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Ch 18 Electrochemistry
OIL-RIG Reactions
Alessandro Volta’s Invention
Modified by Dr. Cheng-Yu Lai
Daily Electrochemistry Appliactions
Electrochemistry: The area of chemistry that examines the
transformations between chemical and electrical energy.
Electrochemistry Terminology #1
Oxidation – A process in which an element
attains a more positive oxidation state
Na(s)  Na+ + eReduction – A process in which an element
attains a more negative oxidation state
Cl2 + 2e-  2ClIn the following reaction, what is being oxidized, reduced?
What is the oxidizing agent, the reducing agent?
2
2 FeS2 (s, pyrite)  7 O2 (g)  2H2O(l)  2 Fe 2 (aq)  4 SO 4 (aq)  4 H (aq)
Electrochemistry Terminology #3
 Oxidizing agent
The substance that is reduced is the
oxidizing agent
 Reducing agent
The substance that is oxidized is the
reducing agent
You need to review the following terminology: oxidation,
reduction, oxidizing agent, reducing agent and half-reaction
(see CHEM 101).
Electrochemistry Terminology #4
 Anode
The electrode where
oxidation occurs
 Cathode
The electrode where
reduction occurs
Memory device:
Reduction
at the
Cathode
Redox Examples
1. In the reaction 2Ca(s) + O2(g) ------> 2CaO(s), calcium is __________
a. Reduced b. Electrolyzed c. synthesized d. oxidized
e. none of these
2. In the reaction SiO2(s) + 2C(s) -------> Si(s) + 2CO(g), which species is the oxidizing
agent?
a. Si
b. C
c. O
d. SiO2
e. CO
3. In the reaction Zn + H2SO4 --------> ZnSO4 + H2, which element, if any, is oxidized?
a. zinc b. hydrogen
c. sulfur d. oxygen
e. none is oxidized
Example 18.1 Half-Reaction Method of Balancing Aqueous Redox
Equations in Acidic Solution
Balance the redox equation:
General Procedure
Step 1
Assign oxidation states to all atoms and identify the substances being oxidized and reduced.
Step 2
Separate the overall reaction into two half-reactions: one for oxidation and one for reduction.
Step 3
Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 3rd Edition
Nivaldo J. Tro
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Redox Reactions and Current
• Redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons
from one substance to another.
• Therefore, redox reactions have the potential to
generate an electric current.
• To use that current, we need to separate the place
where oxidation is occurring from the place where
reduction is occurring.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Example - Zn (s) + Cu2+ (aq) Voltaic Cells
• Zn (s) + Cu2+ (aq)  Zn2+ (aq) + Cu (s)
– When run directly in a test tube
• Cu metal plates out on surface of Zn
metal
• Zn metal enters solution as Zn2+ ions
• Blue color of Cu2+ solution fades
In spontaneous oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, electrons
are transferred and energy is released. In order to harvest e /E,
Voltaic Cells (aka Galvanic Cell)
Redox reactions have the potential to generate an electric current.
To use that current, we need to separate the place where oxidation
is occurring from the place where reduction is occurring.
A typical voltaic cell looks like
this.
The oxidation occurs at the
anode.
The reduction occurs at the
cathode.
• We can use that energy to
do work if we make the
electrons flow through an
external device.
Voltaic or Galvanic cell – chemical energy is used to produce electrical
energy (DG<0) (i.e. a battery).
Electrolytic cell – an external source of electrical energy is used to do
work on a chemical system (i.e. charging a car battery with the
alternator after the car has started).
Cells Components :
An electrochemical cell is a reaction
system in which oxidation and reduction
reactions occur in separate
compartments (or 2 half cells) either
consume or produce electrical energy.
The cells are separated by a salt bridge
or semi-permeable membrane that
allows ions to migrate from one cell to
the other. Electrons move from anode
(oxd) to cathode (red).
Voltaic Cells
(+) charge
(-) charge
Once even one
electron flows from
the anode to the
cathode, the charges
in each beaker would
not be balanced and
the flow of electrons
would stop.
As the half reactions occur
A surplus of positive ions builds up at the anode , (-) charge
A surplus of negative ions builds up at the cathode, (+) charge
Anions and cations must flow to balance charge
Current is the number of electrons that flow through the system per second.
Unit = ampere
Salt Bridge
• Therefore, we use a salt
bridge, usually a Ushaped tube that
contains a salt solution,
to keep the charges
balanced.
Na +Cations move toward the cathode. The sign of this electrode is (+)
NO3-Anions move toward the anode. The sign of this electrode is (-)
Salt Bridges allows current to flow
• The salt bridge is a gel-filled U-tube with a
solution of a salt containing ions other than
those involved in the redox reaction
– KNO3 / NaNO3 is frequently used
– Na+ Cations flow toward the cathode to neutralize
the build-up of negative charge
– NO3- Anions flow toward the anode to neutralize
the build-up of positive charge
Shorthand Cell Notation
• Oxidation on the left
• Reduction on the right
• Single vertical line represents a phase boundary
– Liquid-metal or liquid-gas, etc.
The single line represents a phase
boundary (electrode to electrolyte)
• Double line is the salt bridge
and the double line represents a
Zn Zn
2
2
Cu Cu
physical boundary (porous
boundary)
electrons flow
The difference in potential energy between the reactants and products
is the potential difference.
Unit = volt
The amount of force pushing the electrons through the wire is called
the electromotive force, emf.
Consider the reduction potential chart. Find the reduction equations for Ag+  Ag and
Pb2+  Pb.
1.
Which metal ion has the greater reduction potential? ____ see table
2.
If these two metals (and their solutions) were used to create a galvanic cell,
which metal would be the anode? ____
3.
Write the reaction at the anode: ___________________________
4.
Write the reaction at the cathode: ____________________________
5.
What is the overall reaction? ____________________________________
6. Write the cell notation for the cell: ______|________||________|_______
7. How many moles of electrons are involved in this reaction?
Measuring
Standard
Electrode
Potential
Potentials are measured against a hydrogen ion
reduction reaction, which is arbitrarily assigned a
potential of zero volts.
Table of
Reduction
Potentials
Measured
against
the
Standard
Hydrogen
Electrode
Standard Potentials
• Once the hydrogen half cell has been assigned a voltage of 0.000 V,
other half cells can be measured relative to it
• Tables of standard potentials can be prepared

– These are always reduction potentials, i.e.,
Ered
– To obtain the oxidation potential, simply reverse the sign:

Ered
– Zn2+ (aq) + 2e-  Zn (s)
= -0.762V

Eox
– Zn (s)  Zn2+ (aq) + 2e= +0.762V
25 °C, 1 atm for gases, 1 M concentration of solution
• Standard voltages for oxidation and reduction are equal in
magnitude and opposite in sign
Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
• The strongest
oxidizers have the
most positive
reduction potentials.
• The strongest
reducers have the
most negative
reduction potentials.
Predicting Spontaneity of Redox Reactions
• A spontaneous reaction will take place when a
reduction half-reaction is paired with an oxidation
half-reaction lower on the table.
• If paired the other way, the reverse reaction is
spontaneous.
Cu2+(aq) + 2 e−  Cu(s)
Zn2+(aq) + 2 e−  Zn(s)
Ered = +0.34 V
Ered = −0.76 V
Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq)  Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s)
Cu(s) + Zn2+(aq)  Cu2+(aq) + Zn(s)
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
spontaneous
nonspontaneous
Example 18.5 Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions and
Sketching Electrochemical Cells
°
Solution
a.
b.
Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 3rd Edition
Nivaldo J. Tro
+ 0.45 V
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
A standard potential (Eo) is the electromotive force of a
half-reaction written as a reduction reaction in which all
reactants and products are in their standard states (see
The standard cell potential (Eºcell) is the potential of a
cell when all reactants and products are in their standard
states, i.e. the pressure of all gases are 1 atm, and the
concentration of dissolved species are 1 molar.
Eºcell = Eºcathode – Eºanode
or
Eºcell = Eºreduction – Eºoxidation
Because cell potential is
based on the potential
energy per unit of charge,
it is an intensive property.
( not numbers )
Zn - Cu
Galvanic Cell
The less positive, or
more negative
reduction potential
becomes the
oxidation…
Zn  Zn2+ + 2eCu2+ + 2e-  Cu
E = +0.76V
E = +0.34V
Zn + Cu2+  Zn2+ + Cu
E0 = + 1.10 V
Calculating Cell Potentials under Standard
Conditions
• E°cell = E°oxidation + E°reduction
• When adding E° values for the half-cells, do not
multiply the half-cell E° values, even if you need to
multiply the half-reactions to balance the equation.
Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
The greater the
difference between
the two, the greater
the voltage of the cell.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Ag+ (aq) + e
Why 2Ag+ (aq) +2 e
Why 3 Ag+ (aq) + 3e
Ag Ered =+ 0.799 V
Ag Ered =+ 0.799 V
3 Ag Ered =+ 0.799 V
E=0v
E =-1.201v
Free Energy
DG for a redox reaction can be found by using the
equation
DG = −nFE
where n is the number of moles of electrons
transferred, and F is a constant, the Faraday.
1 F = 96,485 C/mol = 96,485 J/V-mol
Under standard conditions,
DG = −nFE
E°cell, DG°, and K
• For a spontaneous reaction
– one that proceeds in the forward direction with the chemicals
in their standard states
DG° < 1 (negative)
– E° > 1 (positive)
– K>1
• DG° = −RTlnK = −nFE°cell
– n = the number of electrons
– F = Faraday’s constant = 96,485 C/mol e−
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Calculating
0
DG
for a Cell
DG0 = -nFE0
n = moles of electrons in balanced redox equation
F = Faraday constant = 96,485 coulombs/mol e-
Zn + Cu2+  Zn2+ + Cu
E0 = + 1.10 V
coulombs
Joules
DG   (2 mol e )(96 485
)(1.10
)

mol e
Coulomb
0

DG   212267 Joules   212 kJ
0
°
Example 18.6 Relating ΔG °and Ecell
Use the tabulated electrode potentials to calculate ΔG° for the reaction.
Is the reaction spontaneous?
Sort
You are given a redox reaction and asked to find ΔG°.
Given:
Find: ΔG°
Strategize
Refer to the values of electrode potentials in Table 18.1 to calculate
°.
° . Then use Equation 18.3 to calculate G from Ecell
Ecell
Conceptual Plan
Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 3rd Edition
Nivaldo J. Tro
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
°
Example 18.6 Relating ΔG °and Ecell
Continued
Solve
Separate the reaction into oxidation and reduction half-reactions and find the standard electrode potentials for
° by subtracting Ean from Ecat.
each. Determine Ecell
Solution
-
Calculate ΔG° from E°cell. The value of n (the number of moles of electrons) corresponds to the number of
electrons that are canceled in the half-reactions. Remember that 1 V = 1 J/C.
Since ΔG° is positive, the reaction is not spontaneous under standard conditions.
Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 3rd Edition
Nivaldo J. Tro
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Nernst Equation
• Remember that Ch 17
DG = DG + RT ln Q
• This means
−nFE = −nFE + RT ln Q
Nernst Equation
• Remember that
DG = DG + RT ln Q
−nFE = −nFE + RT ln Q
We can combine R (8.31 J/mol-K), T (25 ºC = 298 K), and F (96480 J/molV) to give 0.0257V
Dividing both sides by −nF, we get the Nernst equation:
E = E −
E = E −
RT
ln Q
nF
0.0257V
ln Q
n
If concentration can gives voltage, then from voltage we
can tell concentration
Nernst Equation
Nernst Equation
Application- Concentration Cells
• Notice that the Nernst equation implies that a cell
could be created that has the same substance at both
electrodes.
 would be 0, but Q would not.
• For such a cell, Ecell
• Therefore, as long as the concentrations are
different, E will not be 0.
Cell Potential When Ion Concentrations Are
Not 1 M
• We know there is a relationship between the
reaction quotient, Q; the equilibrium constant, K;
and the free energy change, DGº.
• Changing the concentrations of the reactants and
products so they are not 1 M will affect the standard
free energy change, DGº.
• Because DGº determines the cell potential, Ecell, the
voltage for the cell will be different when the ion
concentrations are not 1 M.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Nernst Concentration Cells Calculations
Zn2+ (1.0M)  Zn2+ (0.10M)
0.0591
EE 
log(Q)
n
0
E  0.0 Volts
0
n2
(0.10)
Q
(1.0)
0.0591
0.10
E  0.0 
log(
)  0.030 Volts
2
1.0
Electrolytic
Processes
Electrolytic
processes are NOT
spontaneous. They
have:
A negative
cell potential, (-E0)
A positive free energy
change, (+DG)
Electrolysis
• In electrolysis we use electrical energy to overcome the
energy barrier of a nonspontaneous reaction, allowing it
to occur.
• The reaction that takes place is the opposite of the
spontaneous process.
2 H2(g) + O2(g)  2 H2O(l)
spontaneous
2 H2O(l)  2 H2(g) + O2(g)
electrolysis
• Some applications are (1) metal extraction from minerals
and purification, (2) production of H2 for fuel cells, and
(3) metal plating.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Electrolysis
• Running a galvanic cell
backwards.
• Put a voltage bigger than the
potential and reverse the
direction of the redox reaction.
• Used for electroplating.
Thin coatings of metals can be
applied using electrolytic reactions.
Electroplating of
Silver
Anode reaction:
Ag  Ag+ + eCathode reaction:
Ag+ + e-  Ag
Electroplating requirements:
1. Solution of the plating metal
2. Anode made of the plating metal
3. Cathode with the object to be plated
4. Source of current
Electrical Units
• Charge
– 1 mol electrons = 96,480 coulombs (of charge)
• Current
– 1 ampere = 1 coulomb/sec
• Electrical energy
– 1 joule = 1 C·V
– 1 kWh = 3.600 X 106 J = 3.600 X 103 kJ
Calculating plating
•
•
•
•
•
•
Have to count charge.
Measure current I (in amperes)
1 amp = 1 coulomb of charge per second
q=Ixt
q/nF = moles of metal
Mass of plated metal
Solving an Electroplating Problem
Q: How many seconds will it take to plate out 5.0 grams
of silver from a solution of AgNO3 using a 20.0 Ampere
current?
Ag+ + e-  Ag
5.0 g
1 mol Ag 1 mol e-
96 485 C
107.87 g
1 mol e-
1 mol Ag
1s
20.0 C
= 2.2 x 102 s
Electrolysis
1.0 M aqueous solutions of AgNO3, Cu(NO3)2 and Au(NO3) 3 are electrolyzed in
the apparatus shown, so the same amount of electricity passes through each solution.
If 0.10 moles of solid Cu are formed how many moles of Ag and Au are formed?
Example 18.10 Stoichiometry of Electrolysis
Gold can be plated out of a solution containing Au 3+ according to the half-reaction:
What mass of gold (in grams) is plated by a 25-minute flow of 5.5 A current?
Sort
You are given the half-reaction for the plating of gold, which shows the stoichiometric relationship between moles of
electrons and moles of gold. You are also given the current and duration. You must find the mass of gold that will be
deposited in that time.
Given:
3 mol e– : 1 mol Au
5.5 amps
25 min
Find:
g Au
Strategize
You need to find the amount of gold, which is related stoichiometrically to the number of electrons that have flowed
through the cell. Begin with time in minutes and convert to seconds. Then, since current is a measure of charge per
unit time, use the given current and the time to find the number of coulombs. You can use Faraday’s constant to
calculate the number of moles of electrons and the stoichiometry of the reaction to find the number of moles of gold.
Finally, use the molar mass of gold to convert to mass of gold.
Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 3rd Edition
Nivaldo J. Tro
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Example 18.10 Stoichiometry of Electrolysis
Continued
Conceptual Plan
Solve
Follow the conceptual plan to solve the problem, canceling units to arrive at the mass of gold.
Solution
Check
The answer has the correct units (g Au). The magnitude of the answer is reasonable if we consider that 10 amps
of current for 1 hour is the equivalent of about 1/3 mol of electrons (check for yourself), which would produce
1/9 mol (or about 20 g) of gold.
Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 3rd Edition
Nivaldo J. Tro
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Other uses
• Electroysis of water.
• Seperating mixtures of ions.
• More positive reduction potential means the
reaction proceeds forward.
• We want the reverse.
• Most negative reduction potential is easiest to
plate out of solution.
Example 18.8 Calculating Ecell under Nonstandard Conditions
Determine the cell potential for an electrochemical cell based on the following two half-reactions:
Sort
You are given the half-reactions for a redox reaction and the concentrations of the aqueous reactants and products.
You are asked to find the cell potential.
Given:
Find: Ecell
Strategize
° . Then use Equation 18.9 to calculate Ecell.
Use the tabulated values of electrode potentials to calculate Ecell
Conceptual Plan
Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 3rd Edition
Nivaldo J. Tro
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Example 18.8 Calculating Ecell under Nonstandard Conditions
Continued
Solve
Write the oxidation and reduction half-reactions, multiplying by the appropriate coefficients to cancel the
°.
electrons. Find the standard electrode potentials for each. Find Ecell
Solution
° . The value of n (the number of moles of electrons) corresponds to the number of electrons
Calculate Ecell from Ecell
(6 in this case) canceled in the half-reactions. Determine Q based on the overall balanced equation and the given
concentrations of the reactants and products. (Note that pure liquid water, solid MnO 2, and solid copper are
omitted from the expression for Q.)
Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 3rd Edition
Nivaldo J. Tro
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Example 18.8 Calculating Ecell under Nonstandard Conditions
Continued
Check
° , as expected based on Le Châtelier’s
The answer has the correct units (V). The value of Ecell is larger than Ecell
principle because one of the aqueous reactants has a concentration greater than standard conditions and the one
aqueous product has a concentration less than standard conditions. Therefore, the reaction has a greater tendency
to proceed toward products and has a greater cell potential.
For Practice 18.8
Determine the cell potential of an electrochemical cell based on the following two half-reactions:
Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 3rd Edition
Nivaldo J. Tro
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Electrolysis
Electrolysis
Electrolysis
Electrolysis
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