About the pagination of this eBook Due to the unique page numbering scheme of this book, please refer to the electronic Table of Contents that appears alongside the eBook or the Search function, to navigate the contents. cambridge university press Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Tokyo, Mexico City Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521279864 © D. C. Borshoff 2011 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2011 A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Borshoff, David, 1955– Anaesthetic crisis manual / David Borshoff. p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-521-27986-4 (Paperback.) 1. Anesthetics–Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Surgery–Complications–Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Title. [DNLM: 1. Anesthesia–adverse effects–Handbooks. 2. Emergencies–Handbooks. 3. Intraoperative Complications–Handbooks. WO 231] RD85.5.B67 2011 6150 .781–dc23 2011018532 ISBN 978-0-521-27986-4 Paperback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Every effort has been made in preparing this book to provide accurate and up-to-date information which is in accord with accepted standards and practice at the time of publication. Although case histories are drawn from actual cases, every effort has been made to disguise the identities of the individuals involved. Nevertheless, the authors, editors and publishers can make no warranties that the information contained herein is totally free from error, not least because clinical standards are constantly changing through research and regulation. The authors, editors and publishers therefore disclaim all liability for direct or consequential damages resulting from the use of material contained in this book. Readers are strongly advised to pay careful attention to information provided by the manufacturer of any drugs or equipment that they plan to use. With thanks to Irma Brayley and Associate Professor Richard Riley Shockable Cardiac Arrest (VF/VT Adult) Unshockable Cardiac Arrest (Asystole, PEA Adult) Paediatric Advanced Life Support Intraoperative Myocardial Ischaemia Severe Intraoperative Haemorrhage Anaphylaxis Haemolytic Transfusion Reaction Air Embolism Difficult Mask Ventilation Unanticipated Difficult Intubation Can’t Intubate Can’t Ventilate Laryngospasm Elevated Airway Pressure Severe Bronchospasm Aspiration Total Spinal (Obstetrics) Post Partum Haemorrhage Maternal Collapse Neonatal Resuscitation – Newborn Life Support Local Anaesthetic Toxicity Hyperkalaemia Malignant Hyperthermia Terminal Event Checklist – The 10 Ts Crisis Prevention 1 1 SHOCKABLE CARDIAC ARREST VF/VT Adult 1 Call for help, communicate the problem and delegate. 2 Commence compressions (100–120 per minute). 3 Secure the airway. Use 100% O2. Resume CPR. 4 SHOCK immediately defibrillator is ready. Resume CPR. 5 SHOCK at 2 minutes.* Resume CPR. 6 SHOCK at 4 minutes. Give amiodarone 300mg and adrenaline 1mg. Resume CPR. 7 Continue to shock every 2 minutes and review reversible causes. 8 If practical, use transthoracic ultrasound to assist diagnosis. 9 For resistant VF/VT give adrenaline 1mg every 3–5 minutes (alternate shocks) and a further 150mg of amiodarone followed by an infusion of 900mg over 24 hours. 10 Following ROSC, commence post resuscitation care. Consider: Referral for urgent percutaneous intervention Therapeutic hypothermia Avoid: Hyperglycaemia (treat >10mmol/l) Hyperoxaemia (keep SpO2 94–98%) Hypercarbia ROSC = return of spontaneous circulation *In the USA, Australia and New Zealand, adrenaline is given after the second shock SHOCKABLE CARDIAC ARREST VF/VT Adult Delegate a staff member to call time prompts and document events. If other members are assigned the tasks of chest compression, ventilation and monitoring cardiac output, this will allow the team leader to review potential reversible causes. Reversible Causes 4Hs 4Ts Hypoxia Hypovolaemia Hypothermia Hypo/hyperkalaemia Tension Tamponade Thrombosis Toxins If using transthoracic echo, use the sub-xyphoid view. The patient should be ventilated with 100% O2 at a rate of 10 normal tidal volume breaths per minute – do not hyperventilate. If the patient requires intubation, this should be performed quickly and by the most experienced practitioner, confirmed by EtCO2 if available, and only after compressions have commenced (CAB)*. Emphasis is on minimally interrupted, high quality chest compressions. Aim for any pause (rhythm analysis and shock delivery) to be <5 seconds – if using a manual defibrillator, after rhythm assessment, continue CPR while machine charges to minimize ‘pre-shock pause’. Self adhesive defibrillation pads allow faster shock delivery. Shock energy: Biphasic 200J first shock. For subsequent shocks use the same or greater. Monophasic 360J. For children use 4J/kg. Successive or ‘stacked’ shocks (up to 3 in a row) are reserved for witnessed VF/VT with defibrillator pads already in place – post cardiac surgery, cardiac catheter laboratory or the critical care environment. Drugs are given immediately following defibrillation. Drug dosages Magnesium IV 1–2g over 3 minutes for Torsade de Pointes or hypomagnesaemia. Calcium chloride 10% IV 0.2ml/kg (5ml max) for hyperkalaemia, hypocalcaemia or overdose of Ca2þ channel blockers. Sodium bicarbonate 1–2ml/kg 8.4% IV for hyperkalaemia and antidepressant overdose – NOT prolonged resuscitation. Lignocaine 1mg/kg IV if amiodarone not available. Intraosseous is the preferred alternative route for drug administration. * In adult cardiac arrest, the ‘ABC’ of resuscitation may be more effective if performed in the order of ‘CAB’. That is, establishing circulation first. 2 2 UNSHOCKABLE CARDIAC ARREST Asystole, PEA Adult 1 Call for help, communicate the problem and delegate. 2 Commence compressions (100–120 per minute). 3 Secure the airway. Use 100% O2. Resume CPR. 4 Check ECG leads without interruption to compressions. 5 Give Adrenaline 1mg intravenously. 6 Review reversible causes-4Hs 4Ts. 7 After 2 minutes check pulse and ECG rhythm – consider sub-xyphoid ultrasound view. 8 Continue CPR – minimize pause duration for rhythm checks. 9 Give adrenaline 1mg every alternate cycle (3–5 min). 10 If ECG shows VF/VT convert to Shockable Cardiac Arrest protocol see tab 1. 11 Consider cardiac pacing only in asystole when p waves are present. 12 Following ROSC, commence post resuscitation care. Consider: Referral for urgent percutaneous intervention Therapeutic hypothermia Avoid: Hyperglycaemia (treat >10mmol/l) Hyperoxaemia (SpO2 94–98%) Hypercarbia UNSHOCKABLE CARDIAC ARREST Asystole, PEA Adult Delegate a staff member to call time prompts and document events. If other members are assigned the tasks of chest compression, ventilation and monitoring cardiac output, this will allow the team leader to review potential reversible causes (tab 1). Minimizing pauses in CPR increases the chance of success. Suspect hypovolaemia in PEA in the surgical setting – consider undiagnosed haemorrhage, particularly with laparoscopic surgery. Hypoxia should be immediately corrected with a secure airway and ventilation using 100% O2. Electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities can be assessed with urgent blood chemistry – indications for magnesium and calcium are outlined in drug dosages (tab 1) and should all be corrected. Hyperkalaemia is treated according to the protocol - see tab 21. Tamponade, tension pneumothorax and thromboembolic obstruction are all difficult to diagnose without significant knowledge of clinical history. Ultrasound imaging provides information that may assist diagnosis – a sub-xyphoid view obtained during the brief rhythm check is recommended. Aim for normovolaemia – in the absence of hypovolaemia, excessive infusion of fluid should be avoided. Whenever possible, confirm correct placement of airway device with CO2 detection. All drugs should be administered via a peripheral or central venous line. If this is not achievable, the tibial or humeral interosseous route is used. The tracheal route is not recommended.* Also see notes for Shockable Cardiac Arrest – tab 1. 3 3 PAEDIATRIC ADVANCED LIFE SUPPORT 1 Call for help, communicate the problem and delegate. 2 Commence CPR and use 100% O2. 3 Check ECG leads without interruption to compressions. 4 Cease all vagal stimulation. 5 Give adrenaline 10mcg/kg IV or intraosseous. 6 Review reversible causes (4Hs 4Ts). 7 After 2 minutes check pulse and ECG rhythm – consider sub-xyphoid ultrasound view. 8 Continue CPR – minimize pause duration for rhythm checks. 9 Give adrenaline 10mcg/kg every 3–5 mins. 10 If ECG shows VF/VT convert to Shockable Cardiac Arrest Protocol (tab 1). 11 If ROSC, commence post resuscitation care (see adult protocol – tab 1). ROSC ¼ return of spontaneous circulation PAEDIATRIC ADVANCED LIFE SUPPORT Delegate a staff member to call time prompts and document events. If other members are assigned the tasks of chest compression, ventilation and monitoring cardiac output, this will allow the team leader to review potential reversible causes (tab 1). Excluding cardiac anaesthesia, most anaesthetic related paediatric cardiac arrests will be aystole or PEA. If VF or VT, follow the adult protocol - see tab 1, using drug dosages listed below. Hypoxia and vagal stimulation are the most frequent reversible causes in children For CPR, use a compression rate of 100–120/minute and a ventilation rate of 12–20 breaths/minute. Adrenaline 10mcg/kg is given immediately in PEA and asystole and then every 3–5 minutes. Atropine is not recommended. Adrenaline 10mcg/kg and amiodarone 5mg/kg are both given after the 3rd and 5th shock in VF/VT. Drugs should be given via intravenous or intraosseous routes Adrenaline 100mcg/kg can be given via endotracheal tube if other routes are unsuccessful. Defibrillation For manual defibrillation use a shock energy of 4J/kg. If using an AED, a ‘paediatric attenuated adult shock energy’ should be selected in those aged less than 8 years. Monitor EtCO2 for both tube placement and cardiac output. Principles of post resuscitation care are the same as adults. Therapeutic hypothermia in the post arrest, comatose child should be considered. Also see notes for Adult Cardiac Arrest (tabs 1 and 2). 4 4 INTRAOPERATIVE MYOCARDIAL ISCHAEMIA 1 Administer 100% oxygen. 2 Confirm there is adequate: ventilation anaesthesia analgesia 3 Control the heart rate. If steps 1, 2 and 3 complete and patient is HYPERTENSIVE: 4 Cease stimulation Introduce Beta Blockers Commence GTN infusion If steps 1, 2 and 3 complete and patient is HYPOTENSIVE: 5 Restore normovolaemia – use blood if anaemic 6 Treat inappropriate vasodilatation. 7 Control filling pressure. 8 Support contractility – consider an inodilator or inotrope. 9 Commence GTN infusion*. 10 Consider anticoagulation, placement of IABP and percutaneous coronary intervention. INTRAOPERATIVE MYOCARDIAL ISCHAEMIA 5 Treatment is based on reducing oxygen demand and increasing oxygen supply. Heart rate: Aim for 60–80 bpm. Use a beta blocker and additional narcotic if required. Treat any tachyarrhythmias if necessary using amiodarone, lignocaine or DC shock (see Shockable Cardiac Arrest for dosages). Correct any abnormal electrolytes and anaemia. Blood pressure: Aim for 100–120 systolic with MAP >75. For anaesthetic induced vasodilation, carefully titrate a vasoconstrictor avoiding any adverse increase in afterload. Filling pressure CPP ¼ ADP – LVEDPQ With severe obstruction distal coronary pressure may be very low so avoid elevated LVEDP. *GTN will both dilate coronaries and reduce LVEDP. Drug dosages for 70kg patient: Dobutamine 250mg in 50ml 0.9% saline Adrenaline 3mg in 50ml 0.9% saline Noradrenaline 4mg in 50ml 0.9% saline Infusions are commenced at 5ml/hr and titrated according to response. Other diluents and dilutions are possible. See product information if necessary. Metoprolol Esmolol Phenylephrine Metaraminol GTN 2.5 mg boluses 0.5mg/kg bolus 50–200mcg/kg/min infusion 25–50mcg bolus 0.5–1mg bolus 50mg in 50ml 0.9% saline Commence at 3ml–5ml/hr and titrate to response. Blood pressure may require continued support during GTN infusion QCPP ¼Coronary Perfusion Pressure ADP ¼Aortic Diastolic Pressure LVEDP¼Left Ventricular End Diastolic Pressure SEVERE INTRAOPERATIVE HAEMORRHAGE 5 1 Call for help, communicate the problem and delegate. 2 Confirm there is surgical effort to control bleeding. 3 Switch to 100% oxygen until the crisis is resolved. 4 Use vasopressors only if necessary to maintain vital organ perfusion. 5 Warm fluids. Warm theatre. Warm patient. 6 Insert 2 14g cannulae and consider an 8.5FG PA sheath. 7 Contact blood bank to crossmatch blood early and consult haematologist to plan component therapy. 8 Utilize the rapid fluid infuser and cell saver. 9 Consider antifibrinolytic agents. 10 Carefully monitor calcium levels. 11 Establish bedside monitoring: Arterial line, urinary catheter, CVP, temperature Haemocue®, Coagucheck® thromboelastography. 12 Follow up with laboratory testing: FBC, electrolytes, ABGs, clotting screen. Blood bank Ext No. . . . . . . Haematology Ext No. . . . . . . ICU Ext No. . . . . . . SEVERE INTRAOPERATIVE HAEMORRHAGE Call for assistance, delegate responsibilities and communicate effectively so staff appreciate the severity and urgency. Nominate a communicator to relay messages between the laboratories, theatre and ICU and a runner to transport blood samples, packed cells and component therapy. Early delegation allows time to coordinate management, prioritize and review possible causes. Large bore intravenous cannulation should be delegated to suitably experienced personnel. If time does not permit crossmatched blood (Hb 5 or less with ongoing bleeding), O negative or group specific should be used. Surgical control may involve direct pressure, arterial or aortic clamping. Consider prompting if necessary If a senior clinician predicts large blood loss, early infusion of FFP (15ml/kg) may prevent impending haemostatic failure and microvascular bleeding. If fibrinogen <1g/l and PT or aPTT >1.5 x normal there is established haemostatic failure and larger volumes of FFP will be needed. The use of component therapy should be guided by laboratory tests, clinical experience and consultation with haematology (see table below). Hypocalcaemic cold patients don't clot – aggressively manage temperature and electrolytes. Factor rV11a is indicated in massive haemorrhage unresponsive to conventional therapy. Therapy Indication Initial dosages FFP PT, aPTT <1.5 normal, fibrinogen <1g/l 15ml/kg Cryoprecipitate Fibrinogen <1g/l 5–10ml/kg Prothrombinex Massive haemorrhage unresponsive to conventional therapy 15mg/kg Factor VIIa As above 90mcg/kg Tranexamic acid Fibrinolysis 1gm IV over 10 min then 1gm over 8 hrs Platelets Platelet count <75 109 15–20ml/kg 6 ANAPHYLAXIS 6 1 Call for help, communicate the problem and delegate. 2 Cease all likely triggers, follow the ABC guideline and commence CPR if indicated. 3 Monitor the time, SpO2 and haemodynamics. 4 Ventilate with 100% O2 and intubate the patient if required to maintain the airway. 5 Infuse fluids (at least 20ml/kg) and elevate the legs. 6 Give intravenous Adrenaline 1mcg/kg in bolus doses. If cardiovascular collapse use 1mg, or 10mcg/kg in children. 7 Insert an arterial line for monitoring and gases as soon as possible – delegate if necessary. 8 Consider adjunctive therapy when haemodynamic stability is established. 9 Collect blood specimens for mast cell tryptase 10 levels. Take sample during resuscitation, at 2 hours and at 24 hours. Prepare for transfer to Intensive Care. ICU Ext No. . . . . . . ANAPHYLAXIS Signs during anaesthesia include: CVS collapse Bronchospasm Erythema Urticaria Hypotension Angioedema Hypoxia Cutaneous rash 7 Call for assistance early, communicate effectively and delegate timekeeping and monitoring roles. Elapsed time calls may be useful in cardiovascular collapse. The anaesthetist should take the leadership role and coordinate management. Common triggers include muscle relaxant, antibiotics, latex, colloid and chlorhexidine. Drug dosages IV adrenaline bolus ¼ 1mcg/kg IM adrenaline bolus ¼ Adult 500mcg 6–12 years 300mcg <6 years 150mcg IV adrenaline infusion ¼ 0.1mcg/kg/min With 3mg in 50mls dilution, mls/hr ¼ mcg/min. For an adult commence at 7mls/hr. Additional therapy Aminophylline bolus up to 5mg/kg IV or IM Hydrocortisone bolus (slow IV or IM) >12 years. . . . . . . . . 200mg 6–12 years . . . . . . . . 100mg 6 months–6 years. . . 50mg 0–6 months. . . . . . . . 25mg Chlorpheniramine bolus (slow IV or IM) >12 years. . . . . . . . . . .10mg 6–12 years . . . . . . . . . . 5mg 6 months–6 years. . . 2.5mg <6 months . . . 250mcg/kg In the unlikely event that bronchospasm does not respond to adrenaline therapy, alternative treatment is outlined in Severe Bronchospasm - see tab 14. HAEMOLYTIC TRANSFUSION REACTION 1 Cease transfusion of the blood product. 7 2 Call for help, communicate the problem and delegate. 3 Follow the ABC guideline – use 100% O2. 4 Treat any bronchospasm. See tab 14. 5 Implement cardiovascular support as required. 6 Insert an arterial line and CVC for blood gas analysis and haemodynamic monitoring. 7 Maintain urine output – use diuretic therapy. 8 Treat the developing coagulopathy – consult with transfusion services. 9 Return all products to blood bank and take fresh 10 blood and urine samples for analysis. ICU admission. Blood Bank Ext No. . . . . . . Haemotalogy Ext No. . . . . . . ICU Ext No. . . . . . . HAEMOLYTIC TRANSFUSION REACTION Signs in the anaesthetized patient include: Hypotension Tachycardia Bronchospasm Urticaria Wheeze Tachypnoea Oedema Hypoxia Cola-coloured urine Bleeding (membranes, infusion sites) Cardiovascular collapse Although rare, this carries significant mortality. Staff should be informed immediately and the blood rechecked against the patient. More blood should be taken for further testing. Treatment is directed towards circulatory support, alleviating respiratory symptoms and anticipating and treating coagulopathy (see also Anaphylaxis, Major Haemorrhage and Bronchospasm protocols). Diuretics and inotropic support should be commenced to maintain urine output of 0.5 to 1.5ml/kg/hr. Treatment of any developing coagulopathy should be directed by the coagulation profile (see table on tab 5). All products should be returned to transfusion for further analysis. Drug dosages Mannitol 25% Frusemide Methylprednisolone Adrenaline Dobutamine Noradrenaline 0.5g–1g/kg IV 0.5mg/kg IV 1–3mg/kg IV 3mg/50ml saline (60mcg/ml) 250mg/50ml saline (5mcg/ml) 4mg/50ml saline (80mcg/ml) Paediatric dose 0.05–0.5mcg/kg/min 2–20mcg/kg/min 0.02–1.0mcg/kg/min In a 70kg adult, infusions can be commenced at 5ml/hr and then titrated to response. Dilutions are given for syringe drivers. 8 AIR EMBOLISM 1 Call for help, communicate the problem and delegate. 2 Prevent further entrainment of air. 8 3 Flood the operative field. 4 Ventilate with 100% O2. Avoid Nitrous Oxide. 5 Place the patient in a head down, lateral position. 6 Consider the use of PEEP. 7 Aspirate the CVC. Attempt closed cardiac massage. 8 Commence IV fluid therapy and keep hydrated. 9 Use adrenaline for haemodynamic support. 10 Consider hyperbaric oxygen therapy and ICU admission following successful resuscitation. ICU Ext No. . . . . . . Hyperbaric Chamber Ext No. . . . . . . AIR EMBOLISM Signs during anaesthesia include: +SpO2 +EtCO2 Hypotension ‘Mill wheel’ murmur Pulmonary oedema Elevated PA pressure Elevated CVP Tachycardia Bronchospasm Cardiovascular collapse Communicate effectively so staff appreciate the severity and urgency of the situation. Delegate a person to call elapsed time and monitor the haemodynamic status. Hyperventilate with 100% O2 and intubate if necessary. The use of PEEP is controversial. Initially thought to help prevent venous air embolism it may also increase the risk of paradoxical air embolism. Judicious use to support oxygenation may still be appropriate. Aspirate only if a central venous catheter or pulmonary artery catheter is in place. There is no evidence to support emergent CVC placement. Closed cardiac massage has been shown to break up large volumes of air in the cardiac chambers. Hyperbaric oxygen up to 6 hours (possibly more) following the event should be considered in large paradoxical air embolism – a patent foramen ovale is present in 10–30% of the population. As little as 0.5ml of air in the coronary arteries can precipitate ventricular fibrillation. Drug dosages Adult: Adrenaline bolus 25 to 100mcg. Infusion of 3mg in 50ml commenced at 5ml per hour. Note with 3mg in 50ml, rate in ml/hr = mcg/min. Paediatric: Adrenaline bolus infusion 0.1mcg/kg. 0.05–0.5mcg/kg/min. The use of positive pressure ventilation, end tidal monitoring, central venous or pulmonary catheters, precordial doppler and transoesophageal echo in high risk procedures can lead to early diagnosis and treatment. 9 DIFFICULT MASK VENTILATION 1 Call for help, communicate the problem and delegate. 2 Use high flow 100% O2. 3 Optimize ventilation attempt: head position jaw thrust guedel airway dry perioral area 9 If there is no improvement is associated with rapid deflation of reservoir bag, poor refilling, low circuit pressure and ongoing facemask leak, go to step 4. If there is no improvement associated with good filling of reservoir bag, good facemask seal, high circuit pressure and difficulty emptying reservoir bag on attempted ventilation then consider Laryngeal Spasm (tab 12) or Elevated Airway Pressure (tab 13). 4 Consider waking the patient if appropriate. 5 Ensure adequate anaesthesia and attempt 2 LMA™ insertions. 6 Use a depolarizing muscle relaxant and intubate. If LMA™ insertion fails. 7 If intubation is difficult and saturations permit, continue with the difficult intubation protocol; however time and saturations may dictate immediate CICV protocol - see tab 11. This is not a checklist but a guideline to regularly rehearse. DIFFICULT MASK VENTILATION This protocol is based on the assumption of a recently checked anaesthetic machine and an intact circuit with fresh gas flow – confirmed by preoxygenating the patient and witnessing a visible EtCO2 trace. In practice, these conditions may not always be met. In difficult mask ventilation when machine or circuit is suspected, removing them and using a self-inflating resuscitator is the most time efficient method of excluding these possibilities. To maximise conditions consider Head position: neck flexion head extension (‘sniffing’). Jaw thrust: two hands forward pressure behind mandibles. Guedel airway: opt for larger size. Perioral area: clean off moisturizer and remove any excess airway lubricant to allow firm grip on face and mask. Waking the patient may be an option if factored into the anaesthetic plan e.g. gaseous induction or gradual onset TIVA to test ventilation in suspected difficult airway. However, if difficulty was not anticipated and the patient received a full anaesthetic induction dose, the anaesthetist may be committed to securing the airway. Ensuring adequate anaesthesia is a prerequisite for mask ventilation and LMA™ insertion. Preserved airway reflexes and insufficient anaesthetic depth will diminish the likelihood of success. Time management during airway crises is vital to a positive outcome. It can be complicated by partial ventilation, borderline saturations, the arrival of another clinician, equipment delays, drug onset times and fixation error. Delegating to a staff member the role of calling elapsed time interval as well as monitoring SpO2 and EtCO2 may prevent prolonged hypoxia. Always preoxygenate the patient before induction if possible. 10 UNANTICIPATED DIFFICULT INTUBATION 10 1 Call for help, communicate the problem and delegate. 2 Request difficult airway trolley. 3 Monitor the time, SpO2 and EtCO2. 4 Confirm bag and mask ventilation. If ventilation is unsuccesful, 5 Maximize laryngeal view: neck flexion head extension adjust cricoid pressure attempt external manipulation consider long or straight blade McCoy or video laryngoscope 6 Allow up to 4 intubation attempts if SpO2 permits 7 Attempt 2 LMA™ insertions* 8 If after attempted ventilation and intubation, SpO2 <90% with FiO2¼1 No breath sounds or chest movement Flat EtCO2 trace then Call CICV emergency response. This is not a checklist but a protocol requiring regular rehearsal. UNANTICIPATED DIFFICULT INTUBATION There is overlap of the ‘Difficult Mask Ventilation’ and ‘Difficult Intubation’ protocols, as each technique uses the other as a rescue alternative. The following summarizes the protocols. 1. Can't bag and mask 2. Can't intubate Options: Wake the patient if possible Use LMA™ as rescue device Intubate Options: Wake the patient if possible Bag and mask Use LMA™ as rescue device If none of the above options is successful, implement the CICV emergency response. Always delegate a timekeeper and SpO2 observer (calling elapsed time intervals and saturations) and be aware that multiple intubation attempts can convert a ‘can't intubate can ventilate’ to a ‘can't intubate can't ventilate’ emergency (also known as ‘cant intubate can't oxygenate’). Given the variability in difficult airway scenarios, familiarity with the decision making process and the underlying principles is a prerequisite for safe practice. *Trying LMA™ insertion after muscle relaxation (given for attempted intubation) may improve rescue success rate. Once ventilation of the lungs is established with persistent CO2 waveform, the airway can be secured by an increasing number of techniques available. The clinician should use that which is most familiar and likely to be successful in the particular clinical circumstance. Always preoxygenate the patient before induction if possible. 11 CAN'T INTUBATE CAN'T VENTILATE Cannula Cricothyroidotomy 1 Palpate (NDH) and puncture (DH) the cricothyroid membrane. 2 Stabilize syringe (DH) and slide cannula into trachea (NDH). 3 Confirm position by aspirating the full length of the syringe. 4 Attach the ventilation system to the cannula. 5 Begin cautious ventilation – 1 second inflation, 3 second pause with high pressure (jet) ventilation. 6 Confirm ventilation of lungs and exhalation through the upper airway. 7 If unsuccessful or complications develop, proceed immediately to surgical cricothyroidotomy. 11 Recommendations: Choose a 14g kink resistant cannula. Syringe size between 5 and 20ml. DAS (UK) suggests 20ml. Review equipment on difficult airway trolley on a regular basis. Be familiar and confident with high pressure ventilation. Regularly rehearse the steps outlined. Attend advanced airway workshops for hands on experience. DH¼dominant hand NDH¼non dominant hand CAN'T INTUBATE CAN'T VENTILATE Surgical Cricothyroidotomy If the anatomy is palpable. 1 Identify cricothyroid membrane. 2 Stab incision through skin and membrane. Enlarge with dilator or blunt dissection (scalpel handle or forceps). 3 Caudal traction on cricoid cartilage with tracheal hook. 4 Insert ETT or tracheostomy tube. 5 Ventilate from a standard low pressure source. 6 Confirm ventilation with EtCO2. Alternatively, once a horizontal stab incision is made, the scalpel blade can be rotated caudally and with lateral pressure allowing a space for a ventilating bougie to be passed. If the anatomy is not palpable, a 6 to 8cm midline vertical neck incision with blunt finger dissection to separate the strap muscles will expose the trachea. Cannula cricothyroidotomy can then be achieved under vision. In all cases, once there has been successful oxygenation, early conversion to a definitive airway is required. CICV sometimes referred to as CICO (can't intubate can't oxygenate). 12 LARYNGOSPASM 1 100% oxygen. 2 Cease all stimulation. 3 Remove airway devices and suction*. 4 Apply gentle CPAP with jaw thrust. If spasm persists and desaturation continues, 12 5 Call for help, communicate the problem and delegate. 6 Deepen anaesthesia^. 7 Give suxamethonium and continue CPAP. 8 Intubate if SpO2 does not improve 9 Consider atropine 10–20mcg/kg for the treatment of associated bradycardia. This is a sequence to be rehearsed. Time will not permit a checklist management approach. LARYNGOSPASM Although stimulating airway devices contributing to spasm should be removed, the Guedel (oral) airway may be helpful in providing CPAP. Call for assistance early. The situation deteriorates rapidly in children. Delegate responsibilities clearly including ETT preparation and suxamethonium administration. Some paediatric anaesthetists will carry pre-drawn suxamethonium in their pocket to reduce drug error and save time during desaturation. ^Deepening anaesthesia is an option in adult anaesthesia. Rapid development of hypoxia in children usually precludes this. Spasm will ‘break’ with sufficient hypoxia and time, but predisposes to bradycardia, cardiac arrest, regurgitation and pulmonary oedema. These can be prevented with early intervention. Dosage: suxamethonium 0.1 to 1mg/kg IV. 2 to 4mg/kg IMI/IO/IL. In complete obstruction, forced inflation attempts will add to obstruction (Fink ball/valve effect) and inflate the stomach. Consider stomach deflation before emergence. In a rapidly desaturating child, immediate intubation without relaxation may be the appropriate treatment. IO=Intraosseous. IL=Intralingual. 13 ELEVATED AIRWAY PRESSURE 13 1 Manually ventilate to confirm high pressure and immediately check the airway for any obvious change. 2 Exclude light anaesthesia and/or inadequate muscle relaxation. 3 Perform a systematic circuit inspection. 4 If unresolved, replace the circuit with a self inflating resuscitator connected directly to the airway device. 5 Check the position and patency of the airway. 6 Examine the patient's respiratory system and consider calling for assistance. 7 If any doubt, replace the airway. If ventilating with an LMA™, consider replacing with an ETT. 8 Review checklist of patient causes. ELEVATED AIRWAY PRESSURE Checking muscle relaxation eliminates the most likely cause. In the unintubated patient this is usually laryngospasm. If eliminating inadequate relaxation does not correct the rise in pressure, systematically working through steps 1 to 6 should determine the problem. While hand ventilating, check all tubes, valves, connections and filters. Check the machine position to exclude tube kinking or obstruction. Once the circuit is removed and replaced with a resuscitator, the problem is isolated to the airway device or patient. The airway should be: assessed for position and patency. be suctioned down its full length. be replaced if the problem is unresolved. A chest examination should be performed before undertaking airway replacement. If there is no change following these procedures (new airway and new circuit), the problem must then be with the patient. Consider: Laryngospasm Bronchospasm Oedema Pneumothorax Haemothorax Chest wall rigidity Although calling for assistance is the last step in this sequence, it could occur at any stage the practitioner feels appropriate. For a review of causes see Crisis Prevention: ↑ Airway Pressure (tab 27). 14 SEVERE BRONCHOSPASM 1 Call for help, communicate the problem and delegate. 2 Hand ventilate and deepen anaesthesia. 3 Check tube placement and switch to 100% O2. 4 Utilize in-circuit salbutamol and ipatropium bromide. 5 Monitor EtCO2 waveform and airway pressures. 6 Consider IV fluids, arterial line and serial ABGs. 14 7 Commence adrenaline or salbutamol as an IV bolus and use infusions if indicated to maintain stability. 8 Use a long expiratory phase, intermittent disconnection and low pressure PEEP to reduce hyperinflation. 9 Consider hydrocortisone, aminophylline or magnesium as adjunctive or alternative treatment. 10 Prepare for ICU admission if required. ICU Ext No. . . . . . . SEVERE BRONCHOSPASM Bronchospasm will vary in severity under anaesthesia. Mild bronchospasm will usually respond to removal of irritants (instrumentation and incorrect tube position), ‘in-circuit’ bronchodilators and deepening anaesthesia. Severe bronchospasm requires more aggressive, intravenous bronchodilator therapy. Drug dosages Adrenaline bolus: 0.1–1.0mcg/kg titrated to haemodynamics. infusion: 0.1mcg/kg/min. Note with 3mg in 50ml, rate in ml/hr = mcg/min. Therefore commence at 7mls/hr for a 70kg man. Use an arterial line and serial ABGs to guide management. Salbutamol bolus: 5mcg/kg up to 2 years. 15mcg/kg up to 18 years (max 250mcg). infusion: Start at 100mcg/kg/hr (up to 300mcg/kg/hr). Aminophylline: Loading dose of 5 to 7mg/kg over 15 minutes. Infusion of 0.5/kg/hr to follow. Magnesium: 50mg/kg over 20 minutes with a max dose of 2g. Hydrocortisone: 1–2 mg/kg IV. IV fluids: commence therapy with 10–20ml/kg of crystalloid. Intermittent disconnection allows CO2 escape and prevents hyperinflation. Hand ventilation with permissive hypercapnia may also be required to avoid the complications of high airway pressure ventilation. Treatment can be assessed by haemodynamic parameters, airway pressure, ABGs and the CO2 waveform. With resolution, the ‘sloping’ upward trace of EtCO2 returns to normal with the more horizontal alveolar plateau. 15 ASPIRATION 15 1 Call for help, communicate the problem and delegate. 2 Place the patient in a head down and lateral position. 3 Remove the airway and suction the pharynx. 4 Intubate and suction bronchial tree when airway secured. 5 Ventilate with 100% oxygen. 6 If aspiration is severe, proceed only with emergency surgery. 7 Empty the stomach before emergence. 8 Consider admission to ICU. ICU Ext No. . . . . . . ASPIRATION How much assistance required depends on the severity and circumstances. Immediate communication with the surgeons and delegation of tasks (e.g. turning the patient) may limit the amount of aspiration. Positioning the patient will depend on the type of surgery and practical limitations. Steps 1 to 4 should be achieved before step 5 if SpO2 permits. Cricoid pressure can be used during intubation but NOT during active vomiting or regurgitation. Mild aspiration usually resolves without specific treatment. If at 2 hours post aspiration, the patient is not symptomatic, the chest X-ray is clear and the SpO2 is normal, ICU is not indicated. However, if there is particulate matter, indicative of more severe aspiration, ICU will be required. Steroid and antibiotic therapy are NOT usually indicated in the short term management of aspiration. 16 TOTAL SPINAL Obstetrics 1 Call for help, communicate the problem and delegate. 2 Follow the ABC protocol. 3 Time the resuscitation and use elapsed time prompts. 4 Intubate and ventilate with 100% O2 if respiratory arrest. 5 Use vasopressors to maintain an adequate blood pressure. 6 Elevate the legs and rapidly infuse IV fluids. 7 Commence CPR if there is no detectable cardiac output. 16 8 Give atropine for associated bradycardia. Steps 1-8 also apply to non pregnant patient. 9 Deliver the baby after 4 minutes if there is no 10 response. Inform ICU and the neonatal unit Cardiac Arrest Ext No. . . . . . . Obstetric Emergency Ext No. . . . . . . Neonatal Unit Ext No. . . . . . . ICU Unit Ext No. . . . . . . TOTAL SPINAL Obstetrics Call for assistance immediately. An unconscious pregnant woman will require many hands to manage during resuscitation. Delegate clearly and convey the sense of urgency. Although the steps are listed sequentially, with delegation key interventions should be occurring simultaneously – leg elevation, fluids and vasopressors can all occur during the securing of the airway. The diagnosis is usually apparent – rapidly ascending numbness and paralysis following spinal or epidural. If not witnessed or diagnosis uncertain, see Maternal Collapse (tab 18). The differential diagnosis includes: Vasovagal Haemorrhage LA toxicity IVC compression Embolus A pregnant woman is prone to reflux. Intubation is preferred but should not exclude any other form of airway management if conditions don't permit (cricoid pressure is recommended). If the patient has lost consciousness, intubation can be accomplished without an induction agent or with relaxant only. In profound spinal blockade with an detectable cardiac output CPR should commenced be until there is a response to fluids and vasopressors. It should be performed in accordance with the maternal resuscitation guidelines (see Maternal Collapse - tab 18) including emphasis on uterine displacement, left lateral tilt and delivery of the baby. Delivery should be considered 4 minutes after commencement of CPR Bolus drug dosages: Atropine Ephedrine Phenylephrine Adrenaline 0.6–1.2mg 12–15mg 50–100mcg 25–50mcg 17 POST PARTUM HAEMORRHAGE 1 Call for help, communicate the problem and delegate. 2 Administer 100% oxygen. 3 Insert 14g IV cannula 2. 4 Use crystalloid or colloid resuscitation*. 5 ‘Rub up’ the uterus or use bimanual compression. 6 Notify blood bank for crossmatch and component therapy. 7 Consider group specific or O negative blood. 8 Notify operating theatres for immediate transfer. 9 Use oxytocics for uterine atony. 17 10 Support vital organ perfusion with vasopressors. 11 Induce general anaesthesia with RSI for surgical control. 12 Continue with Severe Haemorrhage Protocol (tab 5). Obstetrics Ext No. . . . . . . Duty anaesthetist Ext No. . . . . . . Blood bank Ext No. . . . . . . Operating Theatres Ext No. . . . . . . POST PARTUM HAEMORRHAGE Blood loss is frequently underestimated and coagulopathy may be disproportionate to blood loss. *There is no advantage of colloid over crystalloid supported by evidence (meta-analysis in Cochrane library favoured crystalloid). Use normal saline or lactated Ringer's solution. . . NOT 5% dextrose. 1 litre blood loss requires 3–5 litres of crystalloid. Uterine manoeuvres including ‘rubbing up’ the uterus or bimanual compression can significantly slow and reduce blood loss. FFP, platelets, cryoprecitate, antifibrinolyitics and recombinant Factor VII and Prothrombinex may all be required. Products should be administered initially as clinical circumstances dictate but then guided by coagulation testing. Life threatening haemodynamics may require the use of uncrossmatched (O negative) or group specific blood. Oxytocic dosages: Oxytocin Ergometrine Misprostol Carboprost 5IU slow push IV 10IU per hour infusion 500mcg IMI 400 to 1000mcg PR/SL 250mcg IMI/intrauterine (15 minutely, max 8 doses) Vasopressor dosage: Ephedrine Metaraminol Phenylephrine 6 to 12mg bolus 1mg bolus 25–50mcg bolus 18 MATERNAL COLLAPSE 18 1 Call for help, communicate the problem and delegate. 2 Commence CPR. Use left, cephalad uterine displacement or max 30° tilt. 3 Intubate early and ventilate with 100% O2. 4 Establish IV access. 5 Place monitor leads and assess cardiac rhythm. 6 Follow the appropriate cardiac arrest protocol see tab 1 and 2. 7 Treat any reversible causes. 8 Deliver baby after 4 minutes if pregnancy > 24 weeks. 9 Debrief and support the resuscitation team. Emergency Call Ext No. . . . . . . Obstetric team Ext No. . . . . . . OR Ext No. . . . . . . Paeds Ext No. . . . . . . MATERNAL COLLAPSE Key differences in maternal resuscitation are: uterine displacement early intubation baby delivery Early intubation reduces aspiration risk. Task delegation includes: Airway Chest compression Uterine displacement IV insertion Common causes (delivery less likely) Vasovagal High epidural/spinal block (tab 16) LA toxicity (tab 20) Haemorrhage (tab 17) Hypertensive disease of pregnancy Commence magnesium sulphate therapy for seizures Loading dose 4g over 15 minutes (1g = 4mmol Mg) Infusion 1g/hr for 24 hours 2g bolus if still fitting Uncommon causes (delivery more likely) Pulmonary embolus Cardiac event (4Hs 4Ts, tab 1) Uterine rupture Cerebral event Amniotic fluid embolus Anaphylaxis (tab 6) A PERIMORTEM delivery pack should be kept on the resuscitation trolley. The most experienced clinician performs C–section with a vertical incision (or obstetrician preference) for rapid extraction of baby. Maternal resuscitation is a traumatic event for all concerned. Debriefing and supportive counselling are recommended. 19 NEONATAL RESUSCITATION – NEWBORN LIFE SUPPORT 1 Dry, warm and cover the baby to conserve heat. 2 Assess the colour, tone, breathing and heart rate. 3 Call for assistance, communicate the problem and delegate tasks if nonvigorous or condition deteriorating. 4 Open the airway and give 5 inflation breaths. 5 Reassess heart rate (target >100bpm) and chest movement. 6 If there is no improvement or chest movement, reposition and repeat. 7 Visualize the pharynx, suction and intubate if necessary. 8 If the heart rate falls below 60/min commence chest compressions. 9 Reassess every 30 seconds and if no response Give 19 adrenaline 10–30mcg/kg glucose 10% 2.5ml/kg 10 In the presence of hypovolaemia, 10ml/kg of isotonic crystalloid or O negative, CMV negative blood can be given and repeated if necessary. 11 Continue Paediatric Advanced Life Support (tab 3) and admit to Neonatal ICU if successful resuscitation Neo-natal ICU Ext No. . . . . . . NEONATAL RESUSCITATION – NEWBORN LIFE SUPPORT An inflation breath is 2–3 seconds in duration and 30cm H2O pressure – if the heart rate responds by increasing, continue to ventilate at a rate of 30–40/min until there is adequate spontaneous ventilation. If there is no chest movement, reposition and try airway manoeuvres to aerate effectively include: Postioning of head (neutral) Jaw thrust (assistance may be required) Oropharyngeal airway (Guedel) Laryngoscopy, suction þ/ intubation Gentle oropharyngeal suctioning is preferred. Nasopharyngeal suctioning has been associated with bradycardia during resuscitation. Endotracheal suctioning is still indicated in nonvigorous babies when meconium is present. The LMA™ can be used as an alternative airway device. Colour is not a reliable indicator of SpO2 in the newborn but pallor may indicate an acidotic or anaemic baby. SpO2 soon after birth should be 60% increasing to >90% at 10 minutes. Room air is appropriate for the term newborn. However if SpO2 is still unacceptable, introduce oxygen supplementation – use oximetry for guidance. Hyperoxaemia, particularly in preterm babies, should be avoided. Chest compressions are given at 120/min. Ventilation chest compression ratio should be 1:3 with a pause for ventilation. Once intubated, the pause is no longer necessary. Ventilation and chest compression fail to resuscitate less than 1 in 1000 babies Adrenaline dose is 10mcg/kg but can be increased to 30mcg/kg if the lower dose is not effective. Bicarbonate is not recommended. Post resuscitation care should include therapeutic hypothermia if evidence of evolving encephalopathy. 20 LOCAL ANAESTHETIC TOXICITY 20 1 STOP giving the drug. 2 Call for help, communicate the problem and delegate. 3 Review the airway, secure if necessary with intubation and ventilate with 100% O2. 4 Commence CPR if there is circulatory arrest. 5 Secure intravenous access and treat convulsions. 6 Follow standard arrhythmia protocols (tab 1 and 2). 7 Administer 20% intralipid intravenously. The intralipid is kept in the . . . . . . 8 Consider cardiopulmonary bypass if readily accessible. Perfusion Ext No. . . . . . . LOCAL ANAESTHETIC TOXICITY If there is no circulatory arrest, use conventional supportive measures to maintain haemodynamic stability. Delegate a staff member to monitor haemodynamic status and to call out elapsed time (1 to 2 minutely). Amiodarone can be used for ventricular irritability but lignocaine and other class 1B antiarrhythmic agents should be avoided – for dosage see tab 1. Beta blockers can also have an adverse effect through myocardial depression and decreasing clearance of anaesthetic agent. Advanced life support should be continued for at least one hour because of the duration of binding to the myocardium. Drug dosages Anticonvulsants Midazolam Diazepam Thiopentone Propofol 0.05–0.1mg/kg 0.1–0.2 mg/kg 1mg/kg 0.5–2mg/kg 70kg patient 5–10mg 5–10mg 50mg 50–100mg 20kg patient 1–2mg 2mg 20mg 20–40mg Intralipid regimen Immediately: 1.5mg/kg bolus over 1 minute (100ml in adult). Commence infusion of 15ml/kg/hr (1000ml per hour in adults). At 5 minutes: Repeat the bolus dose and double the infusion rate if not responding. Allow a total of three bolus doses 5 minutes apart. Although there are significant practical considerations, a well rehearsed cardiac unit with bypass readily available may be lifesaving. 21 HYPERKALAEMIA 1 Exclude any possible artifact. Repeat sample. 2 Establish cardiac monitoring and intravenous access. 3 Cease any source of Kþ administration. 4 Hyperventilate the patient. 5 Give: 6 Consider continuous nebulized salbutamol. 7 Undertake dialysis if dangerous levels persist or longer term control required. 8 Correct any reversible precipitating factors. 21 Calcium chloride NaHCO3 Glucose Insulin HYPERKALAEMIA Treatment is required if hyperkalaemia is considered severe (>7mmol/L) or there are obvious ECG changes. To exclude artifact, repeat venepuncture from a new site. ECG changes: Peaked T waves Loss of P wave Prolonged PR Loss of R amplitude Widened QRS Sine wave pattern – asystole Drug dosages Adult: Calcium chloride Calcium gluconate NaHCO3 50% dextrose Insulin 5ml 10% IV slow push 10ml 10% IV slow push 50ml IV stat 25–50ml IV stat 10 units IV stat Paediatric: Calcium chloride 0.2ml/kg 10% IV over 5 min (5ml max) 1ml/kg 10% IV over 3–5 mins (10ml max) 0.5g/kg (2ml/kg) 0.1units/kg IV stat Calcium gluconate Glucose 25% Insulin Precipitating factors include: trauma burns suxamethonium (burns, spinal injury, neurological disease) malignant hyperthermia acidosis acute renal failure organ reperfusion following clamp release haemolyis/massive transfusion medications Avoid: suxamethonim respiratory acidosis Hartmann's solution 22 MALIGNANT HYPERTHERMIA (MH) 1 Call for help, communicate the problem and delegate. 2 Request pre-prepared MH box. Use task cards. Box is located. . . . . . . 3 Cease and remove volatile agents. Change soda lime only if quick and easy. 4 Hyperventilate with 15l/min 100% O2 – do not waste time changing circuit or machine. 5 Commence IV dantrolene. Use 2.5mg/kg. 6 Maintain anaesthesia – use TIVA. 7 Insert arterial line and consider CVC – do not delay dantrolene. 8 Actively cool the patient. 9 Treat associated conditions: Hyperkalaemia 22 Acidosis Arrhythmias 10 Maintain urine output at >2ml/min. 11 Monitor with serial ABGs, electrolytes and temperature. 12 Admit to the ICU. MH box is located. . . . . . . Laboratory Ext No. . . . . . . ICU Ext No. . . . . . . MALIGNANT HYPERTHERMIA (MH) Signs suggesting possible MH Early Elevated EtCO2 Masseter spasm Tachycardia Arrhythmias Developing Acidosis Temperature rise CVS instability arrest Hyperkalaemia Late Cola-coloured urine ""CK Coagulopathy #SpO2 If there is a malignant hyperthermia pre-prepared ‘box’ in the hospital, use it and follow the task card system. If not, prioritize treatment: Dantrolene Anaesthesia Supportive therapy Dantrolene requires dedicated staff to prepare. It is dissolved in sterile water. TIVA – use propofol TCI 4mcg/ml or 30–50ml/hr in adult. Hyperkalaemia is treated according to protocol - see tab 21. Diuresis is maintained using 0.5g/kg of mannitol. Aim for >2ml/kg/hr with a pH>7.0. Consider the treatment of acidosis with 8.4% NaHCO3 only if there is associated hyperkalaemia. Active cooling includes: Intra-abdominal lavage (saline at 4 C) Cool IV fluids Cool sponging and ice packs Lowering theatre temperature Blood chemistry includes FBC, electrolytes, ABG's, CK, clotting profile and myoglobin levels. 23 TERMINAL EVENT CHECKLIST – THE 10 Ts 1 Tubes: airway placement, obstruction, disconnection, constriction, disruption. 2 Torrential haemorrhage. 3 Tryptase: anaphylaxis induced cardiac arrest. 4 Terminal rhythm: primary cardiac disease. 5 Tamponade: traumatic or surgical. 6 Tension pneumothorax. 7 Thrombus: cardiac, pulmonary embolus, amniotic fluid, air or fat embolus. 8 Toxic: drugs, electrolytes, metabolic derangement. 9 Total spinal. 10 Tumour: space occupying lesions producing "ICP. The 10 Ts checklist may help clinicians managing an anaesthetic crisis when the diagnosis has not been established. 23 NOTES 24 References Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland Safety Guidelines – Management of Patient with Suspected Anaphylaxis during Anaesthesia – Blood Transfusion and the Anaesthetist; Management of Massive Haemorrhage – Blood Transfusion and the Anaesthetist; Blood Component Therapy – Checklist for Anaesthetic Equipment (2004) – Management of a Malignant Hyperthermia Crisis (2007) – Management of Severe Local Anaesthetic Toxicity 2 (2010) http://www.aagbi.org/publications.htm Resuscitation Council (UK) Guidelines, Medical Information and Reports; Resuscitation Guidelines 2010 www.resus.org.uk 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science. Circulation 2010;122(18 suppl 3). Difficult Airway Society (UK) Guidelines www.das.uk.com Heard A. et al. The formulation and introduction of a ‘Can't intubate, Can't ventilate’ algorithm into clinical practice. Anaesthesia 2009;64(6):601–8. Allman K, McIndoe A, Wilson I. Emergencies in Anaesthesia. Oxford University Press, 2005. Gaba D, Fish K, Howard S. Crisis Management in Anaesthesia. Churchill Livingstone, 1993. For further references, please see www.cambridge.org/9780521279864 24 CRISIS PREVENTION Contents 15 Point Anaesthetic Machine Check .................. 25 Elevated Airway Pressure ........................................ 26 Desaturation ................................................................ 27 Hypertension................................................................ 27 Hypotension ................................................................ 28 Tachycardia .................................................................. 28 Bradycardia .................................................................. 29 Hypercapnia ................................................................ 29 Hypocapnia .................................................................. 30 Crisis Prevention Checklist...................................... 30 25 25 15 POINT ANAESTHETIC MACHINE CHECK 1 Check the machine is switched on, uncluttered and positioned appropriately for the operating session. 2 Check service date and be aware of any notifications on the machine. 3 Check monitors are on with appropriate limits, cycling times and sampling lines connected – confirm oxygen analyzer, pulse oximeter and capnograph are functioning. 4 ‘Tug test’ the pipeline connections. 5 Check the oxygen is connected to the machine. 6 Check there is an adequate reserve supply of O2. 7 Check other gas supplies are adequate and all pipeline pressures are between 400–500kpa. 8 Check flow meters are operating smoothly throughout the flow range. 15 POINT ANAESTHETIC MACHINE CHECK 26 9 Check the antihypoxia device and O2 bypass are correctly functioning. 10 Check vapourizers are filled, seated, not leaking and then switched off. 11 Check the breathing circuit 12 13 14 15 configuration connections valves leaks (include inner tube if present) Check the ventilator tube connections pressure relief valve disconnect alarm settings Check the scavenging system is connected correctly configured functioning Check the airway trolley – make sure all equipment needed for the anaesthetic plan (and contingency plan) is present and functioning. Check suction, bed tilt, and confirm an alternative means of ventilation. *AIRWAY PRESSURE 26 Circuit Ventilator bag switch Ventilator setting Obstructed or kinked circuit Filter blockage Circle valve malfunction APL valve closed or stuck O2 flush malfunction Airway Laryngospasm Tube position Tube size Tube obstruction Patient Bronchospasm Tracheal pathology Respiratory tract tumours Pneumothorax Pneumoperitoneum Chest wall rigidity Obesity Chest compression Alveolar pathology: Oedema Fibrosis Contusion Infection ARDS Most likely Inadequate muscle relaxant Airway position Laryngospasm Bag/ventilator settings DESATURATION (#SpO2) +Delivery of O2 to lungs Oxygen supply – low FiO2 Apnoea Low or inappropriate FGF ETT in left main bronchus Airway postion/obstruction Laryngospasm Brochospasm Ventilator malfunction/setting Circuit obstruction/disconnect +Delivery of blood to lungs Cardiac arrest Cardiac failure Anaphylaxis Pulmonary embolism Impaired oxygen exchange or * A V shunt One lung ventilation Pulmonary oedema Aspiration Contusion Atelectasis Pneumothorax Pneumoperitoneum Pneumonia Sepsis/ARDS Artifact Most likely Hypothermia Poor peripheral circulation Probe displacement Probe displacement Apnoea/hypoventilation Tube position Laryngospasm 27 HYPERTENSION Anaesthesia Emergence Inadequate depth Inadequate analgesia Hypoxia Hypercarbia Malignant hyperthermia Drugs Transducer height Surgery Tourniquet application Aortic clamping Carotid endarterectomy Baroreceptor stimulation Patient Essential hypertension Full bladder Pre-eclampsia Renal disease Phaeochromocytoma Thyroid storm Raised intracranial pressure 27 28 Most likely Intubation/emergence Inadequate anaesthesia/analgesia Drugs Essential hypertension HYPOTENSION +Preload +Contractility Blood loss Obstructed venous return Dehydration Capillary leak Elevated intrathoracic pressure Tamponade Embolism Patient position Drugs (including volatile agents) Ischaemic heart disease Cardiomyopathy Myocarditis Arrhythmia Valvular heart disease Sudden increased afterload +Systemic vascular resistance Volatile agents Narcotics Vasodilators Regional blockade Sepsis Post cardiopulmonary bypass Neuropathy Tourniquet release Addison's disease Thyroid disease Anaphylaxis Bone cement Most likely Anaesthetic agent Narcotics Regional blockade Hypovolaemia 28 TACHYCARDIA Primary causes Ischaemic heart disease Post cardiac surgery Cardiomyopathy Accessory conduction pathways Sick sinus syndrome Congestive heart failure Myocarditis Pericarditis Valvular disease Congenital heart disease Secondary causes Hypovolaemia Anaesthetic depth Drugs Anxiety Hypertension Electrolyte abnormalities Tamponade Sepsis Throtoxicosis Lung disease Malignant hyperthermia 28 Most likely Anxiety Intubation Anaesthetic depth Drugs Hypovolaemia BRADYCARDIA Primary causes Ischaemic heart disease Sick sinus syndrome Degeneration of conduction system Valvular disease Myocarditis Cardiomyopathy Post cardiac surgery Hereditary conduction disorders Physiological fitness Secondary causes Electrolyte abnormalities Antiarrhythmic medication Anaesthesia Hypothyroidism Hypothermia Vasovagal syndrome Increased intracranial pressure Anaesthetic causes Most likely Hypoxia Volatile agent Muscle relaxant Narcotic Anticholinesterase High spinal/epidural Vasopressor reflex Drug related Vasovagal Spinal anaesthesia Fitness 29 HYPERCAPNIA *Production Endogenous Exogenous +Excretion Circuit 29 Lungs Most likely Sepsis Malignant hyperthermia Thyroid storm NLMS Reperfusion Bicarbonate administration CO2 insufflation TPN CO2 in fresh gas flow Exhausted soda lime Airway obstruction Dead space Inadequate fresh gas flow Valve malfunction in circuit Incorrect ventilator settings Spontaneous hypoventilation Bronchospasm Chronic airways disease Spontaneous hypoventilation Exhausted soda lime Ventilator setting Fresh gas flow setting HYPOCAPNIA +Production Hypothermia Hypothyroidism *Excretion Spontaneous hyperventilation Inappropriate ventilator setting +Transport in blood Cardiac arrest Severe hypotension Anaphylaxis Pulmonary embolus +Transport in lungs ETT obstruction Incorrect airway placement Laryngospasm Severe bronchospasm Sampling dilution Disconnect Entrainment Inappropriate sampler placement High fresh gas flows NO EtCO2 Most likely Disconnect No sampling No ventilation Cardiac arrest Hyperventilation Inadequate tidal volume Laryngospasm Incorrect airway placement Hypotension 30 CRISIS PREVENTION CHECKLIST 1 Check the machine. 2 Know the assistant's qualifications and experience. 3 Outline the anaesthetic plan – ask for feedback or questions. 4 Have a contingency plan – if uncertain consult with a colleague. 5 Know the location of dantrolene, difficult airway trolley and resuscitation trolley. 6 Confirm correct patient, procedure and side. 30 7 Be aware of any drug allergy. 8 Review airway and fasting status. 9 Check drug label and syringe. 10 Preoxygenate – check O2 is on and confirm EtCO2 trace. 11 Perform a post induction check “OCAB” 12 O xygenation C arbon dioxide A naesthetic agent B lood pressure In crisis management call for help early.