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Physics 102: Lecture 24
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
& Bohr Model of Atom
Hour Exam 3 is TONIGHT!
Physics 102: Lecture 24, Slide 1
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
Recall: Quantum Mechanics tells us outcomes of
individual measurements are uncertain
p y y 
Uncertainty in
momentum (along y)
2
ℏ = ℎ/2 
Uncertainty in
position (along y)
Rough idea: if we know momentum very precisely,
we lose knowledge of location, and vice versa.
This “uncertainty” is fundamental: it arises because
quantum particles behave like waves!
Physics 102: Lecture 24, Slide 2
Electron diffraction
Electron beam traveling through slit will diffract
Single slit diffraction pattern
Number of electrons
arriving at screen
w
q
q
electron
beam
py = p sinq
y
x
screen
Recall single-slit diffraction 1st minimum:
sinq = /w
w = /sinq = y
p y y  p sinq
Physics 102: Lecture 24, Slide 3

sinq
 p  h
Using de Broglie 
Number of electrons
arriving at screen
py
w
electron
beam
p y  w  h
y
x
screen
Electron entered slit with momentum along x direction and no
momentum in the y direction. When it is diffracted it acquires a py
which can be as big as h/w.
The “Uncertainty in py” is
py  h/w.
An electron passed through the slit somewhere along the y
direction. The “Uncertainty in y” is y  w.
p y  y  h
Physics 102: Lecture 24, Slide 4
Number of electrons
arriving at screen
py
w
electron
beam
p y  y  h
y
x
screen
If we make the slit narrower (decrease w =y) the diffraction
peak gets broader (py increases).
Δ ≈ ℎ/Δ
“If we know location very precisely, we lose knowledge of
momentum, and vice versa.”
Physics 102: Lecture 24, Slide 5
ACT/Checkpoint 1
p y y 
2
According to the H.U.P., if we know the x-position of a particle, we
cannot know its:
(1)
y-position
(2)
x-momentum
(3)
y-momentum
(4)
Energy
to be precise...
Of course if we try to locate the position of the particle
along the x axis to x we will not know its x component of
momentum better than px, where
px x 
Physics 102: Lecture 24, Slide 6
2
and the same for z.
Atoms
•
•
•
•
Evidence for the nuclear atom
Today
Bohr model of the atom
Spectroscopy of atoms
Next lecture
Quantum atom
Physics 102: Lecture 24, Slide 7
Rutherford Scattering
1911: Scattering He++ (an “alpha particle”) atoms off of gold.
Mostly go through, some scattered back!
Plum pudding theory:
+ and – charges uniformly
distributed  electric field felt
by alpha never gets too large
To scatter at large angles, need
positive charge concentrated in small
region (the nucleus)
10−10 
+
+
-
+
+
-
+
10−15 
Atom is mostly empty space with a small (r = 10-15 m) positively
charged nucleus surrounded by “cloud” of electrons (r = 10-10 m)
Physics 102: Lecture 24, Slide 9
Nuclear Atom (Rutherford)
Large angle scattering
Nuclear atom
Classic nuclear atom is not stable!
Electrons will radiate and spiral into
nucleus
Early “quantum” model: Bohr
Physics 102: Lecture 24, Slide 10
Need
quantum
theory
Bohr Model is Science fiction
The Bohr model is complete nonsense.
Electrons do not circle the nucleus in little planetlike orbits.
The assumptions injected into the Bohr model
have no basis in physical reality.
BUT the model does get some of the numbers
right for SIMPLE atoms…
Physics 102: Lecture 24, Slide 11
Hydrogen-Like Atoms
single electron with charge -e
nucleus with charge +Ze
(Z protons)
e = 1.6 x 10-19 C
Ex: H (Z=1), He+ (Z=2), Li++ (Z=3), etc
Physics 102: Lecture 24, Slide 12
The Bohr Model
Electrons circle the nucleus in orbits
Only certain orbits are allowed
2πr = nλ
= nh/p
n=1
-e

+Ze
 = 1,2,3 …
Physics 102: Lecture 24, Slide 13
The Bohr Model
Electrons circle the nucleus in orbits
Only certain orbits are allowed
-e
2πr = nλ
= nh/p
L = pr = nh/2π = nħ
n=2
2

+Ze
Angular momentum is quantized
Energy is quantized:  = −13.6   2 /2
Physics 102: Lecture 24, Slide 14
 = 1,2,3 …
v is also quantized in the Bohr model!
An analogy: Particle in Hole
• The particle is trapped in the hole
• To free the particle, need to provide energy mgh
• Relative to the surface, energy = -mgh
– a particle that is “just free” has 0 energy
E=0
h
E=-mgh
Physics 102: Lecture 24, Slide 15
An analogy: Particle in Hole
• Quantized: only fixed discrete heights of
particle allowed
• Lowest energy (deepest hole) state is called
the “ground state”
E=0
h
 = −13.6   2
Physics 102: Lecture 24, Slide 16
ground state
Some (more) numerology
• 1 eV = kinetic energy of an electron that has been
accelerated through a potential difference of 1 V
1 eV = qV = 1.6 x 10-19 J
• h (Planck’s constant) = 6.63 x 10-34 J·s
hc = 1240 eV·nm
• m = mass of electron = 9.1 x 10-31 kg
mc2 = 511,000 eV
• U = ke2/r, so ke2 has units eV·nm (like hc)
2ke2/(hc) = 1/137 (dimensionless)
“fine structure constant”
Physics 102: Lecture 24, Slide 17
For Hydrogen-like atoms:
Energy levels (relative to a “just free” E=0 electron):
mk 2e4 Z 2
13.6  Z 2
En  

eV  where  h / 2 
2
2
2
2
n
n
Radius of orbit:
2
2
n2
 h  1 n
rn  
  0.0529 nm 

2
Z
 2  mke Z
Physics 102: Lecture 24, Slide 18
Checkpoint 2
h 2 1 n2
n2
rn  ( )
 (0.0529nm)
2
2 mke Z
Z
Bohr radius
If the electron in the hydrogen atom was 207 times
heavier (a muon), the Bohr radius would be
1) 207 Times Larger
h 2 1
Bohr Radius  ( )
2
2

mke
2) Same Size
3) 207 Times Smaller
This “m” is electron
mass!
Physics 102: Lecture 24, Slide 19
ACT/Checkpoint 3
A single electron is orbiting around a nucleus
with charge +3. What is its ground state (n=1)
energy? (Recall for charge +1, E= -13.6 eV)
1)
2)
3)
E = 9 (-13.6 eV)
E = 3 (-13.6 eV)
E = 1 (-13.6 eV)
32/1 = 9
Z2
E n  13.6eV 2
n
Note: This is LOWER energy since negative!
Physics 102: Lecture 24, Slide 20
ACT: What about the radius?
Z=3, n=1
1. larger than H atom
2. same as H atom
3. smaller than H atom
h 2 1 n2
n2
rn  ( )
 (0.0529nm)
2
2 mke Z
Z
Physics 102: Lecture 24, Slide 21
Summary
• Bohr’s Model gives accurate values for electron
energy levels...
• But Quantum Mechanics is needed to describe
electrons in atom.
• Next time: electrons jump between states by
emitting or absorbing photons of the appropriate
energy.
Physics 102: Lecture 24, Slide 22
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