion classrooms be opened in other
communities, as well.
Transportation has been a great problem
for some parents and their children.
One father at Waiau, for
example, told of spending a major portion of each working day
transporting his child and several others from communities as far
away as Li'ie.
A parent at Keaukaha talked about driving into
Hilo from Volcano
(a 45-minute trip)
daughter could be in the HLIP class.
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118
each day so that her
Other areas of the program needing improvement, according to
the parents, are classroom space and support programs.
At
Keaukaha, parents were concerned that the HLIP classroom is very
small, crowded, and in the basement.
Similarly, at Waiau there
was some concern about the size of the classroom given that it
contains two grade levels.
Parents would appr^ciate Hawaiian-
medium extra-curricular programs for their HLIP children,
and
also langt. .ge classes for their families and siblings.
One frequently expressed concern was the lack of publicity
and information about the HLI program last fall prior to to the
beginning of the term.
A number of parents said that it was only
by chance that they saw the small newspaper article announcing
the program, and others that they would not have known except
that a friend who saw the article telephoned them.
They have
talked to parents who did not hear in time, and who expressed
frustration over not being able to enroll their child in the
program.
Parents urged that much more publicity and information
be made available so that parents wishing to enroll their
children will have time to complete the required paperwork (e.g.,
in district exception cases) and make plans i!or transportation.
Summary
Parent responses on the evalution form and to evaluator
questions at the parent meeting demonstrated their enthusiastic
support for the continuation of the Hawaiian Language Immersion
Program,
and their high level of satisfaction with it in the
first year.
The areas of the program parents felt should be
improved were the provision of more translated materials,
especially; greater assistance and support for the teachers; and
additional staffing to continue the program into the higher
elementary grades.
The area of the program with which parents were most pleased
was the academic curriculum of the two classrooms, with comments
that their children were learning the same skills expected for
kindergarten and first grade in English-medium classrooms, and at
the same time gaining fluency in the Hawaiian language.
The HLIP
teachers were praised as excellent, dedicated, "wonderful"
teachers who modelled "aloha" for the children.
The following
comments from two parents -- one at Keaukaha, one at Waiau -whose children knew no Hawaiian language on entering the program
last fall, summarize well the attitudes of parents to the
program:
1.
Mother of a kindergarten girl at Keaukaha:
I am a "new" mother to any kind of school setting, so
everything is new to me. I would like to see more promotion of programs like this one, especially since children's
heritage is an important part of their life. For them to
understand it at an early age will create a positive
attitude for the rest of their lives.
2.
Mother of a kindergarten boy at Waiau:
It is a real accomplishment [for my son] to have learned
how to speak the -Hawaiian language within this period of
time. Also to not only speak it,
but understand it when
someone is talking to him. This program is really the best
idea that the D.O.E. has ever come up with.
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120
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The Hawaiian Language Immersion Program has been successful
in its primary goal of developing students'
oral and written
language skills in the Hawaiian language.
This has been
done with no apparent loss of English oral language skills,
suggesting that with appropriate future program implementation,
immersion education is likely to produce students with strong
bilingual language facility in both Hawaiian and English.
Students have also been learning literacy skills, mathematics,
science, Hawaiian culture and music, and other curriculum content
through the medium of the Hawaiian language.
Parental support
and involvement in the program has been exceptionally high, and
provides a model for parent involvement in education.
The
principals and building level support for the program has been
very positive, with other students and teachers acknowledging and
expressing appreciation for the Hawaiian language skills
demonstrated by the participating students in school performances
and in everyday conversation.
The program has been of interest
to legislators, Board of Education members, other educators, and
the public, and demonstrates a renewed support for Hawaiian
language and culture in the State of Hawaii.
As with any new and innovative program in its first year of
implementation, there are many areas in need of development and
improvement.
The following recommendations are made regarding
tl's future program development and improvement of the Hawaiian
Language Immersion Program.
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121
6;.Ate Level Recommendations
1.
THE HAWAIIAN LANGUAGE IMMERSION PROGRAM SHOULD BE PLANNED AS
A PROGRAM THAT EXTENDS FROM KINDERGARTEN THROUGH GRADE SIX.
STUDENTS SHOULD CONTINUE IN TOTAL HAWAIIAN IMMERSION THROUGH
GRADE THREE WITH THE EXCEPTION THAT ENGLISH LITERACY
INSTRUCTION MIGHT BE INTRODUCED FOR 20 PERCENT OF THE SCHOOL
DAY IT GRADE THREE; IN GRADES FOUR THROUGH SIX, INSTRUCTION
SHOULD BE HALF DAY IN HAWAIIAN AND HALF DAY IN ENGLISH,
PROVIDED THROUGH A TEAM TEACHING ARRANGEMENT.
This recommendation is contingent upon the provision of
adequate
resources,
in
terms
teaching staff
of
and
materials, for implementing a high quality educational
program and upon students' continued progress in Hawaiian,
English and the content areas.
The goal of immersion education is to develop a high
level of fluency and competency in a second language,
in
this case Hawaiian, that will carry through to adulthood.
Research on early total immersion education suggests that in
general, total immersion, with the above exception, should
continue through grade three (Lapkin & Cummins,
Campbell,
1984).
The
English
and
second
1984;
language
achievement of students in "total" early immersion programs
compares very favorably or is superior to that of the
English-only students, but students in "partial" immersion
programs fare less well (Swain, 1984).
Introduction of formal English reading instruction too
early in an immersion program causes confusion.
It is
important that students develop a firm grasp of both oral
and written Hawaiian so that they will be able to maintain
113
122
and continue their development in Hawaiian when they begin
the transition to instruction in English.
Since the Hawaiian language presently
is the
first
language mainly of a small number of the grandparent
generation only, there is a supportable argument that total
immersion should continue beyond grade three.
For instance,
a comparable situation is Mohawk immersion program on the
mainland.
There, English is first introduced for a portion
of the school day in grade 4 (Holobow, Genesee, & Lambert,
1987).
Responses to a parent questionnaire indicated that
parents; overwhelmingly supported their child continuing in a
total immersion program at least through grade three.
Parents also expressed high concern regarding the need for
the program to continue into the 1988-89 school year so that
gains made during the first year would not be lost.
As a
result of this concern among parents and teachers, a summer
program for participating students has been planned.
Continuing evaluation of the academic quality of the
program,
student growth and development
in Hawaiian and
English, and principal, teacher and parents' attitucres
toward the timing of the transition process after grade two
is also advised in making this important decision.
2.
PROGRAM SHOULD BE EXTENDED
KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE ONE.
THE
TO NEW COHORTS
IN
We recommend that the program be extended to an
entering kindergarten class.
To insure an adequate number
114
123
of participants, we recommend that more effort is made in
advertising the availability of the program in advance
so
that parents of prospective incoming kindergarten students
can become informed about the advantages and disadvantages
of
immersion
education,
and
make
plans
transportation of their child to the program.
for
the
This means
that decision-making at the state level must occur early
enough to permit a reasonable recruitment effort.
Also the
state might consider providing transportation as this would
tend to increase enrollment.
One of the difficulties of the first year of the
program was the need for teachers to teach a combined
kindergarten and first-grade class containing some students
at each grade level who entered speaking Hawaiian and many
others who did not.
American teachers generally find that
combined classes are more difficult to teach.
In French
immersion programs, it was found that mixing French dominant
and English dominant students in the same classroom presents
a problem
in the early grades (Lapkin and Cummins, 1984).
On the other hand, mixing students who had reached a certain
level of fluency in Hawaiian in the Panana Leo preschool
with incoming students who were as yet non-speakers of
Hawaiian may have been one reason that the new students
gained the degree of fluency that they did during the first
year.
Other research on early immersion programs in Canada
indicates that many students do not attain fluency until the
second year (Lambert, 1984, p. 44).
115
124
That the program was as
successful as it has been is due to the efforts of the
teacher, the placement of extra personnel through the Kupuna
program into the classroom,
community volunteers.
and the work of parent and
Both teachers felt that the program
would be easier to implement if it served only kindergarten
students rather than a combined kindergarten and first-grade
class.
On the other hand,
it seams reasonable that some
students should be given the option of entering the
immersion program in grade one.
In fact, two of the higher
achievers in the first grade were students who had not
previously spoken Hawaiian.
Entering first-grade students
could be placed in either the kindergarten class or the
combined
first-second
grade
with
class,
special
accommodations made to meet their needs for acquiring
Hawaiian during their first few months in the program.
3.
A WHOLE LANGUAGE APPROACH SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AS A
CURRICULUM ALTERNATIVE FOR THE HAWAIIAN EARLY IMMERSION
PROGRAM.
Whole language as an integrated approach for teaching
reading, writing, listening and speaking through meaningful
language and activities is gaining prominence in American
education,
as indicated in the Curriculum Update of the
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development,
"Reading:
Whole Language Development,
Renewed Focus on
Literature Spurs Change" (Kline, June 1988).
According to
Lapkin and Cummins (1984), immersion education is based on a
natural language learning model where the new language (L2)
is learned in contextually rich settings, with topics that
are relevant and interesting to students, and in which
children are encouraged to interact conversationally with
the teacher and peers.
regular
English
The same content as that in the
program
is
taught
through
teaching
strategies used in the most successful kindergarten and
primary classes.
According to a Toronto of Education
document quoted in Lapkin and Cummins (1984, p. 62), a whole
language early immersion curriculum
is
based
on the
following principle:
This model involves considerable emphasis on oral
language and listening:
many opportunities for
children to experience real activities; to work
with concrete materials; to develop many ways of
self expression; to feel the support of teachers
in their independent learning efforts...
The learning activities are
related to the
children's level of development.
Information
collected through the teacher's observation of the
children in their learning efforts forms the basis
of further program development.
Ignauage Pparninq 1.6 lama gn real, experiences
g emphasis la gn whole units gt language that
are attached I2 real elmeriences.
This avoids an
emphasis on small bits of language and the study
of grammar as
a basis of language learning
(Toronto Board of
underlining added).
Education,
1981,
p.
7,
In a whole language model, oral and written language
are seen as interdependent and learned together
1988; Goodman, 1986).
(Kline,
Therefore, it is an encouraging sign
that the Hawaiian Early Immersion program has focused upon
developing children's literacy in Hawaiian as well as oral
language skills.
Developmental writing (invented writing
and spelling to express one's thoughts) and reading are also
seen as learned together.
The evaluation team observed an
increasing use of students' own writing in Hawaiian in the
program throughout the year.
4.
PROVISION OF A FULL RANGE OF TEXTBOOK, TRADEBOOK, AND OTHER
CURRICULUM MATERIALS TRANSLATED INTO HAWAIIAN IS NEEDED.
There is a great need for curriculum materials in
Hawaiian for the program.
The future achievement of the
children depends upon an adequate supply of printed material
in Hawaiian.
This includes textbook materials and a wide
range of storybooks and children's literature for use for
reading instruction and for voluntary reading.
Children
need to engage in a wide variety of voluntary storybook
reading during school hours and at home in order to develop
high level reading ability
Textbooks,
teacher's manuals,
(Anderson
al.,
et
and children's
1985).
literature,
even in English, were in short supply in the two classrooms.
Worksheets translated into Hawaiian were used, but this is
not
a
substitute for other materials.
Teachers and
volunteers were constantly translating materials on a dayto-day basis for use in the program. For example, teachers
translated library books, pasted the translations over the
English print, and then had to remove the translations
before returning the books to the library.
translations were prepared for basal
never received.
At one school
readers which were
Accol:ding to Lapkin and Cummins, "The
adaptation of existing materials and Cie creation of new
ones constitute perhaps the most problematic aspect of an
immersion program" (1984, p. 71).
In terms of the school
improvement literature,
Providing adequate resources and materials for
teachers to use in their classrooms is essential
if change is to become reality rather than
rhetoric.
These materials may be locally
developed or imported, so long as they are of high
quality and are supported by the people who use
them (Miller & Liberman, 1988, p. 11).
5.
INSERVICE TRAINING IN ELEMENTARY TEACHING METHODS,
ELEMENTARY CURRICULUM, AND BILINGUAL EDUCATION IS NEEDED FOR
TEACHERS AND AUXILIARY STAFF.
Teachers expressed a need for additional inservice
training, especially in language arts and mathematics
teaching methods.
At one school, the considerable inservice
which occurred was helpful in improving the program.
Inservice training is especially important in the program
because the teachers, some of whom are trained in secondary
education methods, are likely to be new and relatively
inexperienced.
Ongoing inservice training which includes
teachers in the planning process is important to insure a
high quality academic progrPn.
Much of this training can be
obtained from the various DOE inservice opportunities
currently available, but some should provide opportunities
for immersion education teachers to work together to share
ideas and develop the program.
Opportunities through
released time should also be made available for teachers to
visit model classrooms at their grade level.
important that other personnel,
119
It is also
such as Kupuna staff,
receive training in elementary teaching methods in language,
li'..eracy and the content areas.
6.
THERE IS A NEED FOR ADEQUATE BUDGETING AND PROVISION OF A
COORDINATOR FOR THE PROGRAM.
New and innovative programs engender high start-up
costs.
Immersion education, although believed to be less
expensive than other bilingual alternatives in the long run,
is no exception.
In order to produce a high quality
program, there needs to be a specific budget allocated so
that the start-up costs of developing the program can be
This includes adequate amounts
met.
translation services,
for materials,
additional staff needed
in the
classroom, and administration of the program.
It would greatly facilitate program development if a
coordinator who is bilingual in English and Hawaiian and
knowledgeable in elementary education could be appointed.
This will be an even greater need as additional cohorts are
added, and if the program changes location.
As a mainstream
program expected to be the same as regular district programs
except for the medium of instruction being Hawaiian, the
program
properly
placed
Instructional Services.
under
the
supervision
of
However, the provision of a
coordinator would facilitate communication among the
Instructional Services Department, the Hawaiian Studies
Department, and the Bilingual Education Department, as well
as among principals, teachers and parents in the program.
120
129
7.
THERE IS A NEED FOR RECOGNITION THAT THE HAWAIIAN EARLY
IMMERSION PROGRAM IS A BILINGUAL PROGRAM.
There needs to be clarification about the nature of the
immersion program and a recognition that the long range goal
of the program is to produce strong bilingual language
competencies
in
students.
As
a
bilingual education
approach, immersion education is unusually affective in
teaching a second language, with the assumption that
students will maintain and continue to develop their English
language proficiency skills as a result of their out-ofschool life.
According to the Canadian research (Lambert,
1984):
Immersion pupils are taken... to a level of
functional bilingualism that could not be
duplicated in any other fashion... Furthermore,
pupils arrive at that level of competence without
detriment
to
their
home
language
skill
development:
without falling behind in the allimportant content areas of the curriculum;
without any form of mental confusion or loss of
normal cognitive growth (p. 13).
While it is uncertain whether the immersion students'
English attainment will be equal to their non-immersion
peers during the first few years of the program, they are
expected to be equal to or superior to non-immersion
students in the fifth grade and beyond (Kendall,
1987; Swaine, 1984; Troike, 1981).
et al.,
Since the program rests
upon the assumption that the revival and maintenance of the
Hawaiian language is an important and valued goal, it goes
without saying that assessment and evaluation should occur
in the Hawaiian language, as well
121
130
as in English.
In
adCition
to
assessing
students'
Hawaiian
development, periodic monitoring of students'
language abilities should occur.
language
English
Careful planning and
supervision of the children's transition into English
language
classrooms
will
be
needed
in
the
future.
Furthermore, the DOE could explore the possibility of the
program receiving supplementary assistance, e.g.
inservice
training, under the Bilingual Education Department.
8.
LONG-RANGE PLANNING IS NEEDED FOR THE PROGRAM.
School personnel and parents expressed a need to be
able to plan ahead of time,
for more than the immediate
school year, what would be happening in the program.
Tentative long-range plans would be helpful in structuring
the decision-making process in the program, and clarifying
the intent of the administration regarding the program's
future.
An advisory council which includes parents of
participating students should be formed to aid in this
process.
9.
PROVISION OF INSERVICE TRAINING AND EXTRA STAFFING NEEDED
FOR THE PROGRAM.
There is a need for teachers who are proficient in
Hawaiian and knowledgeable in elementary teaching methods to
staff the program.
Since most of the pool of potential
teachers with superior Hawaiian language skills may have
been trained exclusively in secondary education methods, it
is
important that they receive additional on-the-job
inservice training in methods for interacting with young
122
children and teaching beginning literacy and mathematics.
The provision at each school of additional Kupuna time for
the immersion classrooms, through the Hawaiian Studies
program, has been very important in meeting the needs of
students at both grade levels.
was a young professional,
In both cases, the Kupuna
(a beginning teacher and a
teacher-in-training), rather than an elder, who was able to
interact with the children in Hawaiian.
The allocation of
additional staff to the immersion program should be
formalized to insure adequate individualized and small group
instruction to students in the program.
10.
PROVISION OF ACCESS ISLAND-WIDE
(O'AHU)
QUALIFIED SUBSTITUTE TEACHERS FOR THE PROGRAM.
TO A POOL OF
One of the unmet needs of the program is for qualified
bilingual substitute teachers.
Since these will be limited
in number, provisions need to be made so that these
substitutes can cross district boundaries.
11.
FUTURE EVALUATION AND RESEARCH FOR THE PROGRAM.
A longitudinal as well as an ongoing evaluation design
needs to lug put in place for the program.
This should
include continuing the formative and process evaluation to
support program development and provide a vehicle of
communication among various audiences and decision-making
groups.
It should also include the development of tests and
alternative assessment in Hawaiian to monitor students'
achievement in the content areas, oral language development,
and literacy.
123
132
The program provides a unique opportunity to study
and to
children's language learning in the classroom,
conduct research on the effect of immersion education.
While we have quoted much research from the literature on
Canadian immersion programs, research on immersion programs
States (Campbell, 1984, pp. 140-
elsewhere in the United
143), and other countries, such as the Maori immersion
Canada
programs in New Zealand and Mohawk immersion program in
would also be relevant.
Also, the language and social context of
unique and needs to be
the Hawaiian early immersion program is
studied as an entity in itself.
District Level Recommendations
12.
RECRUITMENT FOR THE PROGRAM.
This
should
be
done
through
advertising
the
availability of the program in advance, the previous spring
size for
for fall entry, to insure adequate class
implementing the program during the next year.
Building
principals throughout the district need to become informed
about the program so that they can assist interested parents
in gaining information and required district exception
permission for children to enroll in the program.
13.
EQUITY IN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR TrIE PROGRAM.
Instructiohal materials, teachers guides, classroom
English, should be
library books, and textbooks, even if in
English
equal to or above that allotted to the regular
classrooms at that grade level.
124
133
14.
SPACE FOR THE PROGRAM.
Space for program expansion is one of the needs of the
program,
and impacts upon program implementation and
planning.
15.
PROVISION OF ADDITIONAL TEACHERS/AUXILIARY STAFF FOR THE
PROGRAM.
As noted above, extra teaching support for the program
has been provided through the Kupuna program.
this
provision of extra teaching support is necessary for the
success of the program,
and should be formalized.
The
district should make a determination of the needs of
the program for additional staff through part-time teachers,
Kupuna staff, etc., to ensure a full range of curriculum for
the immersion students.
16.
MONITORING AND SUPERVISION OF THE PROGRAM.
The principals have been undertaking this function as a
normal part of their duties.
coordinator who
is bilingual
The addition of a program
in Hawaiian to provide
observational data on the program and to assist teachers in
program development would greatly enhance the supervision of
the program.
School Level Recommendations
17.
SUPPORT OF THE PRINCIPALS.
The principals have given the program a high degree of
support during its first year of implementation.
They are
the gain communication link between the program and new
parents interested in the program, and between the program
125
134
and the rest of the school.
Their continuing support is an
important part of the program.
18.
GRADE LEVEL ORGANIZATION OF THE PROGRAM.
Teachers and principals recommended that the combined
kindergarten,
first-grade class be kept together for the
following first-second grade year.
This is practical
because of the small group size of each grade level;
however, teaching
at
combined grade level places a heavier
burden on the teacher, necessitating extra help in the
classroom.
It also creates a situation where the quantity
of newly translated materials needs to be even greater than
it would be for one grade level, requiring extra assistance
for the teacher in providing translated materials.
It would
be helpful if future cohorts included enough students to
preclude the need to combine grade levels.
More effort in
advertising and recruitment of kindergarten students might
increase the enrollment; also provision of transportation
could increase enrollment.
19.
RELEASED TIME FOR TEACHER INSERVICE TRAINING AND FREE LUNCH
PERIOD FOR TEACHERS IN THE PROGRAM.
As mentioned above, it is important that teachers be
able to attend inservice meetings and observe in other
classrooms, both at their school and other district schools.
Therefore some provision should be made for released time
for the teachers.
In addition, auxiliary staff, preferably
someone who can speak Hawaiian if available, should be
provided to supervise the kindergarten immersion class
during lunch time and noon recess so that the teacher can
interact with other school staff.
After kindergarten,
students should be supervised according to the regular
programs with other students in the school,
since their
Hawaiian is expected to be established by that time.
20.
PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IS ESSENTIAL IN THE PROGRAM.
Parental involvement has been exemplary in the program,
and has been one factor in its success.
Parent meetings,
volunteer participation, parental support of children's
Hawaiian language learning and other academic development
has been good.
Some parents have attended Hawaiian language
classes to support their child's learning, while some others
are already fluent in Hawaiian.
Parent I
support of
children's English language development and voluntary
reading at home are also key factors in the success of the
program.
It
is
recommended that
a
strong parental
involvement component be continued for the program.
21.
COORDINATION AMONG PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS, TEACHERS, STUDENTS,
AND RESOURCES WITHIN THE SCHOOL.
The Hawaiian language immersion program has been seen
as a unique and important part of the school program.
At
this point it appears that the other students and teachers
at the two schools accept and support the program.
It is
important thy.. school unity and support be maintained for
the program so that teachers and students do not feel
isolated and set apart.
It is also important that the
immersion classes participate in the same extra programs and
12/
136
resources as are available to other students in the school,
even if these services are provided by personnel who speak
English.
Research
(Genishi,
1982))
and our observations
indicate that bilingual children are adept at changing
languages as needed depending upon the language of the
person with whom they are communicating.
Teachers estimated
that after January in the kindergarten or first year of the
immersion program,
it would not seriously affect the
student's acquisition of Hawaiian to receive services of
teaching specialists on a weekly basis, or less,
in such
areas as music, physical education, and computers.
22.
PROVISION OF A COMPUTER/WORD PROCESSOR FOR EACH CLASSROOM TO
EXPEDITE THE CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING MATERIALS IN HAWAIIAN
AND IN TRANSLATING EXISTING MATERIALS.
Teachers reported having to translate materials into
Hawaiian on a daily basis in order to provide the necessary
teaching materials for the program.
Provision of a word
processor would greatly facilitate this process, and aid in
storage of such materials.
In addition, the computer could
be used to create books from children's writings for and by
children in the W2 Ling process.
128
137
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140
Notes on the Evaluators
Helen B. Slaughter is Associate Professor in the Department of
Curriculum and Instruction, University of Hawai'i, Manoa. Before
joining the faculty in the College of Education in 1985, she was
Research Evaluator for the Tucson (AZ) Unified School District
for 14 years.
She has evaluated numerous Chapter 1 and other
innovative educational programs, preschool through grade 12.
She
was principal investigator for two National Institute of
Education Grants, one a study of the classroom implementation of
an activities-based mathematics program in eight schools, and the
other involved the development of large scale bilingual oral
language assessment procedures for determining the language
proficiency of Hispanic students.
At the University of Hawai'i
she teaches courses in reading, language arts, writing across the
curriculum and qualitative research methods.
Karen Ann Watson-Gegeo is Associate Professor in the Department
of English as a Second Language, University of hawai'i.
an
anthropologist and sociolinguist by training, for eight years she
taught
courses
in
ethnographic
methods,
research
sociolinguistics, and classroom discourse at the Graduate School
of Education, Harvard University. She has conducted research on
classroom discourse and children's language use in Hawai'i
(kindergarten and first-grade Hawaiian homestead children in a
rural school), the Mainland (multiethnic inner-city bilingual
children), and in the Solomon Islands, and served as consultant
for other research projects involving Spanish-English bilingual
classrooms.
She has several publications on first and second
language acquisition. At the University of Hawai'i, she teaches
courses on ethnographic research methods, bilingual education,
discourse analysis, and sociolinguistics.
Sam No'eau Warner,
is a Hawaiian Language instructor at the
University of Hawai'i and was a full time doctoral student in the
Department of Educational Psychology during the duration of the
evaluation research project. He was a co-founder of 'Aha Prinana
Leo, Inc. the non-profit organization which established the pa
Leo Hawaiian language total immersion schools for preschool-aged
children.
Theresa Haunani Bernardino, has been a Hawaiian Language
instructor at the University of Hawai'i and was a full time
master's student in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction
during the duration of the evaluation research project.
132
141
APPENDIX A
PROFICIENCY CRITERIA FOR THE LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY MEASURE
Proficiency Criteria Keys
IUNDERGARTEN
GRAMS 1
2
M
F
Conversados
1.
Clause Level
I or 2
clauses
Elab.
1 topic
Elab. more 1 topic
than 1
or 1.2
topic
2.
Complex
meanings
Relationships
None
3. Complex
Grammar
Relationships
None
4.
Contextual
Chan g. or Rarely
f
Sometimes
Sometimes
None
Information
S.
Rarely
clauses
Elab. more Elab. more
than 1
than I
topic
topic
sometimes
1 for 2
1' (or 2
isolated) isolated)
One
topic
Charm:. or
1 (or 2
isolated)
24 dif
24 dif
or more
I (or 2
One
or Charac. isolated), topic
Sometimes
Sometimes
or Charac.
1
Explanation
Yes
Yes
5a. Initiates,
Shifts,
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Pages
Sep.
Part
Nar.
Total
Nat.
Sometimes
Cherie. or
Changes Topic
NARRATIVE
6.
7.
IL
Narrative
Pages
Pales
Level
Sep.
Sep.
Complex
Meaning
Relationships
None
Rarely
Complex
Grammar
None
Total or
part Nar.
Charac. or Rarely
Sometimes
I for 3
I for 2
Sometimes
.
None
isolated) isolated)
24 dif
1 (or 2
isolated)
or more
Once or
Charac
Sometimes
wink:
Relationships
9.
Verb Tense
No
Yes
Yes
None
Variation
-.....
F *Functional
M = Modem ely proficient
P
Proficient
Source:
Slaughter, 1988 pp. 130, 141-143.
133
142
Proficiency Levels: DEFINITIONS
PROFICIENT (P): A proficient student is one whose speaking and listening pron.
dewy is equivalent to that of a native speaking monolingual or bilingual student of
his/her age. Proficient students can interact and elaborate on a variety of topics. The
term "native speaker" includes varieties of, and/or regional dialectal differences in,
the language acceptable in the home and school speech community for this age student.
MODERATE
A moderate student is one whose speaking and listening pron.
deny is equivalent to that of a native speakline monolingual or bilingual student in
nonacademic or informal situations. This student uses less elaborated discourse and
fewer strategies for clarification than the proficient student. If a student is proficient
in the home or native language and moderate in the second language, assessment of
cognitive functioning or other language involved skills may not be considered complete and/or completely valid if carried out only in the less proficient language.
FUNCTIONAL (F): A functionally proficient student is one whose speaking and listwins proficiency are equivalent to that of someone who is acquiring but has not yet
achieved proficiency in a second language. This student usually comprehends the
broad nature of spoken requests, but may miss nuances or complexity. His/her
speech may be characterized by hesitations, brief responses, elaborate responses that
are difficult to comprehend, and little variation (or irregular variation) in use of verb
tenses and sentence structures.
Applying the Criteria for Proficiency
The typal performance profiles for functional, moderate, and proficient levels are
given for each grade level grouping. Use the following procedure for determining
student expressive proficiency in each language:
1.
2.
3.
Listen carefully to the taped LPM Interview. Note examples for each category to
document level attained.
For each language, mark the level attained for each of the nine categories. Refer
to the manual as necessary.
Use the proficiency level key to determine the overall level reached by a student.
For each of the nine categories, compare the student's actual performance with
the levels on the key. On the lines given to the right of the marking area on the
student form, enter "P", "M", "F", etc. as appropriate for the level COM
sponding to the student's actual performance. For example, if a kindergarten
student "elaborates on more than one topic" (Category II: Clause level), enter
a P on the line to the right of the marking area, since on the rating guide, this
level of response falls in the "Proficient" profile.
If a third grade student uses I (or 2 isolated) vuunple(s) of complex grammar in the
conversation, an F is entered on the line for that category since that performance
level is part of the "Functional" profile.
This procedure is followed for each of the nine categories. When a level of performante is found in two different columns (P and M, for example), enter the letter for
the hisher proficiency level.
When this has been done for all nine categories in each language, so that a letter re
presenting a proficiency level is entered in each blank:
if 7 or more are P, the student receives an expressive proficiency rating of P
for that language
if fewer than 7 are.P, and more than 7 are M or P. the student receives a rating
of M. (the exception to this is when the evaluator believes that the student is
actually Functional. and needs further development in verb tense usage, pro-
noun usage, or specific vocabulary in order to be considered "M")
if fewer than 7 categories are P or M. and 6 or more are F. the student receives
an overall expressive rating of F.
to receive an expressive rating of L, the student must meet the minimum criteria of giving one and two words comprehensible responses in the conversa
tion, and labels or snapshots in the narrative.
34 1
43
APPENDIX A
STUDENTS' PRODUCTIVE HAWAIIAN VOCABULARY
RESPONSES TO SELECTED
PICTURES FOR THE PEABODY PICTURE VOCABULAR TEST
Pilot Study
Haunani Bernardino
Three students participated in the pilot
study to
investigate the feasibility of translating the PPVT-F, Form L,
into Hawaiian.
Two of the children, Keone and Ni 'ehu, were in
kindergarten and Kama Kani, was in first grade.
The examiner
said the page number and picture number for each item and asked
the students to say what it was.
The students' responses were
tape recorded and transcribed as seen on the following pages.
due to fatigue, the testing was stopped after the first 32 words
in the list for children ages 4.5 - 7.0 of age were surveyed. A
second set of three children were also surveyed but their
responses were not transcribed due to inadequate time for
assessment.
The transcriptions below provide evidence that the three
students surveyed were able to generate Hawaiian words for the
first 32 words in the word list for children 4-1/2 - 7 years of
age.
In addition, the transcripts provide useful information
about the words, phrases, sentence types, and situations the
children used to describe the survey items.
From an evaluator's
point of view as well as from a Hawaiian language point of view,
the students' choices reveal not only a familiarity with the
Peabody words, but also a level of proficiency in the Hawaiian
language for expressing ideas in a variety of ways.
The numbers
in the left column refer to the page number and the item's number
in the Peabody book.
We began with page 15 which marked the
beginning of the 4-1/2 year-old range. It is helpful to have the
pictures available when interpreting the students' responses.
135
144
p 15, #4
BANDAGE
Kamakani: Ua 'eha kiia wiwae wale no.
This foot is hurt.
Haunani: Ua 'eha, 'ae, a he aha hou a'e, 'o is wale no?
Hurt, yes, a what else, is that all?
Boys: 'Ae.
Yes.
Ni'ehu: 'A'ole, ka mea a pau.
No, (let's talk about) everything.
Kamakani: Nalala!
Dinosaur!
(He spotted this picture as we flipped
to the next page.)
p 16, #1
FEATHER
Kamakani: He hulu kili.
That's a feather.
Keone: He hulu kili.
That's a feather.
Mai ke kumu lilau.
From a tree.
Kamakani: ' A'ole, mai ka manu.
No, from a bird.
Keone: 'A'ole, mai ka um
No, from um...
Kamakani: Manu.
Bird.
Keone:
' A'ole, mai ka moa.
No, from a chicken.
Chicken bok, bok.
Chicken bok, bok.
Kamakani: Mai ka um, chicken bok,
From the um, chicken bok, bok.
Haunani: A '0 'oe e NA'ehu?
And what about you, Ni'ehu?
Ni'ehu: Chicken bok, bok.
Chicken bok, bok.
136
Haunani: ('Aka'aka)
Done?
Pau?
All: 'Ae.
Yes.
p 17, #3
EMPTY
Keone: Um, inu 'oe i ka wai mai ka um, kgia.
'Ewalu,
You drink water from um, this. Eight,
'ewalu 'o kgia, 'ewalu kgia.
there are 8 of these, there are 8 of these.
Ni'ehu: Inu wau ma loko o kali o ka milk a me ka wai.
I drink milk in that and water.
Keone: A me ka wai. Ka wai o ka wai...
And water. Water, water...
Kamakani: 'A'ole, ka waia o ka pipi.
No, cow's milk.
Ni'ehu: 'Ae, ka waia o ka pipi a me ka um, mea.
Yeah, cow's milk and um, the thing.
Haunani: Ka mea hea?
Which thing?
Nilehu: Um, a inu 'oe i ka wai.
Um, and you drink water.
Kamakani: Inu 'oe i ka waia o ka pipi?
You drink milk from the cow?
All: ('aka'aka).
(giggle).
Keone: Hiki n5!
Yes you can!
Kamakani: 'A'ole hiki.
Cannot.
Keone: 'Ae.
Yes, can.
Haunani: A pau, pau kgkou?
And done, are we done?
All: 'Ae.
Yes.
137
146
'A'ole hiki.
Can't do it.
p 18, #4
FENCE
All: He pi uea kiia.
This is a wire fence.
Haunani: 'El.
Huh?
All: He pi uea.
A wire fence.
Haunani: He pi uea?
A wire fence?
All: 'Ae, 'as, lae.
Yes, yes, yes.
Haunani: Pau?
Done?
All: 'Ae!
Yes!
Keone: Nini kiial
Look at this!
p 19, #2
(Evidently another picture.)
ACCIDENT
Kamakani: Era poloka kili kalaka i kekahi kalaka.
That truck was banged by another truck.
Keone: 'Ae, ua poloke ke kalaka
a'e i ke kalaka
One truck was banged by another truck.
a'e.
Haunani: (to Nilehu) Kou mana'o?
Your opinion?
Nilehu: 'As.
Yes, (I agree).
p 20, #2
NET-
Keone: He, a...
(You) go, umm...
Kamakani: 'Upena.
Net.
Net.
Keone: Hele 'oe, hele 'oe i ka, um, ua hele kikou i ka um,
You go, you go, um, we went um
lawai'a me ka 'upena a ki'l i ka...
fishing with the net and caught...
138
147
Ni'ehu: 'la!
Fish!
Keone: A ki'i i ka i'a, ki'i i ka manini.
And caught fish, caught manini.
(Manini is a very
common and tiny reef fish that's usually caught with
a throw net.
Because of its size it's often safe to
eat the bones. The net in this picture was a scoop
net, not a throw net, but Kala'i didn't seem to
mind.)
Ni'ehu: Null
Big kind!
Kamakani: Nui ka man5I
The shark is huge!
Keone: Manini.
(We caught) manini.
Haunani: Ho'omau.
Let's move on.
All: Sigh, getting tired or bored.
p 21, #4
TEARING
Kamakani: 0, ke hahae nei ka pepa i kekahi pepa.
Oh, the paper is tearing into pieces.
Haunani: 'Ei.
Huh?
Kamakani: Ke hahae 'ia nei ka pepa i kekahi pepa.
The paper is being torn into pieces.
Haunani: (to Ni'ehu) Hiki is 'oe ke 'ike?
Can you see (the picture)?
Ni'ehu: 'Ae.
Yes.
Keone: 0, pipi kauO! Pipi kau5.
Oh, an ox! An ox.
(Evidently from another picture.)
Nani kiia, nani kiia.
This is neat, this is neat.
Kamakani: Nani kiia.
This is neat.
Haunani: 'Ao'ao hou?
Next page?
139
148
p 22, #1
SAIL
Keone: A, hele kakou e lawai'a i ni 15 a pau.
Umm, we go fishing every day.
Kamakani: Ma loko o ka moku.
In a boat.
Keone: 'Ae.
Yes.
Pau.
Done.
Haunani: 10 ia wale no?
That's it?
Keone: 'Ae.
Yes.
NE'ehu:
No.
Haunani: 'A'ohe '31elo hou a'e?
There's nothing else to add?
NS'ehu: 'Ae, makemake e hana hou.
Yes, (I) want to continue.
Keone: 'A'ole.
No.
Haunani: 'Ae, hiki n3.
Alright, okay, (we'll move on).
r' 23, #2
MEASURING
Keone: 0, ke ana nei 'o ia 'ehia ona maugo paona.
Oh, he's measuring how many pounds he weighs.
Kamakani: 'Ehia ona paona.
How many pounds he weighs.
Keone out.)
Keone: 'Ae, 'ehia ona paona.
Yes, how many pounds we weighs.
Kamakani: Ho'okahi ona paona.
He weighs one pound.
Keane: 'Ae.
Yes.
Haunani: N5sehu?
What about you, N5'ehu?
140
149
(Seems to be helping
Ni'ehu: Ho'okahi ona paona 'o ia.
He weighs one pound.
Kamakani:
No.
Keone: Ho'okahi haneli paona.
100 pounds.
Kamakani:
No.
Ni'ehu: Hundred paona.
100 pounds.
Kamakani: Iwakilua wale no paona.
Just 20 pourds.
p 24, #3
PEELING
Keone: Ua 'ai kikou i ka mea 'ono me ka
We ate dessert and apples.
Haunani:
aha kina hana?
What's he doing?
Kamakani: Wehe ana 'o ia i ka
o ka 'ipala.
He's removing the skin of the apple.
p 25, #1
CAGE
Kamakani: He halal
That's a
building
picture,
he hale pa'ahao kili.
jail.
(Literally, the expression means
secured with iron bars. For this
the expression fits.)
Keone: Hale pa'ahao. 0, no ka a... he aha ka...
Jail.
Oh, for a
what's the...
Ni'ehu: Cage, no ke keko.
Cage, for monkeys.
Keone:
'a'ole, a no ka, um, papaliflapaki, lipaki.
A, no, for a, um, rab, rabbits, rabbits!
Haunani: No ka lipaki.
For rabbits.
All: Giggle in glee.
141
150
p 26, #4
TOOL
Kamakani: 0, a, um, holoponopono 'oe i ka a, um...
Oh, a, um, you fix the a, um
Ni'ehu: Kalaka.
Trucks.
Haunani: Re kalaka?
Trucks?
Keone: 'As, no, me ka tools. Okay, pau.
Yes, for, using tools. Okay, finished.
this testing already.)
(Let's stop
Haunani:
No.
p 27, #4
SQUARE
Kamakani: He hiika kili.
That's a star.
Keone: He, um, huinahi kili.
That's, um, a square.
Kamakani: He huinahi li'ili'i.
A small square.
Ni'ehu: 'As, huinahi. Pripripri.
Yes, a square. Prlprlprlt
'Ekahi, lua, kolu...
1, 2, 3,...
Kamakani: (pointing to another picture)
Hey, what's that?
like, he oho kali?
He missile, makemake wau i kill.
It's a missile, I like it.
Haunani: Ma hea?
Where?
Kamakani: Lele kiia..?..
It shoots up
Keone: Bombs.
p 28, #1
STRETCHING
Keone: 01 a, ala wau i ke kakahiaka.
Oh, I get up in the morning.
Haunani: 'ES.
Huh?
142
151
Kamakani: Re ala nei wau i ke kakahiaka.
I'm getting up in the morning.
Haunani: '0 ia wale no?
Is that all (you want to say)?
All: 'Ae, 'ae, 'ae.
Yes, yes, yes.
p 29, #2
(Let's get on with it.)
ARROW
Boys: 00, ou, he puapua kill.
Keone: He puapua no ka, um, ki pa i ka holoholona, he pua.
That's an arrow for, um, shooting animals, it's an
arrow.
(Keone used an expression associated with
guns and rifles. Literally it means, to fire a gun.
Maybe that's why he reiterated the fact that the
object was an arrow.)
Kamakani:
Yes, (that's what it is).
Haunani: '0 ia?
Is that right?
All: 'Ae.
Yes.
Nisehu: 'Ae, pau ka, pau, pau, pau.
Yes, no finish, finish, finish, finish.
they were tired, but I pushed further.
p 30, #2
(I knew
TYING
Keone: 0, komo nei 'o ia i kona
Oh, she/he's putting on her/his
Boys: Kimea.
Shoes.
Haunani: Hiki n8.
'0 ia wale no?
Fine.
Is that it?
Nitehu:
'A'ole.
No.
Haunani: O.
Oh.
Keone: Hele ana 'o ia holoholo, holoholo. U, kEia 'ao'ao,
She's/he's going out, out. 0, let this page
143
152
lava, lava, lava, lava.
be the last.
(Let's stop already.)
p 31, #1
NEST
Keone: 0, he manu nest.
Oh, it's a nest bird.
Ni'ehu: Pananal
Nest!
Keone: Panana no ka manu.
Nest for birds.
He rephrased his answer,
probably because the first one had been awkwardly
stated.)
Kamakani: 'Ae.
Right.
Ni'ehu: Panana.
Nest.
p 32, #2
ENVELOPE
Kamakani: He leka kili.
That a letter.
Keone: He leka no ka hilawi i kekahi mau keiki o kekahi mau
That's a letter to give to some children or some
keiki
a'e.
other children.
Haunani: E Ni'ehu?
Your ideas, Nilehu?
Ni'ehu: 'Ae.
I agree.
p 33, #3
HOOK
Kamakani: 0, kini, kini he mea no ke ki'i i ka i'a.
Oh, that, that's the thing you catch fish with.
Keone: 'Ae, ki'i i ka i'a.
Yup, to catch fish.
Kamakani: Kekahi i'a.
Some fish.
Ni'ehu: '0 kiia kekahi.
(Pointing to fishing reel.)
This too.
(You catch fish with this too.)
144
153
Haunani: Pololei 'oe e Mehana.
You're right, Mehana.
p 34, #4
PASTING
Keone: 0, ke um tuko nei 'o is i kekahi mau pepa ma luna o
Oh, he's um, pasting some papers onto
ka um, puke.
the book.
Kamakani: Pepa '5 a'e.
Another paper.
Keone: Puke.
Book.
Quiet moment.
Haunani: Lawa?
Is that it?
NE'ehu: 'Ae...
Yes.
(Long and drawn out.)
Boys: 'A'ole, 'a'ole.
No, not yet.
NE'ehu: 'Ae, 'ae, 'ae.
Yes, yes, yes.
Kamakani: Makemake e ninE i ka nalala.
(We) want to look at the dinosaurs.
Ni'ehu: (Pleading to stop already.) 'Ae, 'ae.
Yes, yes.
Haunani: '0, 00, 'o, 'o.
Oh, I see.
p 35, #1
PATTING
Keone: 0, ke pet nei ka um, kaikamahine i ka um, 'M.o.
Oh, the girl um, is petting um, the dog.
Kamakani: Uuu!
Ooo!
NinE i keia! NinE i kiia!
Look at this! Looke at this!
Hemo k5lE pipale
Look at this! She's/he's loosing her/his hat.
Keone: Nang i kiia. Nani i
Look at this!
Look at this!
145
154
Haunani: He ? uila kili.
That's an electric ..?.. (I can't make out what I
said on the tape; I probably could if I had the
picture book with me. Ah, my fault for not getting
it back from Helen.)
p 36, #1
PENGUIN
Kamakani: 0, ke, penguin kili.
Oh, that's a penguin.
Keone: He pet penguin.
It's a pe, penguin.
NS'ehu: Penguin, win, win, win, win.
Penguin, win, win, win, win.
(She's rhyming.)
Haunani: Kameiina 'oukou i kaia penguin?
You know about penguins?
Ni'ehu: Guin, win, win, win, win.
(More rhyming.)
Keone: 'Ae.
Yes.
Haunani: Ma hea ana 'oe e 'ike ai i kiia holoholona?
Where would you see this animal?
Keone: Um, ma ka 'iina hau.
Um, in cold territory.
Ni'ehu: 'Ae, ma ka...
Yeah, in...
Keone: Uu, nini i afar nini i blial
0o, look at this, look at this!
Haunani: He lio kiwi kali.
(They were looking at a
You call that a lio kiwi.
unicorn. Literally, the expression means horse
with horns.)
Kamakani: Lio kiwi.
Repeats word after Haunani.
p 37, #2
SEWING
Keone: 0, a, ke um,
Oh, a, um,
Keone and Nilehu: sewing nei 'o is i ka pants.
She's sewing/mending the pants.
146
155
Kamakani: He patch no 'o ia.
It's a patch.
p 38, #1
DELIVERING
Keone: 0, hi'awi nei ka lawe leka i ka um,
Oh, the mail person is giving um,
Ni'ehu: I ka nalala.
The dinosaur.
Keone: I ka makana is ia.
The present to her.
Haunani: Kamakani, 'a'ole 'oe i 'Biel°.
Kamakani, you haven't spoken.
Kamakani: Likelike.
(My answer's the) same.
Haunani: A, likelike.
Oh, I see, the same.
p 39, #2
DIVING
Kamakani: Ke 'au'au nei '0 ia.
She's swimming.
Haunani: 'Es.
Huh?
Keone: Ke 'au'au nei ka wahine i loko o ka, um,
The woman is diving into the,
Kamakani: Kai.
Ocean.
Keone:
i loko o ka pool.
No, into the pool
Ni'ehu: 'A'ole.
Huh, uh, no way.
Keone: Aha ani.
Yes she is.
Ni'ehu: Ni kai!
The ocean!
Kamakani: 'A'ole, pool!
No, the pool!
147
p 40, #3
All:
PARACHUTE
(Sigh, they're tired.) Aug.
Shucks.
Keone: U, 'ae, ki'i 'ekolu, hele i luna.
0o, yeah, picture * 3, it's going up.
Kamakani: He makana kini.
That's a present.
Keone: He makana no ka, a, po'e maika'i.
It's a present for, a, people who are good.
Haunani: A he aha keia?
And what's this?
Ni'ehu: Parachute.
Parachute.
Keone: Parachute.
Parachute.
p 41, #4
FURRY
Kamakani: U, he Opoki kill.
00, that's a cat.
Keone: E, hiki ka papoki e holo me ka 'iwIwI, e ki'i i ka
Hey, cats can run fast and catch
dogs.
Kamakani: '0 ka piSpoki ko'u holoholona punahele.
Cats are my favorite animals. I have
Ho'okahi
ko'u mau holoholonal. ?
I have ..?.. (Haunani couldn't understand the
rest.)
Haunani: '0 ka papoki?
Cats?
p 42, #4
VEGETABLE
Kamakani: He kiloke kela.
'Ai kikou i ke kiloke.
That's a carrot. We eat carrots.
Keone: He kiloke no ka, ka,
Carrots are for, for,
148
157
Ni'ehu: POpoki, poki.
Cats, cats.
Keone: Lipaki, lipaki.
Rabbits, rabbits.
p 43, #3
SHOULDER
Kamakani: He po'ohiwi kili.
That's a shoulder.
Keone: Po'ohiwi.
Shoulder.
Haunani: '0 is wale no?
That's it?
(I had become used to their extended
responses.)
p 44, #2
DRIPPING
Kamakani: He wai
That's water.
Keone: He wai no ka holoi i kou lima, lima.
Water for washing your hands, hands.
Ni'ehu:
'Ehia koe kiia?
How many more do we have yet to do?
exhausted by now.)
(She was quite
Haunani: 'A'ole maopopo.
I don't know.
Kamakani: Pono mikou e ho'i t ka um, papa.
We have to get back to class.
Kokoke pau ka papa.
Class is almost over.
toward the door.)
(Walked away from the table
Haunani: Kokoke pau. A, ma 'ane'i.
(We're) almost done.
Come back.
Kamakani: Pau. Pau.
Finished already.
Haunani: He aha keia?
What is this?
the picture.)
Finished.
(Directing Keone to the faucet in
Keone: (to loiwi) Um, wait. No ka holoi i kou lima.
Um, wait.
For washing your hands.
149
158
(Hurriedly) Okay pau.
Okay, finished.
Haunani:
kokoke pau.
No, almost finished.
All: Sigh, moan.
Keone: Wai
wai - wai.
Water - water - water.
Haunani: 'Eliza, 'eon() koe, pau.
'A'ole, iwakilua koe, pau.
There are 5, 6 more left then pau. No, 20 left
then pau.
(They were letting me know that enough
was enough.)
Kamakani: Iwakilua?
(Expasperated) 20?
Haunani: A, aia ma hea kikou?
A, where are we?
All: Sigh, groan, rock chairs.
p 45, #4
CLAW
Keone: He um, he manu waae.
It's um, it's a foot bird.
Keone: I give up!
(NE'ehu had been rocking her chair for a
while now. I felt sorry for them; they were very,
very tired. It was only a matter of time before I
had a mutiny or worse on my hands!)
p 46, #3
DECORATED
Keone: He mea no ka home no ke kuki.
It's a home for cookies.
150
159
APPENDIX C
ANALYSIS OF A SAMPLE OF CHILDREN'S WRITING.'IN HAWAIIAN
Haunani Bernardino
Waiau Picture Stories from Language Arts Lesson 211 5/18/88
As part of the Keiki Hiwahiwa lesson on 5/18/88, students
wrote p:izture stories about Kawai, the child they were honoring
that day.
Of the 16 that were obtained, 7 were selected for
analysis and incorporation into the appendix of the evaluation
report, 3 from Kindergarten and 4 from Grade 1. The authors are:
Kalohu, Nimaka, Niipo, Kahele, Kamanu, Kamaile, and Kealoha. The
criteria for selecting these authors were as follows:
1)
representativeness of the range in writing development within
the class:
2)
variety among the pictures and their full use of space;
3)
combination of action stories with those that are more
passive descriptive.
In all cases the pieces reflect he author's engagement with
the subject(s) and the stories match the pictures and vice versa.
The pieces show and talk about action as well as feelings. They
evidence the presence of a true voice and a sense for the reading
audience.
Although most of the sentences are simple and short,
they nevertheless are good and grammatically correct.
They flow
logically one to the other and form cohesive stories with
appropriate endings.
The majority of the stories are written in
the third person about Kawai; sometimes they include other
children as well.
A few stories are in the first person.
Regarding conventional writing, among the kindergarteners
there is a fair amount of invented spelling and experimentation
with the placement of letters, either in relationship to each
other or with respect to the picture.
This is more true of the
non-PUnana graduates.
The Punana graduates, on the other hand,
have a more developed awareness for conventional writing and
don't seem to have problems forming their letters.
As for the first graders, both the PUnana graduates and the
non-PEnana children show proficiency with conventional writing.
There are minor errors most of which are spelling errors and
which can be resolved in time; for example, glottal before the
subject marker (o => 'o), macron over the object marker for
proper nouns (ia => ii), and word separation (ame => a me).
151
160
NA'OHU Kindergarten, PL:
Picture: Rainbow and shining sun, 4 friendly dinosaurs playing
with 4 children.
1
Ua pa'ani
2
wau me KaNale
3
me Kawai a me ka
-4
nalala
CONVENTIONAL WRITING AND ENGLISH TRANSLATION:
1
Ua pi'ani
I played
2
wau me Kanale
with Kanale
3
me Kawai a me ka
and Kawai and the
dinosaur.
OBSERVER'S COMMENT:
a.
This is a complete and grammatically correct sentence.
b.
Keohu observes proper spacing between words.
c.
He begins sentence with a capital letter, but he doesn't
end sentence with a period.
d.
Easohu shows awareness for space by not letting his words
run into his picture.
e.
Requires macron:
- Line 1: pa'ani 112> pl'ani
152
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Picture: Rainbow, clear da; two rugged outdoor vehicles
approaching the slope of a mountain or hill.
1
pilani
2
aumakanale
3
a menu
4
ke is ka'a
5
hemauka'akei
6
Labels:
a
Kawai
Kekai
CONVENTIONAL WRITING AND ENGLISH TRANSLATION:
1
Pilani
I play
2
au ma Kekai
with Kekai
3
a me a' u.
and me.
nia ka'a
These car(s)
5
he mau ka'a kiia.
These are cars.
6
Labels:
4
.
Kawai
Kekai
OBSERVER'S COMMENT:
a.
There may be 3 separate sentences here:
I play with Kekai.
Kekai plays with me.
These are cars.
b.
This author pays a lot of attention to detail in this
picture.
c.
The author is also aware of the restrictions of space as
well as the importance of not covering up the picture, which
is probably why the a of kiia is on the other side of the
car's top.
d.
While the author has yet to develop spaces between words and
other spelling conventions, sentence structure is intact
and correct.
154
163
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iAIPO Kindergarten:
Picture: Blue sky, 2 tall apple trees, two smiling children next
to a house.
nip odicksoN
Name at top:
1
ha niaiKw
2
kpimau
ONVENTIOUL WRITING An ENGLISH TRANSLATION:
1
Pa'ani nei au (me) Kawai.
I'm playing with Kawai.
2
Ke pi'ani nei miva.
We're playing together.
4
OBSERVER'S COMMENT:
a.
Picture is full of color and detail; it shows two friends
together.
b.
The accompanying narrative confirms the friendliness shared
by these friends.
c.
Invented spelling shows awareness for consonants and words
parts.
d.
Ex: ha for pa'ani; ni for nai; la for Kawai.
It's difficult to tell if Niipo differentiates between
capital and lower case letters.
At this point he begins and
ends his name with capital letters.
Also, he secms to be
experimenting with the spacing of his name.
e.
Niipo Alas-good control over the pencil and writes very
legibly and clearly.
f.
Has yet to develop a sense for the glottal and macron,
capitalization, punctuation, and spacing between words.
156
165
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Picture: Happy sun wearing sunglasses, puffy clouds; three boys
on the beach: Kahele and Kawai; sandcrab also on the beach; 3rd
boy, Kekai, is in the ocean.
1
make make au ia Kawai.
2
maika'i o Kawai.
3
'o au kou hualoha.
4
ALoha au ia oe.
5
'o 'oe Ke Keiki Hiwahiwa.
CONVENTIONAL WRITING AHD ENGLISH TRANSLATION:
1
Makemake au is Kawai.
I like Kawai.
2
Maika'i 'o Kawai.
Kawai is okay.
3
'0 au kou hoaaloha.
I'm your friend.
4
Aloha au is 'oe.
I love you.
5
10 'oe Ke Keiki Hiwahiwa.
You're the Child of Honor.
OBSERVER'S
a.
Kahele has written a very nice story, a story in praise of
his friend, Kawai.
Kahele is very direct and bold in
announcing his feelings and relationship with Kawai, and he
concludes by congratulating Kalae for being the Keiki
Hiwahiwa.
b.
Like the other children, Kahele uses simple and
straightforward sentences.
Also like the other first
graders, Kahele writes in complete and grammatically
correct sentences.
What distinguishes his writing from soma.
of the other writers, however, is that while his picture
depicts a lot of action, his narrative doesn't.
15f 67
Instead,
Kahele focuses more on the fact that he and Kawai are good
friends.
c.
.
Kahele observes proper spacing between words, except for
one instance in line 1: make make => makemake.
d.
Kahele begins most sentences in the lower case, but
periods are present at the end of all sentences.
e.
Requires glottal:
- Line 2: o Kawai => ,o Kawai
f.
Requires macron:
- Line 1: ia Kawai => is Kawai
f.
Requires macron and glottal:
- Line 4: ia oe => is 'oe
159
168
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KAMANU Gr 1, PL:
Picture: Huge tree supporting child on a swing; green grass;
rainbow, hearts, a blue cloud, 2 butterflies, a bright sun.
1
Kiia o Kawai
2
Re kau nei
3
o Kawai
4
maluna o
5
ka pawl
6
Ke Wane nei o
7
Kawai i Ka Anuenue
8
ame i Ka pulelehua
9
ame ka haka
10
maika'i o Kawai
CONVENTIONAL WRITING AND ENGLISH TRANSLATION:
This is Kawai.
1
Kaia 'o Kawai.
2
Ke kau nei
3
'co Kawai
4
ma luna o
on
5
ka paeO.
the swing.
6
Re nini nei 'o
Kawai is looking
7
Kawai i ka anuenue
at the rainbow
8
a me/i ka pulelehua
and the butterfly
9
a me ka haka.
and the heart.
10
Maika'i 'o Kawai.
Kawai is doing well.
j
Kawai is sitting
OBSERVERJ_S COMMENT:
a.
Kawai occupies the center of this picture and all four
sentences indicate a happy, cheerful Kawai.
162
171
b.
Kamanu's thoughts are very complete and her sentences on the
whole are grammatically correct.
c.
For the most part she observes proper spacing between words.
Exceptions are:
-Line 4: maluna o => ma luna o
-Lines 8, 9: ame => a me
These expressions tend to be problematic for adult learners.
It's not unusual that Hawaiian requires 2-3 word expressions
to correspond with one English expression.
As a result
adult learners sometimes think of the words as single
expressions and write them as such.
Examples of this
practice can be found throughout the Hawaiian Bible and
other old publications.
It wasn't until recent times,
1970's, that a concerted attempt was made by Hawaiian
language teachers to standardize the spelling of these
expressions.
Perhaps Kamanu also thinks of ma luna and a me
as single items.
d.
From a sentence structure point of view, Line 1 is somewhat
incomplete and should have a subject marker, (that is, kiia
o Kawai => '0 kiia ,o Kawai).
complete.
The thought is nevertheless
This form is typically found in informal
conversations where speakers frequently omit the subject
marker.
However, this practice is not typically found in
expository writing.
e.
Requires glottal:
-Lines 1, 3, 6, 10: o Kalae => 'o Kalae
163
172
f.
Requires macron:
-Line 7:
Anuenue a> inuenue
164
173
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A
IszoLuE Gr 1:
Picture: Puffy clouds, rainbow; large tree with .,red fruit, grass; 2
children playing together, 2 red hearts.
1
Kiia 'o Kawai
2
Kau
3
ame
4
Kamaile
5
e Hele ana
6
KaKou ika
7
hula
8
Ke nani nei ol
9
Kawai i Ka hula
10
Ka nana nei a u i Ka hula
11
Ke nina nei o Ka
12
Kawai i ka anuenue
13
a me ka haka nani!
14
loa'a is kikou kekahi PePe i loKo i Ka
15
hale me ko'u u u ame ko'u u u Rani i keia
16
kikou i ka hale
17
ko'u u u ame ko'u u u Rani
18
hiamoe KiKou pa ame ko'u PePe
19
me KiKou a Pau!
20
AloHa KiKriu a Pau!
AloHa au ia 'oe e
21
AloHa au ia Kawai
Kamaile
ua ike kikou i
ua
CONVENTIONAL WRITING Al ENGLISH TRANSLATION:
1
'0 kgia so Kawai.
This is Kawai.
2
Kau
(He's) Sitting
1 6 7
176
ua hele mai
3
a me
With
4
Kamaile.
Kamaile.
5
E Hele ana
We're going
6
Kikou i ka
to the
7
hula.
hula.
8
Ke ning nei 'o
Kawai is watching
9
Kawai i ka hula.
the hula.
10
Re nini nei au i ka hula.
I'm watching the hula.
11
Re nini nei 'co Ka
Kai Kawai is looking
12
Kawai i ka anuenue
at the rainbow
13
a me ka haka nanil
and the pretty heart!
14
Loa's is kikou kekahi pgpg i loko i ka
We have a baby in
15
hale me ko'u Tutu a me ko'u Tutu Rine i kgia li!
my Grandma's and Grandpa's house today. We came
16
kikou i ka hale.
home. We saw
17
ko'u Tutu a me ko'u Tutu Kane.
my Grandma and Grandpa.
18
hiamoe kikou pa a me ko'u pgpg
My baby and I slept together
19
me kikou a paul
all of us together!
20
Aloha kakou a pau! Aloha au is 'oe e
Aloha to all of us! Aloha to you,
Ua 'ike kikou i
Ua
168
177
Ua hele mai
21
Aloha au is Kawai. Kamaile.
I love Kawai. Kamaile.
OBSERVER'S COMMENT:
a.
On the first page is a story about Kawai and Kamaile sitting
together (from the other children's picture stories I gather
one is on a swing).
Evidently they're going to a hula show.
This story continues to the next page where both children
are watching the hula and Kawai is looking up at the rainbow
and pretty heart.
Kamaile then shifts and writes about a baby coming to
her grandparents' house.
(Might this be a new baby to the
family?) Kamaile tells about how they all sleep together, she
and the baby (for sure), and perhaps others (difficult to
tell though).
She concludes with a good-bye to everyone and
a good-bye to Kawai.
Then she signs off with her name.
It
seems that Kamaile was addressing her second story to Kawai
in a the form of a letter.
She has a definite sense for her
reading audience.
b.
Kamaile.seems to have a clear idea about the separateness of
her two stories.
This is evidenced by the horizontal line
between the texts.
fluid.
At the same time, her writing is quite
She doesn't seem to stumble over words, nor does she
seem to let the numbers in the left margin disturb the flow
of her sentences.
c.
Kamaile seems to use Kikou ("we" 3 or more, inclusive) for
several purposes:
-"we" 2, exclusive;
169
178
-"we" 3 or more, inclusive;
-"we" 3 or more, exclusive.
d.
Her sentences are grammatically well constructed and reflect
an ease with the language.
Only on 3 occasions does she
err, but these are relatively minor and will be overcome in
time:
-Line 3: ame -> a me
(word separation)
-Line 12: ka anuenue => ke anuenue (using correct article)
-Line 14: i loko i a> i loko o (using correct preposition)
e.
With the exception of the exclamation point, Kamaile doesn't
use punctuation to end her sentences.
However, she does
indicate the beginning of a new sentence either by
capitalizing the first letter (Lines 8, 20, 21) or by
creating space between the sentences (Lines 5, 8, 14, 15, 16).
f.
Kamaile has not quite learned to write her p's below the line
and she curls her t's on the left.
g.
It's difficult to tell if she's writing an upper or lower
case "k."
170
179
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181
BEST COPY AVAILABLE
KEALOHA Gr 1, PL:
swimming in the blue
Picture: Happy sun, nice blue clouds; Kawai
ocean; yellow beach in the foreground. Stars surrounding
Realoha's name.
1
'Au'au pono 1,0 Kawai.
2
A pole kona lole a me ke
3
kai.
4
Melemele kona kama'a a me
5
ke one.
6
Makemake 'o Kawai e 'au'au.
7
Hau'oli 'o Kawai.
(Signed) Kealoha
CONVENTIONAL WRITING AND ENGLISH TRANSLATION:
1
' Au'au pono '0 Kawai.
Kawai swims well.
2
A pole kona lole a me ke
And his shirt is blue and so is the
3
kai.
ocean.
4
Melemele kona kima A a me
His shoes are yellow and so is
5
ke one. Hau'oli 'o Kawai.
the sand. Kawai is happy.
6
Makemake lo Kawai e ' au'au.
Kawai wants to swim.
7
(Signed) Kealoha
OBSERVER COMMENT:
a.
lnhais story is well developed and cohesive.
She first
announces her subject, Kawai, complimenting him on his
swimming ability.
Then she describes the color of his
and
clothing and shoes, noting how they match the ocean
173
182
sand.
Next she describes his affect, saying that Kawai is
happy. Finally she concludes with the statement that he
wants to swim.
b.
That Kawai uses the conjunction, a (and), in Line 2 to link
her sentences together indicates an awareness for
connectedness within a story.
c.
In terms of observing spelling conventions, Kawai is the most
advanced of all the writers.
and in straight lines.
Her letters are well formed
She appears to use a straightedge as
a guide. She has a definite sense for spacing, both between
words as well as sentences.
Her sentences begin with
capital letters and she ends them with periods.
She
includes all of the glottals and only misses one macron:
kamala m> kima'a.
174
183
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APPENDIX D
NARRATIVE PROFILE OF STUDENT LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY
4
Overall or Final Analysis/lateepretadon
Narrative Profile of Student Lingua*. Proficiency
After listening to the entire elicitation in one language, both the Interactive Die.
course of Global Topics and the Student Rendition of the Wordless Book, the analyst
writes a short narrative statement about the child's performance on each task leading
to describing the student's proficiency. Select relevant topics from the following
series of questions in writing this short analysis (adding additional concerns or topics
as they arise in the data):
1.
Is there mutual development of topics between
examiner and student?
Yes
2.
Does the child build on topics suggested by the
Yes
examiner or simply give elixirsl and/or one.
No
---
No
word responses?
3.
Did the student initiate and develop new topics
during the discourse? How did this happen?
Yes
No
4.
Did the student attempt to change the topic
during the discourse? How was this negotiated?
Yes
No
S.
Is there evidence of misunderstanding between
examiner and student?
Yes
No
6.
What happens when the examiner encourages
the child to further extend his/her responses to
the topics after the Initial responses?
Yes
---.... No
Yes
No
1. Are there chunks of discourse indicating that
the child is developing a strategr or proficiency?
Yes
No
9. Did the student provide adequate background
information and use reference appropriately so
that the examiner and coder could comprehend
the meaning of what was being talked about?
Yes
No
7. When the child goes beyond the "necessary"
response, how does s/he develop topics?
Source:
Slaughter (1988, p. 129)
176
185
APPENDIX E
STUDENTS' NARRATIVES
Kealoha's story:
One Frog Too Many
S:
In English or Hawaiian?
E:
English.
Note:
S:
walked around the table to
Midpoint through the story C2
story was told.
see the pictures while the
little boy and he brought home a
for the big
box!...And he opened it for the little frog,
head, and looked
frog and the big frog went on the dogies
And the the other frog
it was a baby frog!
One day there was
a
down in it and
boy took the baby
was angry! And then, and then the little
(said) she doesn't like it.
frog out, and the mommy just
But the
frog."
But the little boy said, "Here's a baby
pushed her, and the
mother frog didn't like the baby frog,
foot and the baby frog
mother frog just bit the baby frog's
house)!
And the little boy said, "Get out of (this
cried.
(C2 laughs)
the turtles back and the
One day, Another day they went on
pushed the little
mommy, and the baby. And then the mommy
froggy out and the baby frog was sad.
S2:
Si:
And then
on the side, and they
They left the little, the big mommy
they had a little
went on, they went on the little woods and
woods and,
And then the mommy frog jumped into the
trip!
(because see the little froggy)
and then she, she was mad
Uoh [a sort of sound effect with
but the frog was sad.
pushed the baby, kicked the
facial expression] and the mom
[a sort of shrieking
baby out of the boat, and there was
boa. went "eh! Where's my
sound effect], and then the little
to the
) And then theyw ere real angry
baby frog?" (
frog kicked the baby-out. And
mommy frog because the mommy
they were sad and
then the baby frog (went right here), and
And they were angry
then they be mean to the mommy frog.
were all sad that,
and the baby was in the room, and they
frog (jumped back) in.
they all cried. And then, the mommy
but the baby was happy.
And then the mother was angry,
(laughs)
e",2:
No, the baby was angry, the frog was happy.
Sl:
And then they loved each other.
177
186
Melea's Narrative from the Wordless Book:
One Frog Tap Many
The boy had some presents...
And then the bad frog jumped on the,
um,
on the ...
the dogs
head.
He mean and then he don't like him...And then he got it out,And
then he putted him down,
And he laughed at him...
And then he bites his toe, his leg, and he
(
)
And then he say "No! No!"
And then he (stay) on the turtle's back and then he kicks him
down and then he says "No! No!" and then he says, "Stay here!"
And then he jumps on the (boat) and then he...he kicked him and
he fell down.
And then the turtle telled him,
"Look it, look it, he kicked him, he kicked the frog down the
water!" and he said "huh?"
(
)
(And then hers going to stay there cause he's bad and mean!)
And then (
some noise.
That was a frog!
He jumped on his (
And then they're all happy.
Now these two are friends.
)
)
178
187
Mele's Narrative from the Wordless Book:
One Frog Meg Many
Melen attended the Panana Leo for approximately two and a half
years.
She was a fluent speaker of Hawaiian upon entering the
HLIP classroom.
The following is her narrative based on a story from a wordless
storybook.
213
M:
E pili ana i ka poloka.
Hau'oli kiia poloka no ka mea
mana'o 'o ia he makana ke, 'a'ole 'o ai i lanai() he
poloka.
About the frog. This frog was happy because he thought
that this was a present, he didn't think it was a frog.
214
E:
'A.
Ah.
215
M:
aia he poloka pipi.
Ua
ka
This is a baby frog. The frr.- said
poloka "hmmmm".
'A'ole makemake keia poloka.
"Hmmmm".
That frog didn't want.
(Quotes Big Frog making a frown and a upset sound)
216 *E:
Hehehe
217
E:
'A'ole makemake.
He (big frog) didn't like it (new, little frog).
218
M:
'0 ia ke kumu, ua huli 'o ia kona alo i kili 'ao'ao. Ua
hale mai 'o ia i loko.
That was the reason, he turned and faced away (from the
little frog). He came inside.
219
E:
Maika'i kiia mo'olelo e?
this story is good, isn't it?
220
M:
Ua kau '0 ia
ia i lalo.
E hana'ino ana 'o ia i kiia
poloka.
He put him down. He is going to act mean to this frog.
221
E:
'0 ia?
Really?
222
M:
'Ae, ma hope.
Nini ke um ne keia poloka no ka mea ua
nahu 'o ia i kona wiwae.
Yes, later on. Look, this frog is crying because he bit
his foot.
223
E:
Aui.
My goodness.
179
224
M:
Hana'ino kgia poloka.
This frog was mean.
225
E:
No ke aha la e?
Why?
226
E:
He aha ki likou, he aha kg 11, he aha kina e 151elo nei?
What are they, what are th-, what is he saying?
227
M:
Ke 'Biel° nei likou, "Mai nahu i kona wiwae!
They are saying, "Don't bit his leg!
'Ina loa
You are very bad!
228
E:
'Ino no.
Yeah. Bad, i.ideed.
229
M:
'0 ia ke kumu, ua hgpai ka honu is ia a me ig ia.
That's the reason that the turtle carried him and him.
230
E:
'Xhi.
Aha.
231
M:
'0 is ke kumu, ua peku '0 ia is ia i lalo.
Ua 'Biel° 'o
ia is ia, "Mai ha', mai peku 'oe i ka poloka hou."
That is the reason that he kicked him down.
He said,
"Don't to -, don't you kick the frog again."
232
E:
233
M:
'0 ia ke kumu, ua
ia, "Noho 'oe ma 16 a hiki
ho'i mai aul"
That's the reason he said, "You stay over there until I
back!"
234
E:
Hehehe.
235
M:
'0 ia ke kumu, ua, ua hele likou. Ua lele 'o ia i loko,
a ua 131elo 'o ia is ia, "E peku ana au i waho."
That's why they went. He jumped inside and he told him,
"I'm going to kick you out."
236
E:
Hehehe
237
M:
'0, 'o ia ke kumu, ua peku 'o ia is ia i loko, a ua hana
'o ia "pfffthhhhh."
'E.
Oh, that's the reason he kicked him in and he went,
"Pfffthhh."
238
E:
Aug.
Wow.
180
189
239
M:
Ua '31elo ka honu i ke keikikine, "Keikikine, ua peku '0
ia l ka poloka pipe. Ua '31elo '0 ia, "Mai peku la ia!"
Ua IS lelo kiia 'ilia, "Auuuul" Ke ue nei 'o ia.
The turtle told the boy, "Boy, he kicked the baby frog."
He said, "Don't kick him!" This dog said, "Auuu" (howl)
He's crying.
240
E:
Ka 'Ilia?
The dog?
241
M:
'Ae.
Yes.
242
E:
'Ae.
Yes.
243
M:
Ua 'Biel° ka honu, uHmmmm!"
The turtle said, "Hmmm!"
244: E:
Hmmm
245
M:
Val ua hana ka polokai,
The frog did this.
246
E:
'Ae.
(Makes a frightened face)
Nava paha.
Yes, Frightened perhaps.
247
M:
'0 ia ke kumu, ua huli likou, nini lo ia i ke kumu, aki
'a'ole.
That was the reason they searched, he looked by the but
didn't
248
S:
Ala lo ia ma laila.
He's there.
249
M:
'Ae, aia
ia ma laila.
Yes, he's there.
250
E:
la, nini.
Oh, look.
'Ae.
Yes
251: M:
Ke nini nei likou ia la ia, 'ae?
They are looking for him, aren't they?
252
E:
Mtm.
253
M:
Ua ho'i likou i ka hale o kiia meal a ke keikikine.
They went back to the house of this one, of the boy.
254
E:
No ke ah?
Why?
181
190
255
M:
No ka mea, ua ki'i ana lo ia, ua mana'o 'o ia ua lohe
ia i kekahi mea. Kali poloka ua lele 10 ia ma luna ona.
Hi!
Pono ana 'o ia e hana'ino ii ia hdiu. um, pono no'o
ia e hana'ino is ia kekahi, no ka mea ua hana'ino 'o ia
is ia.
Because he was fetching, he thought that he had heard
something.
That frog, he jumped on top of him.
Ha! He
is going to have to be mean to him again. um He'll have
to mistreat him as well because he had mistreated him.
256
E:
Mmm.
Mmm.
257
M:
'0 ia ke kumu, keia manawa, maikaii lip
ia.
'0 kona
hoaaloha.
That's the reason, now th- he is fine. His friend.
258
S:
Male is ia.
Marry him.
259
M:
Hau'oli liva. Kiia manawa, lilo ana ii ia e like me fa!
They are happy.
Now he'll be like him.
A 10 ia.
That's right.
182
191
APPENDIX F
PARENT EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE
HAWAIIAN LANGUAGE IMMERSION PROJECT
Parent Evaluation
Spring 1988
the first Hawaiian language early
Your child is participating in We
would like your input into the
immersion program in Hawaii.
Please circle
the program.
evaluation and recommendations for
1
the grade level of your child: K
in the Hawaiian
Why did you want your child to participate
1.
Language Immersion Project?
2.
your child is making in
Are you satisfied with the progress
school?
undecided
no
scmewhat
yes
Comments:
3.
in the Hawaiian
Is your child happy to be participating
Language Immersion Project?
yes
somewhat
no
Comment:
4.
Hawaiian language?
Is your child learning the
yes
somewhat
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1 D2
no
5.
Are you able to speak Hawaiian?
yes
6.
a little
no
What language or languages do you speak with your child at
home?
English
7.
Hawaiian
other (write in)
Are you satisfied with your child's English language
development?
yes
8.
somewhat
no
Do you plan to have your child continue in the Hawaiian
Language Immersion Program next year if it is offered?
yes
no
undecided
Comment:
9.
If you have a younger child, would you like to have that
child participate in the Hawaiian Language Immersion
Program?
yes
.;!vt
no
undecided
10.
What are some of the things about the program that you like?
11.
What are some things that you would like to see improved?
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193
12.
Do you feel that you know as much as you would like to know
about early immersion education?
yes
no
Comment:
13.
There are different ideas about hot% many years children
should continue being taught in an immersion language, in
this case Hawaiian.
How many years do you want your child
to be taught in Hawaiian before an English component is
introduced during part of the school day?
Begin English aster Grade 3
Begin English in Grade 3
Begin English in Grade 2
Other (explain)
14.
Did you child speak Hawaiian before this year?
yes
no
Are there other things about your child's language
development during the preschool years that are relevant to
our understanding the program?
PLEASE FEEL FREE TO ADD OTHER COMMENTS OR CONCERNS ON THE BACK OR
ON ADDITIONAL PAPER.
WE WOULD LIKE TO INTERVIEW SOME PARENTS.
IF YOU WOULD BE WILLING TO BE INTERVIEWED, PLEASE WRITE YOUR
NAME, ADDRESS, AND PHONE NUMBER BELOW:
Name:
Address:
Phone Number:
For more information, contact Helen Slaughter (948-7710) or Karen
Watson-Gegeo (948-8814), College of Education, 1776 University
Avenue, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822.
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