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Rjevqy cwieZ©b I K…wl
cwiewZ©Z cwiw¯’wZ‡Z K…wl‡Z KiYxq
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K…wlwe` †gv. bRiæj Bmjvg
K…wlwe` W. Avey Iqvjx ivwMe nvmvb
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K…wl Z_¨ mvwf©m
cÖKvkbvq
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Lvgvievwo, dvg©‡MU
†dvb : 880-2-9112260
d¨v· : 880-2-9116768
I‡qe :www.ais.gov.bd
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Avi GB Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi weiƒc cÖfve K…wli Ici mivmwi c‡o| Z…Zxq
we‡k¦i Ab¨vb¨ †`k¸‡jvi g‡Zv evsjv‡`‡k K…wli Drcv`b GLbI Rjevqyi Ici
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cwigv‡Yi ZviZg¨ NU‡Q Ges Gi weiƒc cÖfve mivmwi K…wli Ici co‡Q|
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Kvi‡YB evsjv‡`k Rjevqy cwieZ©‡b wec`vcbœ| evsjv‡`‡ki wewfbœ A‡j
Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖfv‡e wewfbœ ai‡bi Avc` cwijwÿZ n‡”Q| †`‡ki
DËivÂj I ga¨v‡j †gŠmygx eb¨v; DËi cwðgv‡j Liv; DËi c~ev© s‡k
AvKw¯§K eb¨v; `wÿY I `wÿY-cwðgv‡j jeYv³Zv, Nywb©So I R‡jv”Q¡v‡mi
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d‡j Avev`x RwgI K‡g hv‡”Q| e‡i›`ª A‡j Livi ZxeªZv I f‚Mf©¯’ cvwbi ¯Íi
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†`‡ki wewfbœ wecbœ GjvKv¸‡jv Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Suwz K †gvKv‡ejv Kiv †h‡Z
cv‡i| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cwiewZ©Z cwiw¯’wZ‡Z Awf‡hvRb ev Lvc LvIqv‡bvi
†KŠkj wPwýZ K‡i †KŠkj¸‡jv‡K DbœZ Z_¨ I cÖhwy ³ e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g gvV
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mnbkxj RvZ, Liv GjvKvi Rb¨ Liv mnbkxj dm‡ji RvZ I e„wói cvwb a‡i
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`y‡hv©M I K…wl †m±‡U Awf‡hvRb M‡elYv Ges M‡elYvjä dj m¤cÖmvi‡Yi Rb¨
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fy³‡fvMx K…lK‡`i GKmv‡_ KvR Kivi Ici ¸iæZ¡ Av‡ivc K‡i‡Qb| K…wl Z_¨
mvwf©‡mi K…wl Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM †K›`ª (GAvBwmwm) K…wl †m±‡i AvMvg
mZK©evZ©vmn cÖhwy ³ m¤cÖmvi‡Yi gva¨‡g Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Suwy K †gvKv‡ejvq
KvR ïiæ K‡i‡Q| m‡ev©cwi, ¯’vbxq ch©vq †_‡K RvZxq ch©vq ch©šÍ Rjevqy
cwieZ©b I cwiewZ©Z cwiw¯’wZ‡Z K…wl‡Z KiYxq w`K¸‡jv‡K ¸iæZ¡ w`‡q K…wl
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Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y m„ó `y‡h©v‡M K…wl †m±‡i †b‡g Avm‡Z cv‡i fqven
wech©q| Gme welq we‡ePbv K‡i K…wl †ÿ‡Î wewfbœ ai‡bi Awf‡hvRb, bZzb
km¨ ch©v‡qi cÖ‡qvM Ges m‡PZbZv Kvh©µg¸‡jv‡K ‡ckvRxex, bxwZ wba©viK
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†ÿ‡Î Gi cÖfve Ges GB cÖfve †gvKv‡ejvq m¤¢ve¨ KiYxq welq m¤ú‡K©
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Rjevqy n‡”Q †Kvb GjvKv ev †fŠMwjK A‡ji 30-35 eQ‡ii Mo
AvenvIqv| eZ©gvb we‡k¦ `ªæZ Rjevqy cwieZ©b GKwU ˆbwgwËK NUbv| GB
Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j c„w_exi ZvcgvÎv ax‡i ax‡i e„w× cv‡”Q, hv ˆewk¦K
DòZv bv‡g AwaK cwiwPZ| ˆeÁvwbK fvlvq G‡K MÖxb nvDm cÖfve ejv nq|
c„w_exi ZvcgvÎv e„w×i Kvi‡Y bvbv cÖKv‡ii `y‡h©vM e„w× cv‡”Q †hgb: AwZ e„wó,
AvKw¯§K eb¨v, Liv, R‡jv”Q¡m, N~wY©So BZ¨vw`| hvi djkÖæwZ‡Z Rvb I gv‡ji
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n‡”Q| G Kvi‡Y we‡k¦i †hme †`k ÿwZMÖ¯Í n‡e Zvi g‡a¨ evsjv‡`k Ab¨Zg|
evsjv‡`‡ki †fŠMwjK Ae¯’vb, Av_©-mvgvwRK AeKvVv‡gv Ges cÖvK…wZK
m¤ú‡`i Ici wbf©ikxjZvB Gi g~j KviY| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j
evsjv‡`‡ki mKj LvZ we‡kl K‡i AeKvVv‡gv, ¯^v¯’¨, evm¯’vb, K…wl Drcv`b,
cÖvK…wZK cwi‡ekmn RbKj¨vYg~jK me †mevLvZ Ges Lv`¨ wbivcËv
gvivZ¥Kfv‡e ÿwZMÖ¯Í n‡e, hv e¨vnZ Ki‡e Avgv‡`i avivevwnK Av_©-mvgvwRK
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Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖfve me‡P‡q †ewk c‡o‡Q K…wl †ÿ‡Î| K…wl wbf©i
A_©bxwZi †`k¸‡jv‡Z co‡Q weiƒc cÖfve| MZ kZvãx‡Z Kve©b WvB A·vB‡Wi
cwigvY †e‡o‡Q 23%, bvBUªvm A·vB‡Wi cwigvY †e‡o‡Q 19% Ges wg‡_‡bi
cwigvY †e‡o‡Q 100% (IPCC PZz_© cÖwZ‡e`b 2007)| †eu‡P _vKvi Rb¨
gvbyl‡K bvbv iKg cÖwZK~jZvi mv‡_ msMÖvg Ki‡Z nq|
eZ©gvb mg‡qi me‡P‡q eo cÖwZK~jZv ev ûgwK n‡”Q Rjevqy cwieZ©b| Rjevqy
cwieZ©b GKwU me©gq mgm¨v| GB cwieZ©‡b RbmsL¨vi †h AskwU me‡P‡q
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cwieZ©‡b me‡P‡q †ewk wecbœ| mg~`ª ZxieZx© †fŠMwjK Ae¯’vb, gvÎvwZwi³
RbmsL¨v, AcÖZj
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Kvi‡Y evsjv‡`‡ki wecbœZv LyeB fqven| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi m¤¢ve¨ ÿwZi nvZ
†_‡K evsjv‡`k‡K iÿvi Rb¨ me ¯Í‡ii Rb‡Mvôx‡K m‡PZb Kiv GKvšÍ
cÖ‡qvRb|
Rjevqy cwieZ©b GKwU wbqZ cÖvK…wZK NUbv wKš‘ gvby‡li Kg©KvÐ Øviv
e¨vcKfv‡e cÖfvweZ| gvby‡li wewfbœ Kg©KvÐ Rjevqy cwieZ©b‡K Z¡ivwš^Z
K‡i‡Q| wek¦ DòvwqZ n‡”Q Ges evsjv‡`‡ki g‡Zv Dbœqbkxj †`k¸‡jv wek¦
Dòvq‡bi cÖfv‡e e¨cK `y‡h©vM †cvnv‡”Q| wek¦ Dòvqb cv‡ë w`‡”Q AvenvIqvi
aib Ges FZz ˆewPΨ| IPCC mgxÿv wi‡cv©U Abyhvqx
evsjv‡`‡ki Mo evwl©K ZvcgvÎv MZ 14 eQ‡i (1985-1998) †g gv‡m
1wWMÖx †m. Ges b‡f¤^i gv‡m 0.5 wWMÖx †m. e„w× †c‡q‡Q|
evsjv‡`‡ki gvwUi jeYv³Zv e„w× 830,000 †n±i
evsjv‡`‡ki Mo e„wócvZ e„w× †c‡q‡Q, fqven eb¨vi cybive„wË N‡U‡Q,
MZ 2002, 2003, 2004, 2007 m‡b|
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b`x‡Z cÖ‡ek K‡i‡Q|
Rjevqyi Giƒc weiƒc cwiw¯’wZi mv‡_ Lvc LvIqv‡bvi Rb¨ we‡kl K‡i wewfbœ
Awf‡hvRb Kjv‡KŠkj iß Ki‡Z n‡e hv‡Z K‡i Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi ÿwZKi
cÖfve †_‡K K…wl‡K gy³ ivLv ev Szwu K Kgv‡bv hvq| GQvov `y‡h©vMgy³ mg‡q km¨
eûgyLxKiY I dm‡ji wbweoZv evwo‡q `y‡hv©‡Mi ÿwZ cywl‡q †bqv hvq|
Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi KviY
m„wói ci †_‡K bvbv Kvi‡Y c„w_exi Rjevqyi cwieZ©b n‡q
Avm‡Q| wKš‘ aviYv Kiv nq †h 18 kZ‡Ki wkí wecø‡ei ci †_‡K
c„w_exi Rjevqyi cwieZ©‡bi nvi `ªæZ †e‡M n‡q‡Q| wkí wecø‡ei ci
†_‡K c„w_exi ZvcgvÎv `ªæZ †e‡M †e‡o wM‡q gvivZ¥ wech©q †`Lv
w`‡q‡Q| c„w_exi DËi I `wÿY †giæ‡Z i‡q‡Q wekvj cwigvb eid|
GB eid n‡”Q c„w_exi †gvU cvwbi cwigv‡Yi 2 fvM| c„w_exi ZvcgvÎv
evovi Kvi‡Y GB eid Mj‡Z ïiæ K‡i‡Q| djkÖæwZ‡Z mgy`ª c„‡ôi
D”PZv †e‡o wM‡q ZxieZx© A‡bK GjvKv Wy‡e wM‡q‡Q Ges e„wócvZ,
R‡jv”Q¡vm I Zylvicv‡Zi cwigvY AvksKvRbK nv‡i †e‡o wM‡q‡Q|
djkÖæwZ‡Z mgy`ªc„ô †_‡K Lye †ewk DPz bq Ggb A‡bK Øxc, mgy`ª
ZxieZx© GjvKv †jvbv cvwb‡Z Wy‡e hv‡e| Rjevqy cwieZ©b nIqvi
Kvi‡Y cÖvK…wZK wech©‡qi cwigvY †e‡o wM‡q‡Q| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi
GB aviv Pj‡Z _vK‡j GKmgq c„w_ex gvivZ¥K wech©‡qi m¤§yLxb n‡e|
wecbœ n‡e c„w_exi Rxe‰ewPÎ I cwi‡ek|
Rjevqy cwieZ©b `xN© Kvje¨vcx nIqvi Kvi‡Y GB cwieZ©‡bi
wbqvgK¸‡jv kZeQi ci aiv c‡o| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi M‡elYvi
AvšÍR©vwZK ms¯’v B›UviMfvb©‡g›Uvj c¨v‡bj Ab K¬vB‡gU †PÄ (IPCC)
Zvi g‡Z we‡k¦ Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi KviY Gi ZvcgvÎv e„w×| MZ
kZvãx‡Z c„w_exi Mo ZvcgvÎv †e‡o‡Q 1.5 wWwMÖ †mt †_‡K 4.5 wWwMÖ
†mt| Avi GB ZvcgvÎv e„w×i g~j KviY n‡”Q wMÖb nvDm B‡d±| m~h©
†_‡K cvIqv kw³i Dci c„w_exi ZvcgvÎv wbf©i K‡i| GB ZvcgvÎv
c„w_ex‡K Dò iv‡L, hv wMÖb nvDm M¨vm bv‡g cwiwPZ| wMÖb nvDm
M¨v‡mi g‡a¨ cÖavb `ywU M¨vm n‡”Q Kve©b WvB A·vBW I wg‡_b|
c„w_ex‡Z LwbR `ªe¨ †cvov‡bvi Kvi‡Y evqygЇj Kve©b WvB A·vB‡Wi
cwigvY †e‡o wM‡q c„w_exi ZvcgvÎv evo‡Q| wMÖb nvDm B‡d‡±i d‡j
ZvcgvÎv e„w×i cÖavb KviY n‡”Q gbyl¨m„ó wewfbœ Kg©KvÛ| aviYv Kiv
nq wkí wecø‡ei ci †_‡K c„w_exi ZvcgvÎv Lye `ªæZ nv‡i evo‡Z ïiæ
K‡i‡Q| DbœZ ivóª ¸‡jv evqygЇj †ewk cwigvY ÿwZKi M¨vm wbM©gb
Ki‡Q| Avi Zvi weiƒc cÖfve enb Ki‡Q Mwie I Dbœqbkxj †`k
¸‡jv| c„w_exi A‡bK †`k evqygЇj ÿwZKi M¨vm wbM©g‡bi cwigvY
Kwg‡q‡Q wKš‘ GLb I evqygЇj ÿwZKi CO2 M¨vm Gi cwigvY evo‡Q
Av‡Mi †P‡q A‡bK †ewk| eZ©gv‡b c„w_ex‡Z Gi NbZ¡ 385 wcwcGg hv
MZ 8000 eQ‡ii g‡a¨ me‡P‡q †ewk| 1780 mv‡ji ci †_‡K gvby‡li
Kvh©Kjv‡ci Kvi‡Y evqygЇj Kve©b WvB A·vBW| wg‡_b I bvBUªvm
A·vBW A‡bK †ewk cwigv‡Y evo‡Q|
evqygЇj wg‡_b n‡”Q GKwU ¸iæZ¡cY~ © wMÖbnvDm M¨vm| cÖvq 1/4 Ask
wg‡_b M¨vm M„ncvwjZ RxeRš‘ †_‡K †hgb Miæ, QvMj, †fov, DU,
†Nvov Ges Li‡Mvk †_‡K Av‡m| GBme cÖvYx wg‡_b Drcv`b K‡i
Zv‡`i Pe©b cÖwµqvi gva¨‡g| av‡bi gvV †_‡K I cÖPzi cwigvY wg‡_b
wewfbœ Dcv‡q wbM©Z nq| cÖvq 90% avb Drcv`b GjvKv n‡”Q
Gwkqv‡Z| †hLv‡b avb n‡”Q cÖavb Lv`¨| Pxb Ges fviZ n‡”Q c„w_exi
80-90% avb Drcv`bKvix GjvKv|
Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi KviY¸‡jv‡K cÖavbZ `yB †kªYx‡Z fvM Kiv hvq h_v-
1| cÖvK…wZK KviY I 2 gbyl¨ m„ó KviY
cÖvK…wZK KviY ¸‡jv‡K K. gnv‡`kxq wWªdU L. Av‡MœqwMwii AMœy¨rcvZ
M.c„w_exi MwZ cwieZ©b N.mvgyw`ªK †mªvZ
gbyl¨ m„ó KviY mg~n¸‡jv‡K
K. Kve©b WvB A·vB‡Wi cwigvY e„w×
L. LwbR R¡vjvwb
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N. cvnvo wbab
O. ebf~wg DRvo
†M- vevj Iqvwg©s I Rjevqy cwieZ©b
Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi
d‡j c„w_exi ZvcgvÎv
ax‡i ax‡i e„w× cv‡”Q, hv
ˆewk¦K DòZv (Global
Warming)
bv‡g
cwiwPZ|
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fvlvq G‡K wMÖb nvDm
cÖfve ejv nq| Rjevqy
cwieZ©b g~jZ GKwU
cÖvK…wZK cÖwµqv wKš‘ eZ©gvb cÖhyw³ wbf©i mf¨Zvi AMÖmiZvi Kvi‡Y
cÖvK…wZK cwi‡ek cÖPÐ gvÎvq ÿwZMÖ¯Í n‡”Q hvi d‡j Rjevqy cwieZ©b
Zivwš^Z n‡”Q| g~jZ CO2, NO2, CH4 BZ¨vw` MÖxb nvDm M¨v‡mi
wbtmi‡Yi Kvi‡YB Rjevqy cwiewZ©Z n‡”Q| m~h© †_‡K AvMZ Av‡jv I
Zv‡ci weivU AskB wewKwiZ Zvc AvKv‡i †ei n‡q hvq, mvgvb¨ AskB
c„w_ex †kvlb K‡i| wMÖb nvDm M¨vm¸‡jvi AvwaK¨ g~jZ ZvcgvÎv a‡i
iv‡L Avi GB cÖeYZvB ˆewk¦K Dòvqb (Global Warming) Z_v
Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖavb KviY|
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(mgy`c
ª „ômn) DËß K‡i Avi †ekxi fvMB cÖwZdwjZ n‡q cybivq
gnvKv‡k P‡j hvq| wKš‘ GB Zvciwk¥ gnvKv‡k †dir hvIqvi c‡_
evqygЇji wKQy M¨vm (CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC BZ¨vw`, hv
wMÖbnvDm M¨vm bv‡g cwiwPZ) GB Zvc a‡i iv‡L| d‡j c„w_ex µgvMZ
DËß n‡”Q|
Rjevqy cwieZ©‡b wecbœ evsjv‡`k
Rjevqy cwieZ©b eZ©gvb kZvãx‡Z GKwU eo P¨v‡jÄ| Dbœqb I `vwi`ª
`~ixKi‡Y GwU GKwU eo iK‡gi ûgwK| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖfve me‡P‡q †ewk
co‡Q `wi`ª Ges AbybœZ †`‡ki Ici| Rxeb I RxweKvi Rb¨ AbybœZ †`‡ki
RbMY g~jZ: cÖKw… ZK cwi‡e‡ki Ici wbf©ikxj| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j
wek¦e¨vcx GK gvivZ¥K wech©q m„wó n‡q‡Q| c„w_exi Mo ZvcgvÎv †e‡o †M‡Q|
Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j cÖvK„wZK wech©q e„w×, AvenvIqvi Dcv`vb¸‡jv
cwieZ©b, mgy‡`ª c„‡ôi D”PZv e„w× BZ¨vw` NUbv N‡U‡Q| G‡`i cÖfv‡e Rxeb I
RxweKv AvR wecbœ| Rjevqy cwieZ©b GKwU wek¦e¨vcx mgm¨v; wKš‘ `wi`ª
Rb‡Mvôx Gi cÖfv‡e me‡P‡q †ekx wecbœ| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi GB wecbœZv
†fŠMwjK Ae¯’vb, Av_©-mvgvwRK Ae¯’v BZ¨vw`i Ici wbf©ikxj| wecbœZvi
aiY gvÎv wewfbœ ¯’v‡b I Rb‡Mvôx‡Z wewfbœ iKg| †fŠMvwjK Ae¯’vb, AZ¨waK
RbmsL¨v cÖvK…wZK m¤ú‡`i Ici AwaK wbf©ikxjZv BZ¨vw` Kvi‡Y evsjv‡`‡ki
wecbœZv fqven|
Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖfv‡e evsjv‡`k gvivZ¥Kfv‡e wecbœ| evsjv‡`‡ki `wi`ª
Rb‡Mvôxi bvRyK A_©bxwZ Ges cÖvK„wZK m¤ú‡`i Ici AwaK wbf©iZv G
wecbœZv‡K Av‡iv evwo‡q w`‡q‡Q|
evsjv‡`‡ki Mo evwl©K ZvcgvÎv MZ 14 eQ‡i (1985-1998) †g gv‡m
1 wWwMÖ Ges b‡f¤^i gv‡m 0.5 wWwMÖ †m e„w× †c‡q‡Q|
evsjv‡`‡k gvwUi jeYv³Zv e„w× 830,000 †n±i Avevw` Rwgi ÿwZ
K‡i‡Q|
evsjv‡`‡ki Mo e„wócvZ e„w× †c‡q‡Q|
fqven eb¨vi cybive„wË N‡U MZ 2002, 2003, 2004, 2007 m‡b|
e‡½vcmvM‡i N~wb©S‡oi msL¨v †e‡o‡Q|
MÖx®§Kv‡j mgy‡`ªi †jvbvcvwb †`‡ki Af¨šÍ‡i cÖvq 100 wK‡jvwgUvi ch©šÍ
b`x‡Z cÖ‡ek K‡i‡Q|
Rjevqy cwieZ©b I K…wl‡ÿ‡Î Gi cÖfve
evsjv‡`‡ki A_©bxwZ cÖavbZ K…wli Ici wbf©ikxj| evsjv‡`‡ki
A‡a©‡Ki ‡ewk gvbyl mivmwi K…wli Ici RxweKv wbe©vn K‡i| Ab¨w`‡K
cÖvq me RbMYB †Kv‡bv bv †Kv‡bv fv‡e K…wli Ici wbf©ikxj| K…wl
Drcv`‡bi wech©q n‡j †`‡ki A_©bxwZ Z_v Aw¯ÍZ¡ wecbœ n‡q c‡o|
2007 m‡b eb¨v I mvB‡K¬v‡bi Kvi‡Y dmjnvwb I Zvi d‡j cÖvq
fqven Ae¯’vi m„wó nq|
cÖvK…wZK ¯^vfvweK Avc‡`i cvkvcvwk Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y
m„ô AwZe„wó, Abve„wó, Amg‡q e„wó, Zxeª `nb, Liv, eb¨v, nVvr eb¨v,
mvB‡K¬vb meB K…wli Rb¨ ÿwZKi| evsjv‡`‡k cÖwZ eQi M‡o 80
nvRvi †n±i K…wl Rwg wewfbœ Kvi‡Y Pvlvev‡`i evB‡i P‡j hv‡”Q|
Rjevqy cwieZ©b Ges cÖwZ eQ‡ii cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM h_v-eb¨v, Liv,
NywY©So, R‡jv”Q¡vm BZ¨vw` Kvi‡Y dmjnvwb Lv`¨ Drcv`b e¨e¯’v‡K
ûgwKi gy‡L `vo Kwi‡q‡Q| K…wl cÖavb evsjv‡`‡ki wZbwU K…wl †gŠmy‡g
wewfbœ ai‡bi dmj cÖKw… Zi Ici wbf©ikxj| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j
e„wócv‡Zi avivi cwieZ©b nIqvq mgqgZ exR ecb, exR †ivcY Ges
†mP ¯^íZvi Kvi‡Y Avgb exR Drcv`‡b gvivZ¥K iKg ÿwZ n‡Z
cv‡i| GQvov iwe †gŠmy‡g kx‡Zi cÖ‡Kvc Ges NbKzqvkvi d‡j Avjy
Pv‡l wewfbœ †ivMevjvB Ges Mg Drcv`‡b gvivZœK mgm¨v m„wó n‡Z
cv‡i| wKQy GjvKvq mvgyw`ªK cÖvYx Ges grm¨m¤ú` gvivZ¥Kfv‡e ÿwZi
mš§yLxb n‡e|
cwi‡e‡ki Ici Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖfve wewfbœ gvÎvq †`Lv hvq| Mig
Kvj AviI Zvcgq, AwbqwgZ I Amg‡q e„wó, Kg mg‡q AwaK cwigv‡Y
e„wó Ges Gi d‡j m„ó Rjve×Zv I f~wg aŸm, ﮋ †gŠmy‡g Kg e„wócvZ,
eb¨vi cwigvY I ZxeªZv e„w×, AvKw¯§K eb¨v I Livi d‡j dmjnvwb,
AwZwi³ VvÐv I Mig, DcK‚jxq GjvKvq jeYv³ Rwgi cwigvY e„w× I
f~wgÿq, b`x ZxieZx© GjvKvi f~wgÿq, †mP LiP e„w× I my‡cq cvwbi
Kg cÖvc¨Zv BZ¨vw` A‡bK wKQyB Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖfv‡ei dj|
K…wl‡¶‡Î `y‡h©v‡Mi cÖfve
eb¨vi ¶wZKi cÖfve
evsjv‡`‡ki Dˇi wngvjq I `wÿ‡Y e‡½vcmvMi _vKvi Kvi‡Y
evsjv‡`k memgqB wecbœ| c„w_exi gvbwP‡ÎI evsjv‡`‡ki Ae¯’vbwU
AZ¨šÍ wec`RbK ¯’v‡b| evsjv‡`‡ki †ewki fvMB mgy`ª mgZ‡ji 1
wgUvi D”PZvi g‡a¨| mgy`c
ª „‡ôi D”PZv evovi Kvi‡Y †`‡ki cÖvq 120
nvRvi eM©wK‡jvwgUvi GjvKv mivmwi cøveb RwbZ ÿwZi mb¥yLxb n‡e|
Avgv‡`i †`‡ki †ewki fvM GjvKv mgZj n‡jI me f‚wg GKB gvÎvq
DPz bq, ZvB wKQy Rwg‡Z †ewk I wKQy Rwg‡Z Kg gvÎvq cøveb n‡Z
†`Lv hvq| Rjevqy cwiewZ©Z n‡j mviv †`‡k el©vq e„wócv‡Zi cwigvY
evo‡e hvi d‡j el©vi mgq b`x bvjv‡Z cvwb e„w× cv‡e Ges †`‡k evi
evi eb¨v †`Lv †`‡e| cvnvwo e„wócv‡Zi Kvi‡Y †gNbv AeevwnKvi
nvIo A‡j AvKw¯§K eb¨v (flash flood) †`Lv †`q|
Òeb¨vÓ evsjv‡`‡k ¯^vfvweK cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM hv ¯^vfvweK eb¨vgy³
GjvKv‡K fvwm‡q †`q| cÖwZ eQi eb¨v †gŠmy‡g (Avlvp †_‡K Avwk¦b
gvm) G‡`‡ki DËivÂj, ga¨vÂj I c~e©v‡j eb¨v n‡q _v‡K| G‡`‡k
eb¨vi cÖavb KviY n‡jv- DRv‡bi †`k fviZ, †bcvj, fyUvb I Pxb n‡Z
Xj AvKv‡i †b‡g Avmv cvwb| evsjv‡`‡k wewfbœ ai‡bi eb¨v msNwUZ
nq †hgb AwZe„wóRwbZ eb¨v, †gŠmywg eb¨v, AvKw¯§K eb¨v I DcK‚jxq
eb¨v|
†gŠmywg eb¨v DcK~jxq GjvKvq mgm¨vi m„wó K‡i bv| wKš‘ eb¨v cÖeY
GjvKvq Gi cÖfve Lye †ewk| dmj QvovI Rvb I gv‡ji e¨vcK ÿwZ
K‡i| †RvqviRwbZ eb¨v DcK~jxq GjvKvq e¨vcK ÿwZ K‡i| Rwg‡Z
jeYv³ cvwbi Rjv×Zvi m„wó K‡i hv dmj Pv‡li Rb¨ Abyc‡hvMx|
mybvgMÄ, wm‡jU, †b·Kvbv, bxjdvgvix BZ¨vw` †Rjv AvKw¯§K eb¨vi
d‡j ÿwZMÖ¯Í nq| `Ðvqgvb cwic° dmj KZ©‡bi Av‡M cÖwZ eQi
nvRvi nvRvi GKi cvKv †ev‡iv avb AvKw¯§K eb¨vq AvµvšÍ nq d‡j
Pvwl nq ÿwZMÖ¯Í| †`‡ki DËi-c~e©v‡ji cÖvq 4 nvRvi eM© wK‡jvwgUvi
I `wÿY-c~e©v‡ji 1 nvRvi 4 kZ eM© wK‡jvwgUvi GjvKv G ai‡bi
AvKw¯§K eb¨vi wkKvi|
evsjv‡`k cvwb m¤ú‡` mg„× n‡jI Rjevq~ cwieZ©‡bi d‡j AwZe„wó,
eb¨v I Rjve×Zvi cÖ‡Kvc µgvMZ evo‡Q| eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`‡ki cÖvq
1.5 wgwjqb †n±i Rwg cÖwZ eQi eb¨vKewjZ nq| evsjv‡`‡ki Mo
evwl©K e„wócv‡Zi cwigvY 2300 wgwg Ges AÂj‡f‡` Zv 1200 wgwg
(`wÿY-cwðg) †_‡K 5000 wgwg (DËi-c~e©vÂj) ch©šÍ n‡q _v‡K|
GK mgxÿvq †`Lv †M‡Q Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j evsjv‡`‡k e„wócv‡Zi
cwigvY evo‡Q Ges 2030 mv‡j evwl©K Mo e„wócv‡Zi cwigvY 10-15
kZvsk Ges 2075 mv‡j cÖvq 27 kZvsk †e‡o hvIqvi Avk¼v i‡q‡Q|
GKwU Mo cvwbe‡l© evsjv‡`‡ki cÖvq GK-PZz_©vsk cøvweZ nq| wKš‘
†`‡ki Af¨šÍ‡i Ges evwn‡i, we‡kl K‡i wngvjq Ges †gNvjq I
wÎcyivi cvnvwo A‡ji we¯ÍxY© GjvKvq AwZe„wói Kvi‡Y eZ©gv‡b
¯^vfvweK e„wóe‡l©i Zzjbvq A‡bK †ewk GjvKv eb¨v KewjZ Ges
Rjve×Zv `xN©¯’vqx n‡”Q| fwel¨‡Z GB Ae¯’v Av‡iv gvivZ¥K AvKvi
avib K‡i G‡`‡ki K…wl I Lv`¨ wbivcËvi Ici weivU ûgwK n‡q †`Lv
w`‡Z cv‡i e‡j Avk¼v Kiv n‡”Q| D‡jøL¨ †h weMZ `yB `k‡KB †ek
K‡qKevi fqven eb¨vi cybive„wË n‡q‡Q hv †`‡ki K…wl, AeKvVv‡gv
Ges Rxeb I RxweKvi e¨vcK ÿwZ mvab K‡i‡Q|
el©v †gŠmy‡gi ïiæ †_‡K †kl ch©šÍ †h †Kvb mg‡qB evsjv‡`‡k eb¨vi
cÖv`yf©ve NU‡Z cv‡i hw`I m¦vfvweK e„wó‡Z el©vKv‡ji gvSvgvwS mg‡qi
g‡a¨B †`‡ki cÖvq GK-PZy_©vsk
eb¨vKewjZ nq| GB ¯^vfvweK cøveb/eb¨v K…wl‡K †Zgb cÖfvweZ K‡i
bv KviY GB cwiw¯’wZi mv‡_ mvgÄm¨ †i‡LB `xN©w`b a‡i G †`‡ki K…wl
Drcv`b e¨e¯’v M‡o D‡V‡Q| Z‡e †`‡ki evwn‡i mgMª DËiÐc~e©v‡j
nVvr †ewk e„wócv‡Zi d‡j m„ó ÔÔAvKw¯§K eb¨vÕÕ (Flash Flood)
†`‡ki K…wl, †fŠwZK AeKvVv‡gv Ges Rxeb I RxweKv mg~n ÿwZ K‡i
_v‡K| G ai‡bi eb¨vq †`‡ki DËiÐcwðgv‡ji wZ¯ÍvÐeª²cyÎ
AeevwnKv, DËi-c~e©v‡j nvIi I myigvÐKzwkqviv AeevwnKv, Ges
`wÿYÐc~ev©Â‡j †gNbv AeevwnKvi we¯ÍxY© GjvKv cÖvq cÖwZ eQiB cøvweZ
n‡q _v‡K| AvKw¯§K GB eb¨v Avmvi mgq I Gi e¨vcKZvi Ici Gi
ÿwZi aiY I cwigvY wbf©i K‡i|
gvbwPÎ : evsjv‡`‡ki eb¨vcÖeb GjvKv (m~Î: wewRwW/95/006, we G
Avi wm)
mvaviYZ: AvMvg (†g-Ryb) AvKw¯§K eb¨v `xN©¯’vqx nq bv| G‡Z
cÖPwjZ dmj avivq DËiÐcwðgv‡j `Ðvqgvb dmj †hgb AvDm avb,
cvU, wewfbœ cÖKvi Mªx®§Kvjxb mewR BZ¨vw`i e¨vcK ÿwZ n‡q _v‡K|
Avi DËi-c~ev© ‡j, we‡kl K‡i nvIo GjvKvq AvMvg AvKw¯§K eb¨vq
bvwe ev `xN©‡gqvw` †ev‡iv avb cÖvq cvKv Ae¯’vq Wy‡e wM‡q m¤ú~Y© dmj
nvwb n‡q _v‡K|
RybÐRyjvB‡qi AvKw¯§K eb¨vi mgq nvIo GjvKvq †Zgb †Kvb dmj
bv _vKvq GLv‡b dm‡ji †Zgb †Kvb ÿwZ nq bv| wKš‘ †`‡ki Ab¨vb¨
GjvKv we‡kl K‡i bxPz GjvKvq `Ðvqgvb cvU, Bÿz I Ab¨vb¨ dm‡ji
ÿwZ n‡q _v‡K| Zv Qvov GB AvKw¯§K eb¨vq †`‡ki cÖavb dmj †ivcv
Avg‡bi exRZjvi cÖf~Z ÿwZ nq Ges cybivq Pviv K‡i Avgb avb
†ivc‡Y A‡bK wej¤^ nq| wej‡¤^ avb †ivc‡Yi d‡j Gi djb Lye K‡g
hvq Ges Lv`¨ km¨i mvwe©K Drcv`‡b NvUwZ †`Lv †`q|
el©vi gvSvgvwS †_‡K †kl w`‡K (AvM÷-†m‡Þ¤^i) AwZe„wó I ùxZ
b`xi `y-Kzj Dc‡P we¯ÍxY© GjvKv eb¨vKewjZ nq| eb¨vi cvwb `ªæZ
wb®‹vwlZ bv n‡j Zv `xN©¯’vqx eb¨v Ges Rjve×Zvi iƒc †bq| GB eb¨v
we¯ÍxY© GjvKvi †ivcv Avgb av‡bi e¨vcK ÿwZ mvab Ges cÖvqmB Zv
m¤ú~Y© aŸsm K‡i †d‡j| GB eb¨vi cwiYwZ AZ¨všÍ fqven| KviY
G‡Z GK w`‡K †hgb evošÍ Avgb avb m¤ú~Yi© ƒ‡c webó nq Ab¨w`‡K
†Zgwb eb¨vi cvwb m‡i hvIqvi ci Avi †ivcv Avgb jvMv‡bvi mgq
_v‡K bv| m¤ú~Y© dmj nvwbi Aem¤¢vex cwiYwZ wn‡m‡e Av‡m `ywf©ÿ,
gnvgvwi Avi nvnvKvi| iv¯ÍvNvU, Nievwomn me AeKvVv‡gv I ¯’vcbv
e¨vcK ÿwZi m¤§yLxb nq| gvbyl I cïcvwLi Rxebnvwb BZ¨vw`‡Z
RbRxeb n‡q c‡o
2004 m‡bi eb¨vq me©‡gvU 11,418.6 †KvwU UvKvi ÿqÿwZ wbiƒcY
Kiv nq hv wQj wbgœiƒcÿwZMÖ¯Í LvZ ÿwZi cwigvY (†KvwU UvKv) †gvU ÿwZi % nvi
K…wl
25.6
AeKvVv‡gv
evm¯’vb
wkí
wkÿv
¯^v¯’¨
2,920.0
3,867.0
3,706.0
531.7
345.4
48.5
33.9
32.5
4.7
3.0
0.4
†gvU ÿwZi cwigvY
11,418.6
100
(Drm: i¨vwcW G‡mm‡g›U Ae d¬vW 2004, wmwcwW, 2004 (K¬vB‡gU
†PÄ †mj KZ„©K cÖKvwkZ)
K…wli Ici eb¨vi ÿwZKi cÖfve wbgœiƒceb¨v Avevw` dmj bó K‡i, exR bó nq ev †L‡q †d‡j|
eb¨v K…l‡Ki ¯^vfvweK dmj Drcv`b‡K evavMÖ¯’ K‡i| †Kv‡bv
†Kv‡bv †ÿ‡Î Zviv dmj mgqgZ ev G‡Kev‡iB †ivcY Ki‡Z
cv‡i bv|
eb¨v Pvwl‡`i AjvfRbK weKí dmj Drcv`‡b eva¨ K‡i|
eb¨vi d‡j Pvwliv Afv‡ei Zvobvq Rwg, cïcvwL I Ab¨vb¨
m¤ú` wewµ Ki‡Z eva¨ nq|
A‡_©i Afv‡e Pvwliv cÖ‡qvRbxq dmj e¨e¯’vcbv LiP Pvjv‡Z cv‡i
bv d‡j Gme dm‡ji djb Kg nq|
1. cªvwY m¤ú` iÿvi Dcvq mxwgZ nIqvq Kg `v‡g wewµ K‡i †`q|
2. cªvwY m¤ú` †iv‡M AvµvšÍ nq,A‡bK cïcvwL gviv hvq|
3. K…wl hš¿cvwZ bó nq, Rwg I gvwUi ÿqÿwZ nq|
4. eb¨v cÖwZ‡iva euva, †mPbvjv, iv¯ÍvNvU, weªR, Kvj©fvU, ¯øBy m‡MU
bó n‡q hvq|
5. gvQ Pv‡li cyKzi Dc‡P gvQ †f‡m hvq, Rjvf~wg¸‡jv‡Z
AbvKvw•ÿZ gv‡Qi mgvMg N‡U|
6. gv‡Qi wewfbœ †iv‡Mi m„wó nq, gv‡Qi †cvbv cvIqv hvq bv|
7. Avev`x Rwgi Ici evwj c‡o Pv‡li Abyc‡hvMx n‡q hvq|
8. b`xfvO‡b Pvl‡hvM¨ Rwg bó nq|
9. †MvLv‡`¨i Afve nq|
10. gvwUi De©iZv ÿwZMª¯Í nq|
Livi ÿwZKi cÖfve
Liv evsjv‡`‡ki GKwU AwZ cwiwPZ cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM| Mv‡Qi ¯^vfvweK
e„w× I Kvw•ÿZ dm‡ji Rb¨ gvwU‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq i‡mi NvUwZ co‡j †m
Ae¯’v‡KB Liv e‡j| †Kvb GjvKvq e„wócv‡Zi Zzjbvq ev®úxfe‡bi
gvÎv †ewk n‡j †mLv‡b Liv †`Lv †`q| we‡klÁ‡`i g‡Z mvaviYfv‡e
Liv‡K wZb fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq- AvenvIqv mswkøó Liv, f~Mf©¯’ cvwbi
AfveRwbZ Liv, K…wl Liv| K…wl Liv ej‡Z AvenvIqvi wbqvgK¸‡jv
†hgb- e„wócvZ, ZvcgvÎv, evZv‡mi Av`©Z
ª v, ev®úxfeb BZ¨vw`i n«vm
e„w× RwbZ Kvi‡Y dm‡ji RxebP‡µi †h †Kvb Ae¯’vq cvwbi Afv‡e
ˆRweK Kg©KvÐ e¨vnZ nIqv‡K eySvq| GwcÖj †_‡K ga¨ b‡f¤^‡ii g‡a¨
ci ci 15 w`b e„wó bv n‡j Livi m¤¢vebv †`Lv w`‡Z cv‡i| †`‡k Lwic
†gŠmy‡g ïay †ivcv Avg‡biB 7.15 wgwjqb †n±i Rwg (†gvU †ivcv
Avg‡bi 91 kZvsk) Ges GKB †gŠmy‡g Ab¨vb¨ dm‡ji Av‡iv 4.1
wgwjqb †n±i Rwg Livq ÿwZMÖ¯Í nq|
e„wócv‡Zi cwigvY cÖ‡qvR‡bi Zzjbvq
Kg n‡j Ges ¯’vbxK wePv‡i e„wócvZ
mgfv‡e eÈb bv n‡j Liv †`Lv †`q|
†Kv‡bv A‡ji gvwU‡Z Av`©ªZvi Afv‡e
†`Lv †`q Liv; G‡Z dmj nvwb N‡U Ges
Dw™¢` Rb¥v‡Z cv‡i bv|
Liv GKwU eûj cÖPwjZ cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM|
cÖwZ eQi 30 †_‡K 40 jvL †n±i Rwg wewfbœ gvÎvi Livq AvµvšÍ nq| Mv‡Qi
e„w× ch©v‡q Mo e„wócv‡Zi Afv‡e gvwU‡Z cvwbk~b¨Zv m„wó nq hv Mv‡Qi ÿwZ
K‡i| Kg e„wócvZ Ges AwaK nv‡i gvwU †_‡K cvwb ev®úxf~Z nIqvi d‡j K…wl
†ÿ‡Î Livi cÖfve †`Lv hvq| †`‡k wewfbœ gvÎvi Livq AvµvšÍ 83 jvL †n±i
Pvl‡hvM¨ Rwgi kZKiv 60 fvM Rwg‡Z Avgb avb Pvl Kiv nq| wKš‘ GB
Avgb avb e„wói cvwbi Dci wbf©i K‡i Pvl Kiv nq| Livi d‡j Avgb avb Pvl
ÿwZMÖ¯Í nq| GQvovI Liv AvDk I †ev‡iv avb, cvU, Wvj I †Zj dmj, Avjy,
kxZKvjxb mewR Ges AvL Pvl‡K ÿwZMÖ¯Í K‡i| gvP©-GwcÖ‡ji Liv Pv‡li Rb¨
Rwg cÖ¯w‘ Z‡Z Amyweavi m„wó K‡i d‡j †evbv Avgb, AvDk Ges cvU Pvl
h_vmg‡q Kiv hvq bv| †g-Ryb gv‡mi Liv gv‡V `Ðvqgvb †evbv Avgb, AvDk
Ges cvU dm‡ji ÿwZ K‡i| AvMó gv‡mi AcwiwgZ e„wó †ivcv Avgb Pvl‡K
evavMÖ¯Í K‡i| †m‡Þ¤^i-A‡±vei gv‡mi Kg e„wócvZ †evbv I †ivcv Avgb av‡bi
Drcv`b Kwg‡q †`q Ges Wvj I Avjy dm‡ji Pvl‡K †`wi Kwi‡q †`q| KvVvj,
wjPz, Kjv BZ¨vw` d‡ji MvQ AwZwi³ Livq gviv hvq| GQvovI ﮋ †gŠmy‡g
b`x-bvjvi bve¨Zv n«vm Ges Mv‡Qi cÖ‡¯^`‡bi nvi †e‡o hvIqvq my‡cq cvwbi
Afve †`Lv w`‡”Q|
evsjv‡`‡ki gvivZ¥K LivKewjZ eQi¸‡jv
1960 mb †_‡K 1991 mb ch©šÍ 19 evi Liv †`Lv w`‡q‡Q| Gi g‡a¨
1951, 1961, 1975, 1981, 1982, 1984, 1989, 1994, 1995
Ges 2000 m‡bi Liv gvivZ¥Kfv‡e †`Lv w`‡q‡Q| GQvovI wbgœwjwLZ
eQi¸‡jv evsjv‡`‡k gvivZ¥K Liv †`Lv w`‡q‡QeQi
Livi cÖfve
1791 h‡kvi †Rjvq Liv †`Lv †`q Ges `ªe¨g~j¨ 2 †_‡K 3 ¸b
†e‡o hvq|
1865 Livi Kvi‡Y XvKvq `ywf©ÿ †`Lv †`q|
1872 my›`ieb GjvKvq Liv †`Lv †`q| avb Drcv`b e¨nZ nq|
1951 DËi-cwðgv‡j avb Drcv`b gvivZ¥Kfv‡e e¨nZ nq|
1973 1974 m‡bi `ywf©‡ÿi Ab¨Zg KviY Livq dmjnvwb|
1975 Livq †`‡ki 47% Ges A‡a©‡Ki †ewk RbmsL¨v AvµvšÍ nq|
1978-79 42% K…wl f~wg Ges †gvU RbmsL¨vi 44% AvµvšÍ nq|
1981 gvivZ¥K Livi Kvi‡Y dmj Drcv`b Kg nq|
1982 h‡kvi †Rjvq Liv †`Lv †`q d‡j `ªe¨g~j¨ †e‡o hvq|
1989 DËi-cwðgv‡ji †ewkifvM b`x ïwK‡q hvq| bIMuv, beveMÄ,
bxjdvgvwi I VvKziMuv‡q aywj So nq|
1994-95 mv‡j GKwU eo ai‡Yi Liv nq, hvi d‡j DËicwðgv‡ji
avb, cvUI euvk bó K‡i|
Drm : K¬vB‡gU †fwiGwewjwU GÛ †PÄ: GWvc‡Ukb Uz WªvDU Bb
evsjv‡`k :
GwWwcwm GÛ GdGI, 2007|
K…wli Ici Livi cÖfve/SuzwK¸‡jvLivi Kvi‡Y 30-70 fvM ch©šÍ dmj ÿwZMÖ¯Í n‡Z cv‡i| Z‡e Zxeª Livi
Kvi‡Y †Kvb †Kvb GjvKvq m¤ú~Y© dmj ÿwZMÖ¯Í nIqvi bwRi i‡q‡Q|
Livi Kvi‡Y A‡±vei gv‡m †ivcv Avgb ÿwZMÖ¯Í nq|
iwe dm‡ji Avev` e¨nZ nq|
GQvov Liv dm‡ji mvwe©K djbI Kwg‡q †`q|
av‡bi Ô‡_viÕ Ae¯’vq Ges Ab¨vb¨ dm‡ji dzj Avmvi mgq cvwbi Afv‡e
Drcv`b K‡g hvq|
Livi Kvi‡Y Pviv MvQ me‡P‡q †ewk ÿwZMÖ¯Í nq, eq¯‹ Mv‡Q dzj I dj
S‡i hvq|
Livq mgqg‡Zv Rwg ˆZwi Kiv hvq bv d‡j Pvlvev` e¨vnZ nq, exR
ec‡bi Amyweav nq|
†jvbv Rwg¸‡jvi jeYv³Zv †e‡o hvq AMfxi ¸”Qg~j RvZxq dmj Livq
AwaK ÿwZMÖ¯’ nq|
AMfxi †e‡j gvwU‡Z Livi cÖfve †ewk ‡`Lv †`q|
eQ‡ii Ab¨vb¨ mg‡qi †P‡q gvP©-†g gv‡m DËß AvenvIqvi Kvi‡Y dmj
I gvwU Livq †ewk AvµvšÍ nq|
Lvj-wej, emZevwo cyKiz ïwK‡q hvq Ges gvQ Pvl e¨nZ nq|
†m‡Pi cvwbi Afve nq|
cªvwbm¤ú` wewfbœ †iv‡M AvµvšÍ nq|
LvIqvi Afv‡e nuvm-gyiwM Ges cÖvwbm¤ú` ˆ`wnKfv‡e ÿwZMÖ¯Í nq|
wb‡P D‡jøwLZ mg‡qi g‡a¨ cici 15 w`b e„wócvZ 2.5 wgwgt Gi Kg
n‡j mvaviYZ Liv †`Lv †`q|
c~e© A‡ji †Rjv¸‡jv‡Z-GwcÖj n‡Z ga¨ b‡f¤^i ch©šÍ|
ga¨ A‡ji †Rjv¸‡jv‡Z-ga¨ GwcÖj n‡Z ga¨ b‡f¤^i ch©šÍ|
cwðg A‡ji †Rjv¸‡jv‡Z-†g n‡Z ga¨ b‡f¤^i ch©šÍ|
eQ‡ii Ab¨vb¨ mg‡qi †P‡q gvP©-†g gv‡m DËß AvenvIqvi Kvi‡Y dmj I gvwU
Livq †ewk AvµvšÍ nq|
gvbwPÎ : evsjv‡`‡k iwe †gŠmy‡g wewfbœ gvÎvq LivcÖeY GjvKv
(m~Î wewRwW/95/006, weGAviwm)
gvbwPÎ : evsjv‡`‡k Lwid †gŠmy‡g wewfbœ gvÎvq LivcÖeY GjvKv
(m~Î : GdGI/weGAviwm)
†jvbv cvwbi AbycÖ‡ek I jeYv³Zv e„w×i ÿwZKi cÖfve
†jvbv cvwbi AbycÖ‡e‡ki gva¨‡g gvwUi jeYv³Zv e„w× †`‡ki
`wÿYv‡ji K…wl‡Z GK gvivZ¥K mgm¨v| evsjv‡`‡ki 2.5 wgwjqb
†n±i DcK~jxq AÂj| Rjevqyi cwieZ©b I ﮋ †gŠmy‡g b`x cÖevn
µgvMZ K‡g hvIqvq PÆMÖvg Qvov †`‡ki `wÿYv‡ji me©Î f~fv‡Mi
A‡bK Mfx‡i mg~‡`ªi †jvbv cvwb AbycÖ‡ek K‡i gvwUi jeYv³Zv e„w×
Ki‡Q| evsjv‡`‡ki DcK~jxq GjvKvq gvwU‡Z jebv³Zvi cÖfve †`Lv
hvq| el©v †gŠmy‡g DcK~jxq eb¨v (Ryb †_‡K A‡±vei), mivmwi jebv³
cvwb w`‡q Rwg Wy‡e hvIqv Ges ﮋ †gŠmy‡g (b‡f¤^i †_‡K Rvbyqvix)
gvwUi wb‡P _vKv jebv³ cvwbi Dc‡ii w`‡K ev cv‡ki w`‡K cÖevwnZ
nIqvi Kvi‡Y gvwU‡Z je‡Yi cwigvY †e‡o hvq hv gvwUi De©iZv bó
K‡i| DcK~jxq A‡ji 7wU †Rjvi- ei¸bv, cUzqvLvjx, †fvjv,
wc‡ivRcyi, SvjKvwV I ewikv‡ji f~wg mgZj, †Rvqvi fvUvmg„×| G
GjvKvi cwðgvs‡ki b`x bvjvi cvwb AwaKvsk mgq jeYv³ _v‡K Z‡e
el©vKv‡j 3-4 gvm (Ryb-AvM÷) jeYv³Zvi gvÎv K‡g hvq| c~e©vs‡k
el©vKv‡j b`x bvjv w`‡q wgVv cvwb cÖevwnZ n‡jI ﮋ †gŠmy‡g cvwbi
jeYv³Zv 1-2wWGm/wg: _v‡K hv †m‡Pi Rb¨ Dc‡hvMx bq| †Kv‡bv
†Kv‡bv mg‡q †Rvqv‡ii cvwb‡Z Rjve×Zv m„wó nq| †jvbv cvwbi
AbycÖ‡ek evsjv‡`‡ki GKwU gviZ¥K mgm¨v| 1973 mv‡j 15 jvL
†n±i Rwg g„`y jebv³Zvq AvµvšÍ nq hv 1997 mv‡j †e‡o `vwo‡q‡Q
25 jvL †n±‡i| eZ©gv‡b Gi cwigvY cÖvq 30 jÿ †n±i| Kg
e„wócv‡Zi Kvi‡b DcK~jxq GjvKvq jebv³ Rwgi cwigvb evo‡Q, hv
fwel¨‡Z ZvcgvÎv e„w× Ges cwiwgZ e„wócv‡Zi Afv‡e AviI †ewk
mgm¨vi m„wó Ki‡e| evsjv‡`‡ki †gvU DcK~jxq GjvKv cÖvq 25 jvL
†n±i, hvi g‡a¨ 8.3 jvL †n±i Rwg wewfbœ gvÎvi jeYv³Zvq AvµvšÍ|
eZ©gv‡b b`xgvZ…K evsjv‡`‡ki DcK‚jxq AÂj Ges `~ieZ©x Øxcmg~‡ni
1.4 wgwjqb †n±i GjvKvq †jvbv cvwb cÖ‡ek Kivi d‡j Db¥y³ Rjvkq
I f~Mf©¯’ cvwb jeYv³ n‡q c‡o‡Q| G mgm¨v DcK~jxq AÂj †_‡K
h‡kvi, Kzwóqv, dwi`cyi Ges Kzwgjøv ch©šÍ we¯Í…Z n‡q‡Q; hv wKbv AviI
Dˇi we¯Í…Z n‡Z cv‡i| jeYv³Zvi Kvi‡Y Gme A‡ji wekvj
cwigvY Avevw` Rwg cwZZ _v‡K|
Rjevqy cwieZ©b RwbZ Kvi‡Y mgy‡`ªi cvwbi D”PZv e„w×i mv‡_ mv‡_
evsjv‡`‡ki weivU GKUv As‡ki gvwU jeYv³Zvq AvµvšÍ n‡e hv
DcK~jxq GjvKvq dmj Pv‡li †ÿ‡Î ÿwZKi cÖfve †dj‡e|
K…wli Dci
¶wZKi
cÖfve
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H GjvKvi Awaevmx‡`i cÖ‡qvRbxq cvbxq R‡ji Afve †`Lv w`‡q‡Q|
fwel¨‡Z DcK~jxq A‡ji cvwb I gvwU‡Z AwaK nv‡i jeYv³Zv
evo‡e| we‡klZ b`-b`xi †gvnbvq Aew¯’Z Øxc I ZrmsjMœ GjvKvq
AwaK cwigvY cvwb cÖ‡ek Ki‡e|
f~-Mf©¯’ cvwb I gvwUi jeYv³Zv e„w× DcK~jxq cwi‡ek‡K mvgwMÖKfv‡e
ÿwZMÖ¯Í Ki‡e| DcK~jxq A_©bxwZ chy©`¯Í n‡e I GjvKvi e¨vcK
Rb‡Mvôxi Rxeb hvc‡b cÖwZK~j cwiw¯’wZi m„wó n‡e|
†jvbvcvwb Abyc‡Ö e‡ki gva¨‡g gvwUi jeYv³Zv e„w× †`‡ki `wÿYv‡ji
K…wl‡Z GK gvivZ¥K mgm¨v m„wó K‡i‡Q|
ﮋ †gŠmy‡ g wbqwgZ mvgyw`ªK †Rvqv‡ii mv‡_ f~fv‡Mi A‡bK Mfxi wgVv
cvwb A‡j jeYv³ cvwb cÖ‡ek K‡i b`xi cvwb‡K AvDk avb I Ab¨vb¨
AvMvg Lwid dm‡j †m‡Pi Kv‡R e¨env‡ii Aby‡cv‡hvMx K‡i Zzj‡Q|
¯^v`y cvwbi gvQ gviv †h‡Z cv‡i I gv‡Qi e„w× e¨vnZ n‡Z cv‡i|
D¤§y³ Rjvk‡qi gvQ I wPswoi cÖRvwZ ˆewP‡Î¨ cwieZ©b n‡Z cv‡i|
cÖPwjZ grm¨ AvniY miÄvg Abyc‡hvMx n‡q †h‡Z cv‡i|
grm¨Rxex‡`i Rxeb I RxweKv ÿwZMÖ¯Í n‡Z cv‡i|
mgy`ªZxieZ©x grm¨Rxex MÖvg¸‡jv‡Z Avkªq I my‡cq Lvevi cvwbi mgm¨v
†`Lv w`‡Z cv‡i|
grm¨Rxex I Mevw` cïi gv‡S †ivM-evjvB‡qi cÖv`yfv© e †`Lv w`‡Z cv‡i|
DòZv e„w×, Dò I ˆkZ¨ cÖev‡ni ÿwZKi cÖfve
gvbwPÎ : evsjv‡`‡k jeYv³ GjvKv (m~Î : AvBwm‡RWGgwc)
DòZv e„w×,Dò I
ˆkZ¨ cÖev‡ni
¶wZKi cÖfve
weMZ 25 eQ‡ii AvenvIqvi DcvË †_‡K †`Lv hvq †h
evsjv‡`‡ki Mo DòZv †Zgb ev‡owb| Z‡e Avk¼v Kiv nq †h 2030
mvj bvMv` Mo ZvcgvÎv 1.0 wWwMÖ, 2050 mv‡j 1.4 wWwMÖ Ges 2100
m‡b 2.4 wWwMÖ †mjwmqvm †e‡o †h‡Z cv‡i| mv¤cÖwZK Kv‡j ZvcgvÎv
bv evo‡jI Dò I ‰kZ¨ cÖev‡ni gvÎv †e‡o‡Q| evsjv‡`‡k µgvš^‡q
kxZKv‡ji e¨vwß I kx‡Zi ZxeªZv `yBB K‡g Avm‡Q|
K…wli Ici
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Zvi weiƒc cÖwZwµqv co‡Q| G Qvov kxZ †gŠmy‡g Dò cÖevn †`Lv
w`‡j †ewk ms‡e`bkxj dmj †hgb-M‡gi djb Lye K‡g hvq Ges
Mg Drcv`b AjvfRbK nq|
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n‡q djb Lye K‡g hvq|
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we‡kl K‡i M‡gi civMvqb (cwj‡bkb) I Mf©avib
(dvwU©jvB‡Rkb) bv nIqvq AvswkK ev m¤ú~Y© dmj wPUv n‡q hvq
Ges †cvKvgvK‡oi Dc`ªe †e‡o hvq|
e× Rjvk‡q K…wÎg cÖRbb mgm¨v n‡Z cv‡i d‡j mgqgZ cyKz‡i
Qvovi Rb¨ †cvbv gvQ cvIqv hv‡e bv |
32 wWMÖx †m. Ici ZvcgvÎv n‡j wK‡kvi wPswoi g„Zz¨ nvi evo‡e|
D¤§y³ Rjvk‡q gv‡Qi cÖRvwZ gvB‡MÖU Ki‡Z cv‡i|
cÖRbb I gvB‡MÖk‡bi mgq cwieZ©b n‡Z cv‡i|
cÖRvwZ ˆewPΨ Kg‡Z cv‡i, cÖRb‡b e¨vNvZ NU‡Z cv‡i|
wdwks MÖvD‡Ûi cwieZ©b n‡Z cv‡i, mvwe©Kfv‡e gv‡Qi Drcv`b
Kg‡Z cv‡i|
mvgyw`ªK Rjvk‡q gvQ I wPswoi cÖRvwZ ˆewPΨ I cwigv‡Y
cwieZ©b n‡Z cv‡i|
gvQ I wPswo cÖRb‡b e¨vNvZ NU‡Z cv‡i ev gvB‡MÖk‡b e¨vNvZ
NU‡Z cv‡i|
wdwks MÖvD‡Ûi cwieZ©b n‡Z cv‡i, AvniY miÄvg Abyc‡hvMx
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d‡j †m‡Pi cvwbi Afve nq| ˆkZ¨ cÖev‡ni d‡j Av‡gi gyKj
z
bó nq I bvwi‡K‡ji djavib e¨vnZ nq|
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evqy I N~wY©evqy †_‡K mvgyw`ªK S‡oi D™¢e nq| evsjv‡`‡ki DcK~jxq
A‡j cÖvq cÖwZ eQiB ˆekvL-ˆR¨ô I Avwk¦b gv‡m wewfbœ gvÎvi
N~wY©So ev mvB‡K¬vb I R‡jv”Q¡vm n‡q _v‡K| †fŠMwjK Ae¯’vb Ges
cvwbi DËvc e„w×B mvgyw`ªK N~wY©S‡oi Ab¨Zg cÖavb KviY| G‡K †iva
Kiv gvby‡li c‡ÿ m¤¢e bq, Z‡e c~e© cÖ¯w‘ Z wb‡q ivL‡j Rvbgv‡ji
ÿqÿwZ A‡bK Kg nq|
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gš¿bvjq)evsjv‡`‡k 2007 m‡bi N~wY©So wmWi Gi ÿqÿwZi weeiY
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msL¨vI AbycvwZK nv‡i evo‡e| mvgyw`ªK So I R‡jv”Q¡v‡mi cÖfv‡e g~û‡Z©i
g‡a¨B AvµvšÍ GjvKvi dmj, e„ÿivRx, cïcvwL, RxeRš‘, Nievwo I gvbylmn
meB aŸsm n‡q hvq| mv¤cÖwZK N‡U hvIqv cÖjq¼vix mvB‡K¬vb ÔwmWiÕ Gi
GKwU cÖKó… D`vniY| Gi cÖfv‡e Dc`ªæZ GjvKvq ZvrÿwYK aŸsmh‡Ái
cvkvcvwk we¯ÍxY© GjvKvi `Ûvqgvb dmj ÔAvgb avbÕ m¤ú~Yi© ƒ‡c aŸsm n‡q
hvq| G `y‡h©v‡Mi d‡je×Rjvk‡qi gv‡Qi ¯^vfvweK e„w× e¨vnZ n‡Z cv‡i|
gvQ †f‡m †h‡Z cv‡i|
cyK‡z i †jvbv cvwb XyK‡Z cv‡i d‡j ¯^v`y cvwbi gvQ gviv †h‡Z cv‡i A_ev
e„w× e¨vnZ n‡Z
cyK‡z i gqjv-AveR©bv Xy‡K cvwb `~lY n‡Z cv‡i|
grm¨ AvniY miÄvg ÿwZMÖ¯Í n‡Z cv‡i|
D¤§y³ Rjvk‡qi Afqvkªq ÿwZMÖ¯Í n‡Z cv‡i|
DcK~jxq ebvÂj ÿwZMÖ¯Í n‡Z cv‡i hv gvQ I wPswoi cÖRbb-jvjbwePiY †ÿÎ|
grm¨Rxex‡`i cÖvYnvYx NU‡Z cv‡i|
mvgyw`ªK Rjvk‡qi gvQ I wPswoi cÖRvwZ ˆewP‡Î¨ I cwigv‡Y cweZ©b
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gvQ I wPswoi cÖRb‡b e¨vNvZ NU‡Z cv‡i|
gvQ I wPswoi gvB‡MÖk‡b cwieZ©b NU‡Z cv‡i|
wdwks MÖvD‡Ûi cwieZ©b NU‡Z cv‡i|
eZ©gv‡b AvniY miÄvg¸‡jv Abyc‡hvMx n‡Z cv‡i|
AvniY †gŠmy‡gi cwieZ©b n‡Z cv‡i|
cªvwbm¤ú` ‡iv‡M AvµvšÍ nq, Lvevi `y®cÖvc¨ nq|
A‡bK cïcvwL gviv hvq|
iwe dmj Pvl e¨vnZ nq|
gvbwPÎ : evsjv‡`‡ki N~wY©SocÖeY GjvKv (m~Î: AvBwm‡RWGgwc)
b`xfvOb I f~wg ¶‡qi ¶wZKi cÖfve
evsjv‡`‡ki cÖvq 80 fvM f~LÐB cÙv-eªþcyÎ, †gNbv Ges myigv I
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hvq|
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GB fvimvg¨ AviI Kv‡Q n‡e|
gvbwPÎ : evsjv‡`‡ki eb¨v I b`xfvOb KewjZ GjvKv (m~Î :
WvweøDGAviwcI)
K…wli Ici b`xfvO‡bi ÿwZKi cÖfve
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b`xM‡f© wejxb n‡q hvq|
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d‡j Gme GjvKvi gvwU µgvš^‡q De©iZv kw³ nvwi‡q ax‡i ax‡i
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Pvwliv Afv‡ei Zvobvq Rwg, cïcvwL I Ab¨vb¨ m¤ú` wewµ
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nq|
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cøvweZ nq|
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avb MvQ njy` eY© aviY K‡i, av‡bi Pviv `ye©j nq Ges dm‡ji
RxebKvj †e‡o hvq|
dm‡ji RvZ, km¨ ch©vq I cÖPwjZ K…wl e¨e¯’vi Dci cÖfve
cÖPwjZ dm‡ji RvZ, km¨ ch©vq m‡e©vcwi K…wl e¨e¯’vi Ici
Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi cÖfve me‡P‡q †ewk cwijwÿZ n‡”Q| ZvcgvÎv I
Av`ªZ
© v cwieZ©‡bi d‡j wKQy dmj Kg djb w`‡”Q ev G‡Kev‡i nvwi‡q
hv‡”Q| d‡j bZzb dm‡ji RvZ D™¢veb ev cÖPwjZ km¨ ch©v‡qi cwie‡Z©
bZzb km¨ ch©vq Dbœqb Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| Kve©b-WvB-A·vB‡Wi cwigvY
evovi d‡j avb MvQ eZ©gv‡bi †P‡q AviI k³ n‡e wKš‘ †jŠn Ges `¯Ív
hv gvbe‡`‡ni Rb¨ DcKvix Zvi cwigvb K‡g hv‡e| GQvovI av‡bi
`vbvq †cÖvwU‡bi cwigvY K‡g hv‡e| M‡elYvq †`Lv †M‡Q Kve©b-WvBA·vBW †e‡o †M‡j MvQ bvB‡Uªv‡Rb Kg MÖnY K‡i|
K…wli Ici †ivM, †cvKvgvKo Ges AvMvQvi cÖ‡Kvc e„w×i cÖfve
Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j †cvKv gvKo Ges wewfbœ Dw™¢` †iv‡Mi AvµgY
†e‡o hv‡”Q| GwdW (†kvlK †cvKv) I †m‡Þvwiqv (`vbv k‡m¨i
QÎvKRwbZ †ivM) Gi AvµgY †ewk †ewk †`Lv hv‡”Q| †h‡nZz AwaKvsk
AvMvQv wm-3 RvZxq Dw™¢` ZvB Kve©Y-WvB-A·vBW †e‡o ‡M‡j G‡`i
msL¨v AviI †e‡o hv‡e| c„w_exi DÂZv AwZwi³ Zvc Ges Av`ª©Zv
Mv‡Qi QÎvK †ivM evov‡bv‡Z mnvqK f~wgKv cvjb K‡i Ges GKBfv‡e
†cvKvgvKo I wewfbœ †iv‡Mi evnK †cvKvi msL¨v evwo‡q †`q| †ev‡iv
†gŠmy‡g hw` iv‡Z VvÐv I Kzqvkv c‡o I av‡bi cvZvq cvwb R‡g _v‡K
Ges w`‡b Mig c‡o A_©vr ZvcgvÎv †e‡o hvq Z‡e eøvBU †iv‡Mi
AvµgY †e‡o hvq| AwaK Av`ª©Zv I ZvcgvÎvi Kvi‡Y wk_ eøvBU
†iv‡Mi gvÎv e„w× cvq|
†m‡Pi cvwb Ges †mP Li‡Pi Ici cÖfve
Rjevqy cwieZ©b wewfbœfv‡e †m‡Pi cvwb e¨env‡ii Dci cÖfve †dj‡Q|
ZvcgvÎv e„w× I m~h©v‡jvwKZ AvenvIqvi Rb¨ dm‡ji cÖ‡¯^`‡bi nvi
†e‡o hv‡”Q d‡j Mv‡Qi cvwb e¨envi †e‡o hv‡”Q Ges f~-Mf©¯’ cvwbi
¯Íi †b‡g hv‡”Q| ﮋ †gŠmy‡g †mP cvwbi cÖvc¨Zv wbf©i K‡i el©v
†gŠmy‡gi e„wócv‡Zi Ici| Kg e„wócv‡Zi d‡j Liv cÖeb GjvKvi f~wbgœ¯’ cvwbi ¯Íi AviI †b‡g hv‡e, hvi d‡j Lvevi cvwb I †m‡Pi cvwbi
Afve †`Lv w`‡e|
eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`‡ki †gvU †mP GjvKvi kZKiv 80 fvM Rwg f~-wbgœ¯’
†mP wbf©i| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j f~-Mf©¯’ I f~-Dcwi¯’ cvwbi
cwigvY K‡g hv‡e| d‡j AviI Mfxi K‡i bjK~c ¯’vcb Ki‡Z n‡e hv
†mP LiP‡K AviI evwo‡q w`‡e|
b`x I †gvnbv fvOb
evsjv‡`‡ki AwaKvsk b`xB cÙv-eªþcyÎ-†gNbv b`xi big cjj f~wgi
Ici w`‡q cÖevwnZ| evsjv‡`k cvwb Dbœqb †ev‡W©i Rwi‡c G ch©šÍ
1200 wK.wg. b`x Zxi †f‡O wM‡q‡Q Ges AviI 500 wK‡jvwgUvi
fvO‡bi m¤§yLxb| Gfv‡e K‡g hv‡”Q K…wl Rwgi cwigvY|
B Gb Gm I (ENSO- El Nino & Southern Oscillation) Gi
cÖfve
Rjevqy cwieZ©b mgy‡`ªi cvwb‡K DËß Ki‡e| d‡j BGbGm I
e„wócv‡Zi aviv‡K cÖfvweZ Ki‡e| cwiewZ©Z e„wócv‡Zi aib avb
Drcv`b‡K evavMÖ¯Í Ki‡e| ﮋ AvenvIqvi Rb¨ avb †ivcY Ges
KZ©‡bi mgq †`wi n‡e| hvi d‡j av‡bi djb K‡g hv‡e|
cwiewZ©Z Rjevqy‡Z K…wl †ÿ‡Î Awf‡hvRb
evsjv‡`‡ki Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ Kvi‡Y K„wl †ÿ‡Î h‡_ô Awf‡hvRb
†KŠkj Aej¤^b Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| evsjv‡`‡ki K…wl †ÿ‡Î m¤¢ve¨
Awf‡hvRb wb‡gœ Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jvjeYv³Zv mnbkxj Rv‡Zi dm‡ji Pvl, †ev‡iv avb I cieZ©x‡Z
wPswo Pvl, `ªæZ I Mfxi Pv‡li gva¨‡g gvwUi K¨vwcjvwe bvwjKv
†f‡O w`‡j jebv³Zv Kgv‡bv hvq-G Rb¨ cvIqvi wUjvi w`‡q
Pvlvev‡`i GjvKv e„w× Ki‡j GB myweav cvIqv hv‡e, jeYv³Zv
mwnÂy ¯’vbxq Rv‡Zi Dbœqb I Gi Avev` GjvKv evov‡bv| Avgb
†gŠmy‡g weAvi 23, weª-avb 40 Ges 41 Gi Pvl| †ev‡iv †gŠmy‡g
weª-avb 47 jeYv³Zv mnbkxj Rv‡Zi Pvl|
Pvl c×wZi cwieZ©b, cvwb Kg jv‡M Ggb dm‡ji Pvl, gvjwPs I
wWªc †m‡Pi cÖeZ©b, GmAviAvB c×wZ AbymiY, KgPvl ev
Pvlwenxb c×wZ‡K DrmvwnZ K‡i Dc‡hvMx dm‡ji Pvl Ki‡Z
n‡e (webv Pv‡l Avjy BZ¨vw`), Liv mwnÂy ¯’vbxq Rv‡Zi Dbœqb I
Gi Avev` GjvKv evov‡bv| AwaK `vgx mewR RvZxq dmj
†hgb- U‡g‡Uv, ZigyR, kmv, gwiP BZ¨vw`i Pvl| wgwb cyKzi, cøvw÷K cvBc/ wdZv cvB‡ci e¨envi evov‡bv| AvBj DuPz K‡i Pvl
Kiv| Livi Kvi‡Y avb jvMv‡Z †ewk †`ix n‡j bvex I Av‡jvK
ms‡e`bkxj weAvi 22, 23 I weª-avb 46 Gi Pvl Kiv| AvDm
†gŠmy‡g weAvi 24, weAvi 26, weAvi 27, weª avb 42 I weª avb
43 Avev` Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| Avgb avb KvUvi c‡i Liv mnbkxj
dmj †hgb- †Qvjv Pvl Kiv hvq| †Zj dmj wn‡m‡e wZ‡ji Pvl
Kiv hvq| GQvovI gvwUi Mfx‡i exR ecb, Av‡M wfRv‡bv exR
ecb, wgZe¨qx c×wZ‡Z cvwb †mP, m¤ú~iK †mP BZ¨vw` e¨e¯’v
MÖn‡Yi gva¨‡g Liv †gvKv‡ejvq Kvh©Kix c`‡ÿc †bqv †h‡Z
cv‡i|
K. AvMvg Xj eb¨vcÖeY GjvKvq ¯’vbxq I Ddkx Rv‡Zi AvMvg
cvKv I ¯^í‡gqv‡`i †ev‡iv Pvlvev` ÿqÿwZ A‡bKUv Kwg‡q
Avb‡Z cv‡i| cÖPwjZ Rv‡Zi †P‡q AvMvg cv‡K Ggb dm‡ji
RvZ Pvl, †hgb weª-avb 29 Gi †P‡q weª-avb 28 c‡bi w`b Av‡M
KZ©b Kiv hvq| wkl cvKv ch©v‡q weª avb 29 I weª avb 36 Gi
RjgMœZv mn¨ Kivi ÿgZv Av‡Q| GQvovI weª-avb 45 Pvl Kiv
hvq hvi RxebKvj 140 †_‡K 145 w`b| M‡elYvq †`Lv wM‡q‡Q
†h weª-avb 29 Gi 20-30 w`b eq‡mi Pviv mwVK mg‡q (15-30
KvwZ©K) †ivc‡Yi gva¨‡g Gi RxebKvj 15 w`b Kwg‡q Avbv
m¤¢e| ¯’vbxq Rv‡Zi cïkvBj h‡_ó djb cÖ`v‡b mÿg|
L. fvmgvb av‡c dm‡ji/mewRi Pvl| eb¨v cieZ©x mg‡q bvex
Rv‡Zi avb †hgb- bvBRvikvBj, weAvi-22 I 23 Ges weª-avb
46 Pvl Kiv| `v‡cvM c×wZi exRZjv ˆZwi| eb¨v cieZ©x mg‡q
AwaK eq‡mi Pviv Nb K‡i jvMv‡bv †h‡Z cv‡i|
M. eb¨v †gvKv‡ejv mÿg av‡bi cvkvcvwk mewR I Ab¨vb¨
dm‡ji Pvl Kiv m¤¢e| †d«Â wkg, gyjv, Avjy, †cqvuR, imyb,
wgwóKzgov, jvjkvK, Kijv, Pvj Kzgov, cvjs kvK, cyuBkvK,
gUiïwU BZ¨vw` Pvl Kiv jvfRbK e‡j cÖgvwYZ n‡q‡Q|
Kvj‰ekvLx, So/ wkjve„wó‡Z †ev‡iv avb ÿwZMÖ¯Í n‡j `ªæZ AvDk
avb ev meyR mvi cÖ‡qvM Kivi ci †ivcv Avgb avb Pvl Ki‡Z
n‡e| G‡Z AwaK dmj wbwðZ Kivi cvkvcvwk †ev‡ivi ÿqÿwZ
AvswkK c~iY Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| N~wY©So I R‡jv”Q¡v‡m ÿwZMÖ¯Í
GjvKvi ÿwZi cÖK…wZ, GjvKvi gvwU ev f~-cÖK…wZ I Av_©-mvgvwRK
Ave¯’vi Av‡jv‡K R‡jv”Q¡vm cieZx© dmj Pv‡l e¨e¯’v †bqv †h‡Z
cv‡i| G †ÿ‡Î AvDk †gŠmy‡g Ddkx †ivcv AvDk †hgb- weAvi
14, weAvi 9, weAvi 20, weAvi 21, weAvi 26, weªavb 27, weª
avb 28, weª avb 45 Gi GK gvm eqmx Pviv ˆekvL gv‡mi g‡a¨
†ivcb Ki‡Z n‡e| Avgb †gŠmy‡g bvex-Avgb RvZ †hgb- weAvi
22, weAvi 23 Gi GK gv‡mi AwaK eqmx Pviv fv`ª Avwk¦b
gv‡mi g‡a¨ †ivcY Ki‡Z n‡e|
ZvcgvÎv mnbkxj dm‡ji Rv‡Zi Pvl|
bZzb km¨ ch©v‡qi Ici e¨vcK M‡elYv †Rvi`vi Ki‡Z n‡e|
†ivM I †cvKvgvKo mnbkxj dm‡ji Pvl Kiv| †ivM I
†cvKvgvKo cÖwZ‡ivax wRGgI dm‡ji Pvl|
e„wói cvwb msiÿ‡Yi e¨e¯’v wb‡Z n‡e| f~-Dcwi¯’ cvwbi e¨envi
evov‡Z n‡e|
AvenvIqv Awa`ßi †_‡K cÖvß me Z_¨ ÿwZcÖeY I AvksKvRbK
GjvKv¸‡jv AvMvgfv‡e Rvbv‡bvi gva¨‡g Pvwl‡`i dmj Pv‡li
civgk© cÖ`vb|
bZzb km¨ ch©vq D™¢veb Kiv Ges Gi e¨vcK cÖPjb Kiv|
cwiewZ©Z Rjevqy‡Z
ev‡iv
gv‡mi K„wl
ˆekvL
1. G gv‡m Liv n‡Z cv‡i Ges †ev‡iv av‡bi Rb¨ LyeB bvRyK mgq| bvwe
†ev‡iv av‡bi †_vo Avmvi mgq hv‡Z Livi Rb¨ cvwbi Afve bv nq Zvi
Rb¨ Av‡M †_‡KB †m‡Pi e¨e¯’v ivLv|
2. avb Mv‡Q Gmg‡q dzj Av‡m Ges ev`vwg MvQ dwos Gi e¨vcK AvµgY
nq| hvi d‡j avb wPUv n‡q hvq| AvµvšÍ Rwgi cvwb 7-8 w`‡bi Rb¨
mwi‡q w`‡j †cvKvi esk e„w × n«vm cvq| gvSvwi Kzwk MRv‡bv Ae¯’vq
Rwg‡Z av‡bi cÖwZ †MvQvq hw` 2-4wU Mf©eZx ¯¿x dwos A_ev kZKiv
50wU Mv‡Q 10wU ev”Pv †cvKv cvIqv hvq Zvn‡j Mv‡Qi †Mvovq mwVK
KxUbvkK cÖ‡qvM K‡i ev`vwg MvQ dwos `gb Kiv hvq|
3. AvMvg eb¨vi Av‡MB Rwj Avgb av‡bi exRZjv ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e hv‡Z
†ev‡iv avb KvUvi ciciB Rwj Avgb Pviv †ivcY Kiv hvq|
4. el©vi mgq RwjAvgb avb‡K KPzwicvbvi Kej †_‡K iÿv Kivi Rb¨ G
gv‡mB Rwgi AvB‡j ˆaÂv Pvl K‡i cÖvK…wZK †eovi e¨e¯’v Kiv †h‡Z
cv‡i|
5. evQvBK…Z Ges msiwÿZ ex‡Ri ¸Yv¸Y wVK ivLvi Rb¨ evqy‡ivax cv‡Î
exR ivLv †h‡Z cv‡i|
6. eb¨vcÖeY wbPz GjvKv cvwb‡Z Av‡M Wy‡e hvq| GRb¨ Gme GjvKvq
AvMvg Rv‡Zi AvDk/cvU Pvl Ki‡Z n‡e hv‡Z eb¨vi cvwb Avmvi Av‡MB
dmj N‡i †Zvjv hvq|
7. eb¨vi cvwbi mv‡_ mv‡_ †e‡o DVvi †Zv Rwj Avgb avb (†hgb dzjKwi,
ev`vj) Pvl Kiv |
8. Lo-KzUv, cvZv, AvMvQv, KPzwicvbv Øviv gvwUi Ic‡ii ¯Í‡i gvjwPs w`‡j
gvwUi im gRy` _v‡K| gvwUi Ic‡ii ¯Íi †f‡O gvjwPs Ki‡j Rwgi im
msiÿY Kiv hvq|
9. Mg I fyÆv KvUv n‡q †M‡j exR msiÿY Ki‡Z n‡e| exR ïKv‡bv,
Dchy³ cvÎ wbe©vPb, evqy‡ivax K‡i msiÿY, exRcv·K gvwU †_‡K
Avjv`vfv‡e msiÿY Ki‡Z n‡e|
10. Lwid fyÆvi eqm 20-25 w`b n‡j BDwiqv mv‡ii DcwicÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z
n‡e| gvwU‡Z i‡mi NvUwZ _vK‡j nvjKv †mP w`‡Z n‡e Ges AvMvQv
cwi®‹vi K‡i Mv‡Qi †Mvovq gvwU w`‡Z n‡e|
11. N~wY©So I R‡jv”Q¡vm Gi gnvwec`ms‡KZ cvIqvi ci ex‡Ri cvÎ
wbivc`fv‡e msiÿY Ki‡Z n‡e|
12. †evi av‡b mwVKgvÎvq †mP w`‡q cvwbi AcPq †iva Ki‡Z n‡e|
13. G gv‡m wkjve„wó n‡Z cv‡i, †ev‡iv avb 80% cvK‡j ZvovZwo †K‡U
†djyb|
14. Ddkx Rv‡Zi AvDk av‡bi Pviv †ivcY Ki‡Z n‡e|
15. m¤ú~iK †m‡Pi Rb¨ †ÿ‡Zi / gv‡Vi GK †Kv‡Y wgwb cyKzi Lbb
Kiæb|
16. njy` †ivcY Kiæb|
17. bvex Rv‡Zi cvU Pvl Kiæb|
18. Av‡M †_‡KB †m‡Pi e¨e¯’v K‡i ivLyb|
19. gv‡mi †kl mßv‡n bvex Ddkx Rv‡Zi AvDk avb †ivcY / ecb Kiæb|
ˆR¨ô
ˆR¨ô
1. †ev‡iv avb KvUvi mßvnLv‡bK Av‡M †evbv Avgb av‡bi exR
wQwU‡q w`‡j A_ev †ev‡iv avb †KwU mv‡_ mv‡_ Avgb av‡bi Pviv
†ivcY Ki‡j eb¨vi cvwbi Av‡MB Pviv m‡ZR n‡q DV‡e| Rwj
Avgb avb Avwk¦b-KvwZ©K gv‡m KvUv hvq Ges djbI fvj nq|
2. AvDk I †evbv Avgb av‡b cvgwi †cvKvi Avµgb n‡j Rwg‡Z
Rvj †U‡b †cvKv †g‡i †dj‡Z n‡e| av‡bi cÖwZ †MvQvq hw` 4wU
c~Y©eq®‹ cvgix †cvKv ev cÖwZ cvZvq 15wU Kxov (gvSvwi Kzwk
MRv‡bv Ae¯’vq) A_ev kZKiv 35wU cvZv gvivZ¥Kfv‡e AvµvšÍ
nq Zvn‡j Awej‡¤^ mwVK KxUbvkK wQwU‡q †cvKv `gb Ki‡Z
n‡e|
3. eb¨vi Kvi‡Y DuPz RvqMvq †ivcv Avgb, mewR I Ab¨vb¨ dm‡ji
exRZjv ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e hv‡Z m~‡h©i Av‡jv wbqwgZ c‡o|
4. eb¨vKvjxb mg‡q Pviv bó nq e‡j AwaK cwigvY Pviv Drcv`b
Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
5. G gv‡m Liv nIqvi m¤¢vebv †`Lv w`‡Z cv‡i, †m‡ÿ‡Î AvDk avb
I cv‡Ui Rwg‡Z m¤ú~iK †mP w`‡Z n‡e|
6. evQvBK…Z Ges msiwÿZ ex‡Ri ¸Yv¸Y wVK ivLvi Rb¨ evqy‡ivax
cv‡Î exR ivLv †h‡Z cv‡i|
7. Rwgi avb kZKiv 80 fvM cvK‡j ZvovZvwo †K‡U †djv DwPr|
ZvQvov nVvr So ev wkjv e„wói Kvi‡Y cvKv av‡bi e¨vcK ÿwZ
n‡Z cv‡i|
8. †ivcv Avg‡bi mv‡_ Liv mnbkxj d‡ji (†hgb Kzj) evMvb K‡i
AwaK jvfevb n‡Z cv‡ib|
9. LivcÖeY GjvKvq †ivcv Avgb avb †ÿ‡Z wgwb cyKzi Lbb K‡i
e„wói cvwb msiÿ‡Yi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z n‡e|
10. gv‡mi gvSvgvwS mg‡qi g‡a¨ m¤ú~iK †m‡Pi Rb¨ †ÿ‡Zi /
gv‡Vi GK †Kv‡Y wgwb cyKzi Lbb Kiæb|
11. gv‡mi cÖ_g mßv‡ni g‡a¨ bvex Rv‡Zi cvU Pvl Kiæb|
12. bvex Ddkx Rv‡Zi AvDk avb †ivcY/ ecb Kiæb|
Avlvp
1. eb¨vi cvwb‡Z Wy‡e hvq bv Ges cÖPiz Av‡jv evZvm PjvPj K‡i
Ggb ¯’v‡b Ddkx Avgb av‡bi exRZjv ˆZwi Ges Gi hZœ wb‡Z
n‡e|
2. A¯^vfweK eb¨vi d‡j A‡bK mgq mivmwi cvU MvQ †_‡K exR
Drcv`b m¤¢e nq bv| ZvB G cwiw¯’wZ †gvKv‡ejv Kivi Rb¨
weKí e¨e¯’v wn‡m‡e cv‡Ui WMv ev KvÛ †K‡U evwoi AvwObvq ev
†Kvb DuPz RvqMvq jvwM‡q Zv †_‡K exR Drcv`b Kiv hvq| Avlvp
gv‡m cv‡Ui KvÐ ev WMv †K‡U jvMv‡bvi Dchy³ mgq|
3. G mg‡q cv‡Ui †P‡j †cvKv, weQv †cvKv, †Nvov †cvKv, ÿz‡`
gvKomvi Avµgb Ges cvZv nj‡` †iv‡Mi cÖv`y©fve †`Lv w`‡Z
cv‡i| †ivM Ges †cvKvi Avµg‡Y mwVK e¨e¯’v MªnY Ki‡Z n‡e|
4. eb¨vi Kvi‡Y DuPz RvqMvq †ivcv Avgb, mewR I Ab¨vb¨ dm‡ji
exRZjv ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e|
5. exR I Ab¨vb¨ AZ¨vek¨Kxq K…wl DcKiY eb¨vgy³ ¯’v‡b ev gvPv
†eu‡a DuPz ¯’v‡b msiÿY Kiyb|
6. eb¨vi Kvi‡Y †ivcv Avg‡bi exRZjv ˆZwii gZ RvqMv bv _vK‡j
fvmgvb exRZjvq Pviv Drcv`b Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| ZvQvov `vcM
c×wZ‡ZI exRZjvq Pviv Drcv`b Kiv hvq|
7. AvMvg eb¨v †`Lv †`qvi m¤¢vebv _vK‡j AvDk avb kZKiv 80
fvM cvK‡jB KvU‡Z n‡e|
8. A¯^vfvweK eb¨v n‡j G gv‡mB cv‡Ui WMv 14-22 †mwg. †K‡U DuPz
¯’v‡b Kv`vgq exRZjvq jvwM‡q w`‡Z n‡e| Gfv‡e cieZ©x eQ‡ii
cv‡Ui ex‡Ri Pvwn`v wgUv‡bv m¤¢e|
9. Avlvp gv‡m cÖ_g w`‡K A_©vr eb¨v Avmvi Av‡MB Pi GjvKvq wcU&
ˆZwi K‡i ivL‡Z nq| eb¨vi cvwb m‡i †M‡j Ic‡ii R‡g _vKv
evwj mwi‡q G‡Z mewR exR wKsev Pviv jvMv‡bv hvq|
10. A‡bK mgq G gv‡mi cÖ_g w`‡K Abve„wó A_ev AvMvg eb¨v n‡Z
cv‡i| h_vmg‡q Pviv †ivc‡Yi Rb¨ mevB wg‡j Dchy³ ¯’v‡b
Avg‡bi ÔKwgDwbwU exRZjvÕ ˆZwi Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
11. †ivcv Avgb av‡bi Rwg mgvb K‡i ˆZwi I AvBj †givgZ Kiv
Riæwi, hv‡Z e„wó ev †m‡Pi cvwbi h_vh_ e¨envi nq|
12. bvwe †ivcv Avg‡bi cwie‡Z© h_v m¤¢e AvMvg †ivcv Avg‡bi
(weªavb 33, weªavb-39) Pvl Kiv DwPr hv‡Z KvwZ©K-AMÖnvqY
gv‡mi g‡a¨ dmj KvUv hvq d‡j Livq dm‡ji Kg ÿwZ n‡e|
13. Rwgi GK †Kv‡b wgwb cyKiz Lbb K‡i e„wói cvwb a‡i †i‡L
m¤ú~iK †mP wbwðZ Ki‡Z n‡e|
14. eb¨vcÖeY GjvKvq cÖavb Rwg‡Z eb¨vi cvwb _vK‡j ejvb
(Double transplanting) c×wZ‡Z avb Avev` Kiv †h‡Z
cv‡i|
15. DuPz ev wbivc` ¯’v‡b exR msiÿY Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
16. Rwg †f‡` Dchy³ RvZ wbe©vPb ev eb¨vi cvwb mnbkxj weKí
dmj (†hgb-jwZivR KPz) Pvl Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
17. eb¨vi Av‡M †Zvjv hvq Ggb dmj (†hgb Avjy, fyÆv, Avjy I
fyÆvi AvšÍtwi‡j dmj, Pxbv ev`vg, `ªæZ ea©bkxj kvK mewR,
MÖx®§Kvjxb gyMWvj BZ¨vw`) Gi Pvl Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
18. DcK~jxq A‡j †N‡ii †ewoev‡au wMgv Kjwg I Ab¨vb¨ dmj
Avev` Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
19. mewR †ÿ‡Z cvwb R‡g †M‡j Zv miv‡bvi e¨e¯’v wb‡Z n‡e|
20. eb¨vcÖeb GjvKvq fvmgvb / `vcM exRZjvq Avgb avb, Ab¨vb¨
Pviv Drcv`b Kiæb|
21. Avg, Av‡cj Kzj, evD Kzjmn wewfbœ d‡ji Pviv †ivcY Kiæb|
kªveY
1. cvU cPv‡bvi Dchy³ mgq GB gvm| cvwbi ¯^íZv _vK‡j wieb
†iwUs c×wZ AbymiY Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
2. iscyi, w`bvRcyi A‡j AvMvg kxZ Av‡m, ZvB Gme A‡j
kªveY †_‡K fv`ª gv‡mi cÖ_g mßv‡ni g‡a¨ Zzjv exR ecb Ki‡Z
n‡e| Ab¨vb¨ GjvKvq kªve‡Yi gvSvgvwS †_‡K fv‡`ªi gvSvgvwS
ch©šÍ Zzjv Pvl Kiv hvq|
3. DcK~jxq A‡j m¤¢ve¨ †ÿ‡Î Dc‡hvMx Ddkx Rv‡Zi †ivcv Avgb
Avev` Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
4. †ivcv Avgb av‡bi Rwg mgvb I AvBj †givgZ K‡i e„wó ev
†m‡Pi cvwb mبenvi Kiæb|
5. bvwe †ivcv Avg‡bi cwie‡Z© h_vm¤¢e AvMvg †ivcv Avg‡bi Pvl
Kiv DwPr hv‡Z KvwZ©K-AMÖnvqY gv‡mi g‡a¨ dmj †K‡U †bqv
hvq, Gi d‡j Livq dm‡ji Kg ÿwZ n‡e|
6. Rwgi GK †Kv‡Y MZ© K‡i cvwb a‡i ivLvi e¨e¯’v Kiv †h‡Z
cv‡i|
7. eb¨vi mgq ïK‡bv RvqMvi Afv‡e Ue, gvwUi Pvwp, Kv‡Vi ev·,
cyivZb †K‡ivwm‡bi wUb, Wªvg GgbwK cwjw_b e¨v‡M mewRi Pviv
Drcv`b Kiv hvq|
8. exR I Ab¨vb¨ AZ¨vek¨Kxq K…wl DcKiY eb¨vgy³ ¯’v‡b ev gvPvq
ev †h‡Kv‡bv DuPz ¯’v‡b msiÿY Ki‡Z n‡e|
9. eb¨vi cvwb bvg‡Z †`wi n‡j KPzwicvbvi fvmgvb ¯Í‚‡ci Ici wKQy
gvwU w`‡q jvD‡qi exR †evbv hvq| cvwb P‡j †M‡j ¯‘cwU h_v¯’v‡b
ewm‡q gvPv w`‡Z n‡e| Gfv‡e mgq g‡Zv jvD Drcv`b Kiv hvq
Ges wkgI Pvl Kiv hvq| g~jv exRI jvMv‡bv hvq|
10. e„wói Rb¨ MÖx®§Kvjxb mewRi †Mvovq cvwb R‡g _vK‡j wbKv‡ki
e¨e¯’v wb‡Z n‡e Ges †Mvovi gvwU DuPz K‡i w`‡Z n‡e|
11. eb¨vq ÿwZ n‡j gv‡mi †kl mßv‡n bvex Rv‡Zi weAvi 22,
23, 38 weª avb 46, webvkvBj, bvBRvikvBj Rv‡Zi Avgb
av‡bi exR ecb Kiæb|
12. Avg, Av‡cj Kzj, evD Kzjmn wewfbœ d‡ji Pviv †ivcY Kiæb|
13. gv‡mi †kl mßv‡n gvmKvjvB‡qi exR ecb Kiæb|
fv`ª
1. cvnvwo X‡j m„ó eb¨vKewjZ ¯’v‡b bvwe Avgb avb, †hgb weAvi
22, weAvi 23 I webvkvBj jvMv‡Z n‡e|
2. G mgq ex‡Ri Rb¨ †Zvlv cv‡Ui exR eyb‡Z n‡e| eb¨vq
†Zvlvcv‡Ui †ewk ÿwZ nq|
3. eb¨vi cvwb bvg‡Z †`wi n‡j KPzwicvbvi fvmgvb ¯Í‚‡ci Dci wKQy
gvwU w`‡q jvD‡qi exR †evbv hvq| cvwb †b‡g †M‡j ¯Íc
‚ wU
h_v¯’v‡b ewm‡q gvPv w`‡Z n‡e| Gfv‡e mgqg‡Zv jvD Drcv`b
Kiv hvq| G wbq‡g wkgI Pvl Kiv hvq|
4. jvD, wk‡gi †ivcY I cwiPh©v wbwðZ Ki‡Z n‡e| cPv
KPzwicvbvi ¯Í‚‡c exR ecb K‡i cieZ©x‡Z g~j gv`vq ¯’vbvšÍi Kiv
hvq|
5. eb¨vq ÿwZ n‡j bvex Rv‡Zi weAvi 22, 23, 38 weª avb 46,
webvkvBj, bvBRvikvBj Rv‡Zi Avgb av‡bi exR ecb Kiæb|
6. Avg, Av‡cj Kzj, evD Kzjmn wewfbœ d‡ji Pviv †ivcY Kiæb|
7. gv‡mi cÖ_g mßvn ch©šÍ U‡e, ev‡·, cwje¨v‡M, Wªv‡g kvKmewRi
Pviv Drcv`b Kiæb|
8. gvmKvjvB‡qi exR ecb Kiæb|
9. †e¸b, wmg, jvD, Mxgv Kjwg, gwiP Pvl Kiæb|
10. LivKewjZ †ivcv Avgb av‡b wdZv cvBc e¨envi K‡i m¤ú~iK
†mP w`b|
Avwk¦b
1. G mgq Liv †`Lv w`‡Z cv‡i| †m Rb¨ Avgb av‡bi Rwg‡Z
m¤ú~iK †m‡Pi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z n‡e|
2. Avgb Pv‡li ÿwZ cywl‡q wb‡Z bvwe Rv‡Zi weAvi 22 I weAvi
23 jvMv‡bv †h‡Z cv‡i| GQvov bvBRvikvBj ev jwZkvBj ga¨
Avwk¦b ch©šÍ jvMv‡bv hvq|
3. eb¨vi cvwb‡Z dm‡ji ÿqÿwZ KvwU‡q DVvi Rb¨ AvMvg cÖ¯‘wZ
wb‡Z n‡e| †hgb †hme Rwg‡Z Ddkx †ev‡iv av‡bi Pvl Kiv nq,
†mme Rwg‡Z ¯^í †gqvw` Uwi 7 I Kj¨vYx Rv‡Zi mwilv, fzÆvi
exR, jvjkvK, cvjskvK I WuvUvkvK cÖfw„ Z webv Pv‡l ec‡bi Rb¨
exR msMÖn Ki‡Z n‡e|
4. KvwZ©K gv‡m eb¨vi cvwb †b‡g hvIqvi ci webv Pv‡l †ivc‡Yi Rb¨
Avjy exR msiÿY Ki‡Z n‡e|
5. DuPz ¯’v‡b, cwj e¨vM/ exRZjv c×wZ‡Z Av‡Li Pviv Drcv`b
Kiæb|
6. webv Pv‡l Mg, mwilv, gvmKjvB, †Lmvwi , gyM wZj, wZwl, he
BZ¨vw` ecb Kiæb|
7. cvwbi AcPq †iva I mn‡R PjvP‡ji Rb¨ mwVKfv‡e †mP bvjv
ˆZwi I h_vmg‡q †givgZ Kiv cÖ‡qvRb|
8. LivKewjZ †ivcv Avgb av‡b m¤ú~iK ‡m‡Pi Rb¨ wcwfwm I wdZv
cvBc msMÖn/e¨envi Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
9. gv`vq wgwó Kzgov I jvD‡qi exR ecb Kiæb|
10. †e¸b, wmg, jvD, Mxgv Kjwg, gwiP Pvl Kiæb|
11. AvMvg kxZKvjxb mewR Pvl Kiæb|
KvwZ©K
1. G gv‡m N~wY©So, Zzdvb I R‡jv”Q¡vm n‡Z cv‡i| cÖ‡qvRbxq mZK©Zv I
cÖ¯w‘ Z ivL‡Z n‡e|
2. G gv‡m nVvr e„wó‡Z †ivcYK…Z kvKmewRi Pviv bó n‡Z cv‡i| kvKmewR
iÿvi Rb¨ cvwb wb®‹vk‡bi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z n‡e|
3. eb¨vi cvwb †b‡g hvIqvi mv‡_ mv‡_ webv Pv‡l Uwi-7, evwi 9 I Kj¨vwbqv
mwilv, gïi, †Lmvwi, cvwb KPz ecb/ †ivcY Kiæb
4. Liv mnbkxj †Qvjv, gyM, wZj, wZwl, he BZ¨vw` ecb Kiæb|
5. gv`vq wgwó Kzgov I jvD‡qi exR ecb Kiæb|
6. eb¨vi cvwb †b‡g hvIqvi mv‡_ mv‡_ webv Pv‡l gvjwPs w`‡q Avjy Avev`
Kiæb|
7. gvwU‡Z †Rv Avmvi mv‡_ mv‡_ kxZKvjxb kvK-mewR I †ev‡iv av‡bi exR
ecb Kiæb|
8. Pxbvev`v‡gi exR ecb Kiæb|
9. gv‡mi wØZxq mßvn ch©šÍ LivKewjZ †ivcv Avgb av‡b wdZv cvBc
e¨envi K‡i m¤ú~iK †mP w`b|
10. gv‡mi †kl mßv‡n Mg exR ecb Kiæb|
11. AvMvg kxZKvjxb mewR Pvl Kiæb|
12. gv‡mi Z…Zxq mßvn ch©šÍ DuPz ¯’v‡b, cwje¨v‡M A_ev †e‡W Av‡Li Pviv
D‡Ëvjb Kiæb|
13. fyÆv exR ecb Kiæb|
14. †mP bvjv ms®‹vi I †givgZ Kiæb|
AMÖnvqb
1. Liv Dc‡hvMx dmj †hgb miMg, wg‡jU, KvDb, evwj© Ges Mfxi
wkKohy³ dm‡ji Pvl Ki‡Z n‡e|
2. Avgb avb KvUvi ci ciB Rwg Pvl w`‡q ivL‡Z n‡e, G‡Z
ev®§xfe‡bi gva¨‡g gvwUi im Kg ïKv‡e|
3. DcK~jxq A‡j †ivcv Avgb KvUvi Av‡M wi‡j †Lmvwi Avev` Kiv
†h‡Z cv‡i|
4. G gv‡m N~wY©So n‡Z cv‡i, cÖ‡qvR‡b Avgb avb 80% cvK‡j
KvUv †h‡Z cv‡i|
5. DcK~jxq A‡j kxZKvjxb kvKmewR Avjy, wgwóAvjy, Zigy‡Ri
Avev` Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
6. †N‡ii †ewoeuv‡a U‡g‡Uv, wgwóKzgov Pvl Kiæb|
7. †ev‡iv av‡bi exRZjv ˆZix Kiæb|
8. gv‡mi Z…Zxq mßvn ch©šÍ Liv mnbkxj †Qvjv, gyM, wZj, wZwl, he
BZ¨vw` ecb Kiæb|
9. Liv mnbkxj KvDb Pvl Kiæb|
10. gvwU‡Z †Rv Avmvi mv‡_ mv‡_ kxZKvjxb kvK-mewR I †ev‡iv
av‡bi exR ecb Kiæb|
11. Mg exR ecb m¤ú~Y© Kiæb|
12.
iwe dm‡j BDwiqv DcwicÖ‡qvM Kiæb Ges cÖ‡qvR‡b †mP
w`b|
13.
gv‡mi wØZxq mßvn ch©šÍ fyÆv exR ecb Kiæb|
14.
†mP bvjv ms®‹vi I †givgZ Kiæb|
†cŠl
1. Avjyi me‡P‡q gvivZ¥K †ivM n‡”Q goK| AvenvIqv VvÐv, †fRv,
†gNv”Qbœ ev Kzqvkv”Qbœ ZvK‡j nVvr K‡i G †ivM `ªæZ Qwo‡q c‡o
Ges m¤ú~Y© dmj aŸsm K‡i w`‡Z cv‡i| myZivs †iv‡Mi jÿY
†`Lv gvÎ ev AvenvIqv ch©‡eÿY K‡i cÖ‡qvRbxq `gb e¨e¯’v
wb‡Z n‡e|
2. eb¨v cÖeY wbPz GjvKv Av‡M cvwb‡Z Wy‡e hvq| GRb¨ h_vm¤¢e
Aíw`‡b cv‡K Ggb ev AvMvg Rv‡Zi †ev‡iv dm‡ji Pvl Ki‡Z
n‡e hv‡Z eb¨vi cvwb Avmvi Av‡MB dmj N‡i †Zvjv hvq|
3. DcK~jxq A‡j †ivcv Avgb KvUvi Av‡M wi‡j †Lmvwi Avev` Kiv
†h‡Z cv‡i|
4. gv‡mi Z…Zxq mßvn ch©šÍ †ev‡iv av‡bi exRZjv ˆZwi Kiæb|
5. †ev‡iv avb †ivcY Kiæb|
6. Liv mnbkxj KvDb Pvl Kiæb|
7. kxZKvjxb kvKmevRx I †ev‡iv av‡bi exR ecb Kiæb|
8. gv‡mi †kl mßv‡n wLiv, ZigyR, wgwó Kzgov Pvl Kiæb|
9. iwe dm‡j BDwiqv DcwicÖ‡qvM Kiæb Ges cÖ‡qvR‡b †mP w`b|
gvN
1. Liv mnbkxj dmj I Rv‡Zi Avev` Kiv|
2. `jxqfv‡e AMfxi/Mfxi bjK~c I cvIqvi cv¤úPvjy Kivi cÖ¯‘wZ
wb‡Z n‡e|
3. cyKzi, Rjvkq, Lvj I †Wvevq e„wói cvwb a‡i ivLv|
4. DcK~jxq A‡j †ev‡iv †gŠmy‡g weªavb-47 I Ab¨vb¨ Dc‡hvMx
Rv‡Zi Avev` Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
5. DcK~jxq A‡j G mgq gyMWvj Avev` Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
6. DcK~jxq A‡j †hLv‡b †Rvqvi fvUvq Rwg‡Z cvwb R‡g _v‡K
†mLv‡b mR©vb c×wZ‡Z mewR I d‡ji Pvl Kivi Rb¨ mR©vb †eW
ˆZwi Ki‡Z cv‡ib|
7. Avjy †ÿ‡Z goK †`Lv w`‡j cÖ‡qvRbxq QÎvKbvkK cÖ‡qvM
Kiæb|
8. †ev‡iv avb †ivcY Kiæb|
9. Liv mnbkxj KvDb Pvl Kiæb|
10. wLiv, ZigyR, wgwó Kzgov Pvl Kiæb|
11. kxZKvjxb kvKmewR I †ev‡iv av‡bi exR ecb Kiæb|
12. gv‡mi wØZxq mßv‡n †ev‡iv av‡b Dcwi mvi cÖ‡qvM Kiæb|
13. gv‡mi wØZxq mßv‡n Ddkx AvD‡ki AvMvg exRZjv ˆZwi
Kiæb|
14. Mg, mwilv, †Qvjv, wZwl, fyÆv dm‡j †mP w`b|
15. gv‡mi †kl mßv‡n cyKzi, Rjvkq, Lvj, †Wvevq cvwb msiÿY
Kiæb|
16. iwe dm‡j BDwiqv Dcwi cÖ‡qvM Kiæb Ges cÖ‡qvR‡b †mP w`b|
dvêyb
1. G mgq e„wó wbf©i Ddkx AvDk wnmv‡e wbRvgx (we Avi-20),
wbqvgZ (we Avi-21) Ges ingZ (we Avi-24) Rv‡Zi Pvl Kiv
hvq|
2. So I e„wó‡Z †cuqv‡Ri ÿwZ n‡Z cv‡i| cÖ‡qvR‡b †cuqvR Av‡MB
†Zvjv †h‡Z cv‡i|
3. cvwbi AcPq †iva I mn‡R PjvP‡ji Rb¨ mwVKfv‡e †mP bvjv
ˆZwi I h_vmg‡q †givgZ Kiv|
4. cvwbi AcPq Kgv‡Z gv`v dmj, †hgb Kijv I jvD Pvl Kiv|
5. Lo-KzUv, cvZv, AvMvQ I KPzwicvbv Øviv gvwUi Ic‡ii ¯Í‡i
gvjwPs w`‡j gvwUi im gRy` _v‡K| ZvQvov gvwUi Dc‡ii ¯Íi
†f‡O gvjwPs Ki‡j Rwgi im msiÿY Kiv hvq|
6. `jxqfv‡e AMfxi/Mfxi bjK~c I cvIqvi cv¤úPvjy Kivi cÖ¯‘wZ
†bqv|
7. DcK~jxq A‡j †Lmvwi, gyM, †djb Wvj Avev` Kiæb|
8. e‡i›`ª A‡j †ivcv Avg‡bi †ÿ‡Z Kzj evMvb ¯’vcb Kiv †h‡Z
cv‡i|
9. cyKzi, Rjvkq, Lvj I †Wvevq e„wói cvwb a‡i ivLv|
10. MÖx®§Kvjxb gyMWvj Pvl Kiæb|
11. gv‡mi wØZxq mßvn n‡Z m¤ú~iK †m‡Pi Rb¨†ÿ‡Zi/gv‡Vi GK
†Kv‡Y wgwb cyKzi Lbb Kiæb|
12. †ev‡iv av‡b Dcwi mvi cÖ‡qvM Kiæb|
13. Ddkx AvD‡ki AvMvg exRZjv ˆZwi Kiæb|
14. Mg, mwilv, †Qvjv, wZwl, fzÆv dm‡j †mP w`b|
15. gv‡mi wØZxq mßvn †_‡K Mg †K‡U ïwK‡q msiÿY Kiæb|
ˆPÎ
1. eb¨vcÖeY wbPz GjvKv cvwb‡Z Av‡M Wy‡e hvq| GRb¨ Gme
GjvKvq h_vm¤fe Aíw`‡b cv‡K Ggb ev AvMvg Rv‡Zi AvDk
dm‡ji Pvl Ki‡Z n‡e hv‡Z eb¨vi Av‡MB dmj †Zvjv hvq|
2. AvDk av‡bi Rwg mgvb K‡i ˆZwi I AvBj †givgZ Kiv DwPZ
hv‡Z e„wó ev †m‡Pi cvwbi mبenvi nq|
3. wbPz GjvKvq AvDk I †evbv Avgb Pv‡li Dchy³ mgq ˆPÎ gvm|
4. eb¨vgy³ GjvKvq MÖx®§Kvjxb fyÆvi Ges gyMWv‡ji Pvl Kiv †h‡Z
cv‡i|
5. AMfxi bjK~c gvwUi Mfx‡i ¯’vcb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
6. Lo-KzUv, cvZv, AvMvQv, KPzwicvbv Øviv gvwUi Dc‡ii ¯Í‡i gvjwPs
Ki‡j gvwUi im gRy` _v‡K| gvwUi Ic‡ii ¯Íi †f‡O gvjwPs
Ki‡j Rwgi im msiÿY Kiv hvq|
7. `jxqfv‡e AMfxi/Mfxi bjK‚c I cvIqvi cv¤ú Pvjyi cÖ¯‘wZ
†bqv †h‡Z cv‡i|
8. cyKzi, Rjvkq, Lvj I †Wvevq e„wói cvwb a‡i ivLv|
9. e„wói Afv‡e G gv‡m gvwU‡Z im K‡g hvq| G Ae¯’vq Mv‡Qi
†Mvovq cvwb w`b, gvjwPs Kiæb|
10. m¤ú~iK †m‡Pi Rb¨ †ÿ‡Zi / gv‡Vi GK †Kv‡bv wgwb cyKzi Lbb
Kiæb|
11. Rjx Avg‡bi exR ecb Kiæb|
12. cvU exR ecb Kiæb|
13. gv‡mi Z…Zxq mßvn †_‡K njy` †ivcY Kiæb|
14. Mg †K‡U ïwK‡q msiÿY Kiæb|
Rjevqy cwieZ©b †gvKv‡ejvq wewfbœ D‡`¨vM
evsjv‡`‡ki GB Rjevqy cwieZ©bRwbZ Kvi‡Y K„wl †ÿ‡Î h‡_ô
Awf‡hvRb †KŠkj Aej¤^b Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| evsjv‡`‡ki K…wl †ÿ‡Î
m¤¢ve¨ Awf‡hvRb wb‡gœ Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv-
e‡i›`ª A‡j †m‡Pi Rb¨ wgwb cyKz‡i e„wói cvwb msiÿY c×wZ
e‡i›`ª A‡j e„wócvZ Kg Ges AwbwðZ| GLv‡b dmj Drcv`b †ek
SzuwKc~Y©| G GjvKvq †m‡Pi †Zgb e¨e¯’v †bB| Rwgi GK †Kv‡Y
12x12 x3 wgUvi cyKiz †K‡U †mLv‡b †m‡Pi Rb¨ e„wói cvwb a‡i ivLv
†h‡Z cv‡i| G cvwb w`‡q Avgb dm‡j m¤ú~iK †mP †`qv hvq| iwe
dm‡jI cÖv_wgK wKQy †mP †`qv hvq| G iKg GKwU cyK‡z ii cvwb w`‡q
cÖvq 1-3 †n±i Rwgi kxZKvjxb dm‡j †mP †`qv m¤¢e| cyKzi cv‡o
mewR Pvl Kiv hvq| †mP w`‡j dm‡ji djb A‡bK †e‡o hvq| Gfv‡e
†mPK…Z Rwg †_‡K 5-6 nvRvi UvKv evowZ Avq nq|
e‡i›`ª A‡j e„wói cvwb msiÿ‡Yi Rb¨ cyKzi ˆZwii bKkv
GKwU wbw`©ó cwigvY Rwg‡Z †mP w`‡Z †gvU Rwgi 2.5% cwigvY
Rwg‡Z cyKiz Lbb Ki‡Z n‡e| A_©vr 1 †n±i Rwg‡Z †mP n‡j 12
wgUvi ˆ`N©¨, 12 wgUvi cÖ¯’ Ges 3 wgUvi Mfxi GKwU cyKiz Lbb Ki‡Z
n‡e| GRb¨ 16x16 wgUvi ev 256 eM©wgUvi Rwg cÖ‡qvRb| G‡Z
cyKz‡ii cvo mn‡R †f‡½ co‡e bv| Lbb KvR Ki‡Z n‡e ga¨ RyjvB
Gi Av‡M| cyK‡z ii cvo 2 wgUvi PIov Ges Kgc‡ÿ 50 †mwg DuPz
Ki‡Z n‡e hv‡Z kvKmewR Pvl Kiv hvq| Rwgi A‡cÿvK…Z Xvjy †Kv‡Y
cyKzi KvU‡Z n‡e †hb e„wói cvwb mn‡R Mwo‡q cyKy‡i cÖ‡ek Ki‡Z
cv‡i| LACC-II cÖKí †_‡K mycvwikK…Z cyKz‡ii AvKvi n‡”Q 10
wg.x10 wg. x 2 wg.| wgwb cyKz‡ii cv‡o I Dc‡i gvPvq mewR Drcv`b
Kiv hvq|
KzjevMvb
KzjevMvb t
LivcÖeb e‡i›`ª GjvKvq KzjevMvb Liv †gvKv‡ejv Ges Lv`¨ wbivcËvi
†ÿ‡Î GKwU Ab¨Zg Awf‡hvRb †KŠkj wn‡m‡e we‡ePbv Kiv n‡q
_v‡K| Kzj MvQ GKwU Liv mnbkxj MvQ| †hLv‡b avb dmj ev Ab¨vb¨
dmj Kiv m¤¢e bq †mLv‡b AwZ mn‡RB Kzj evMvb Kiv hvq| GKB
Rwg‡Z Kzj MvQ QvUvB‡qi ci gmjvmn Ab¨vb¨ mewR dmj Kiv †h‡Z
cv‡i| dmj nvwbi SzuwK n«v‡mi cvkvcvwk AwaK Avq Kiv m¤fe GB
Kzj Pv‡li gva¨‡g| hLb Ab¨ dj evRv‡i cvIqv hvq bv ZLb G dj
cvIqv hvq Ges D”P g~‡j¨ evRv‡i wewµ Kiv hvq| G QvovI QvUvB‡qi
ci Gi Wvj cvjv R¡vjvwb wn‡m‡e e¨envi Kiv hvq| G‡Z K‡i R¡vjvwb
wn‡m‡e †Mve‡ii e¨envi Kg nq ciewZ©‡Z Zv gvwUi ¯^v¯’¨ iÿvq
K‡¤cv÷ wn‡m‡e e¨envi Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| j¨vK cÖK‡íi gva¨‡g
K…l‡Ki Pvwn`v †gvZv‡eK K…l‡Ki Rwg‡Z Av‡cjKzj, evDKz‡ji evMvb
¯’vcb K‡i cÖKí GjvKvq e¨vcK cwieZ©b G‡b‡Q| hv K…lK‡`i Lv`¨
wbivcËvq mnvqK kw³ wn‡m‡e KvR Ki‡Q|
Avgb †Qvjvi km¨web¨vm
LivcÖeY e‡i›`ª GjvKv †m‡Pi cvwbi Afve cÖKU| kxZ †gŠmy‡g
†ewkifvM RwgB dmjnxb c‡o _v‡K| A‡bK GjvKvq K…lKMbB †ev‡iv
avb ev Ab¨ †Kvb dmj Pvl Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| G Ae¯’vq Avgb †Qvjvq
km¨web¨vm 32 GjvKvi Rb¨ Dc‡hvMx Awf‡hvRb †KŠkj n‡Z cv‡i
e‡j j¨vK cÖK‡íi AvIZvq cÖKí GjvKvq cixÿv K‡i †`Lv †M‡Q|
Gme GjvKvq Rwg‡Z AvMvg Rv‡Zi †ivcv Avgb (weª avb 33, 39 ev
Dc‡hvMx Ab¨vb¨ RvZ) Pvl K‡i AvMvg KvUvq ci †mme Rwg‡Z im
_vK‡Z _vK‡ZB †Qvjv ev Ab¨vb¨ Wvj / †Zj RvZxq dmj Pvl K‡i
GKwU AwZwi³ dmj †Zvjv m¤¢e| G QvovI Rwg‡Z dmj _vKvi Kvi‡b
Rwgi im ev®úxfe‡bi gva¨‡g gvwUi cvwb D‡o hvIqv †_‡K iÿv cvq
Ges gvwU‡Z cvwbaviY ÿgZv e„w× cvq| j¨vK cÖK‡íi AvIZvq cixÿv
K‡i †`Lv †M‡Q †h, †Qvjv ev Ab¨ †h †Kvb Wvj ˆZj RvZxq dmj Pv‡l
†h cwigvY Rwg‡Z i‡mi cÖ‡qvRb c‡o Zvi A‡bKUvB Rwg‡Z _v‡K,
wKš‘ AwaK djb †c‡Z PvB‡j dm‡ji e„w× ch©v‡q 1-2 wU m¤ú~iK †mP
w`‡j fv‡jv nq|
†ivcv Avg‡bi ﮋ exRZjv
e‡i›`ª GjvKvi K…l‡Kiv †ivcv Avg‡bi exRZjv ˆZwii Rb¨ mvaviYZ:
Ryb RyjvB‡qi cÖ_g †gŠmygx e„wócv‡Zi Rb¨ A‡cÿv K‡i _v‡K| mgq
gZ Pviv †ivc‡Yi †ÿ‡Î ﮋ exR Zjv ˆZwi GKwU Dc‡hvMx Awf‡hvRb
†KŠkj wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ n‡Z cv‡i| G‡Z K‡i mgqg‡Zv Pviv cÖvwß
wbwðZ nq Ges †`wi‡Z
emZwfUvq mewR evMvb
LivcÖeY GjvKvq Zzjbvg~jK Kg †mP w`‡q Pvl Kiv hvq GiKg
kvKmewR Pv‡li cÖPjb Kivi D‡Ï‡k¨ j¨vK cÖKí K…wl M‡elYv
cÖwZôv‡bi mnvqZvq cixÿv-wbixÿv Pvwj‡q‡Q| IB GjvKvq ¯’vbxq wKQy
kvKmewRmn wewfbœ kvKmewR Aí †m‡P emZ evwo‡Z mviv eQi Kiv
m¤¢e| emZ wfUvq mewR Pv‡l bvix‡`i Ask MÖnb wbwðZ Kiv Qvov I
Lv`¨-cywôi Pvwn`v †gUv‡bvmn Lv`¨ wbivcËv weavb K‡i _v‡K|
DbœZ Pzjv
DbœZ Pzjv: mvaviYfv‡e MÖvg ch©v‡q ivbœvi Rb¨ †h Pzjv e¨envi Kiv nq
Zvi cÖvq 50% Av‡m K…wlR Dw”Qó †_‡K| GQvovI R¡vjvwb wn‡m‡e
e¨cKfv‡e †Mvei e¨envi Kiv n‡q _v‡K| A_P Gme K…wlR e„wׇZ
we‡kl mnvqK f‚wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cviZ| G j‡ÿ¨ j¨vK cÖKí DbœZ
Pzjv GKwU Dc‡hvMx Awf‡hvRb †KŠkj wn‡m‡e Liv GjvKvq cÖeZ©b
K‡i‡Q| G Pzjvq ¯’vbxq Pzjvi Zzjbvq cÖvq 30% fvM R¡vjvwb Kg jv‡M
Ges ivbœv Kivi mgq cÖvq 35% Kg jv‡M| G‡Z K‡i R¡vjvwb Kg
e¨envi nIqvq †Mvei †e‡P hv‡”Q hv K‡¤úv÷ wn‡m‡e Rwg‡Z e¨envi
Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| DbœZ Pzjvq Kg R¡vjvwb e¨envi nq e‡j Kg wMÖb nvDm
M¨vm wbM©gb nq hv Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi wgwU‡Mkb G f‚wgKv ivL‡Z
cv‡i|
G ai‡bi AviI A‡bK Awf‡hvRb Kjv‡KŠkj i‡q‡Q hv Rjevqy
cwieZ©b †gvKv‡ejvq Lvc LvIqv‡bvi Kjv‡KŠkj wn‡m‡e Ges K…lK‡`i
Lv`¨ wbivcËvq we‡kl f~wgKv ivL‡Z cv‡i| eZ©gv‡b jeYv³ GjvKvq
j¨vK cÖKí KvR ïiæ K‡i‡Q| ¯’vbxq RvZ Pvl, cÖ_vMZ Awf‡hvRb
e¨e¯’v fvmgvb av‡c Pvl, jeY mnbkxj Rv‡Zi avb Pvl, mR©vb
c×wZ‡Z mviveQi mewR I dj Pvl, gvwUi ¸Yv¸Y fv‡jv ivLv, av‡bi
mv‡_ gv‡Qi Pvl mn wewfbœ Awf‡hvRb Kjv‡KŠkj wb‡q K…lK ch©v‡q
KvR Ki‡Q| AwP‡iB IB GjvKvi Rb¨ Dc‡hvMx Awf‡hvRb Kjv‡KŠkj
cvIqv hv‡e ev IB GjvKvi K…lK‡`i Lv`¨ wbivcËv weav‡b we‡kl
mnvqK f‚wgKv ivL‡e| cwieZ©bkxj Rjevqy‡Z Avgv‡`i mevB‡K
jvMmB D‡`¨M MÖnY Ki‡Z n‡e| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi Kvi‡Y K…wl †ÿ‡Î
D™¢yZ SzuwKi cÖK…wZ I m¤¢ve¨ KiYxq ev Awf‡hvRb †KŠkj, miKv‡ii
Abym„Z mwVK `y‡h©vM e¨e¯’vcbv g‡Wj I `y‡h©vM n«vm cÖwµqv m¤c‡K©
mswkøó mKj‡K ch©vß Ávb I `ÿZv e„w× Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| Avkv Kiv hvq,
A`~i fwel¨‡Z j¨vK cÖK‡íi gva¨‡g AviI e¨vcK GjvKvi m¤ú„³ n‡e
Ges DcKvi‡fvMxiv Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi mv‡_ Lvc LvIqv‡bvi Dc‡hvMx
wewfbœ Kjv‡KŠkj MÖnY Ki‡e Ges Zvi gva¨‡g cvwievwiK
Liv I eb¨vcÖeY GjvKvq KwgDwbwU exRZjv
Ab¨ †h †Kvb dmj Drcv`‡bi Zzjbvq avb Pv‡l mevi mw¤§wjZ D‡`¨vM
ev `je× cÖqvm A‡bK ¸iæZ¡cY~ ©| †Kbbv avb Pv‡l †mP †`qv,
†cvKvgvKo ev †ivMevjvB Ges Bu`yi `gb mnR nq| †h †Kvb Kg©mw~P
¯’vbxqfv‡e (GjvKv ev KwgDwbwU Abyhvqx) msMwVZ n‡q mevi mw¤§wjZ
D‡`¨v‡MB †Kej cy‡ivcywi I mv_©Kfv‡e mdj Kiv hvq|
†ivcYK…Z Pviv `ªæZ I wkMwMi cÖwZôv jv‡f, avb dm‡ji myôz e„w×
NUv‡Z Ges AwaK nv‡i dmj †c‡Z mwVK mg‡q Pviv †ivcY GKUv
Ab¨Zg Acwinvh© c~e©kZ©| ZvQvov cieZ©x dm‡ji myôz e„w× NUv‡Z Ges
AwaK nv‡i djb †c‡Z mwVK mg‡q Pviv †ivcY GKUv Ab¨Zg
Acwinvh© c~e©kZ©| ZvQvov cieZ©x dmj mwVK mg‡q Rwg Lvwj K‡i
†`evi Rb¨ c~e©eZ©x dmj mwVK mg‡q †ivcY AwZ Riæwi| †ivc‡Y †`wi
n‡j cÖvqB †`Lv hvq †h dmj `ye©jfv‡e cÖwZôv cvq, d‡j Kzkx Kg nq
I djb K‡g hvq| cÖvß cvwbi Drm Kv‡R jvwM‡q h_vmg‡q exRZjv
ˆZwi, mwVK eqmx I my¯’ mej Pviv e¨envi, h_vmg‡q Rwg cÖ¯‘Z I Pviv
†ivcY Kiv av‡bi D”Pdjb wbwðZ Ki‡Z GKvšÍB Riæwi|
Z‡e evsjv‡`‡k †gŠmywg e„wói Ici wbf©ikxjZvi Kvi‡Y we‡klZt
ivRkvnx, iscyi I Lyjbv AÂj¸‡jvi wewfbœ GjvKvq †h‡nZz cvwb
cÖvw߇Z NvUwZ †`Lv w`‡”Q Ges f~Mf©¯’ cvwbi ¯Íi µgkt wb‡P bvg‡Q
ZvB K…l‡Kiv eva¨ n‡qB exRZjv ˆZwii Rb¨ †gŠmywg e„wói A‡cÿvq
_vK‡Q| G‡Z Awbevh© fv‡eB Rwg `xN© mgq cwZZ _vK‡Q Ges A‡bK
wej‡¤^ AvMó ev †m‡Þ¤^i gv‡m Rwg‡Z av‡bi Pviv †ivcY Kivi
cwiYwZ‡Z avb Mv‡Q dzj Avmvi mgq Rwg‡Z cvwbi NvUwZ †`Lv w`‡”Q
Ges Gi d‡j dm‡ji djb K‡g hv‡”Q| Ab¨w`‡K eb¨vi mgq exR
Zjv bó nq, Ges bZzb exRZjv Kivi RvqMv LyeB Kg _v‡K| GgbwK
¯‹zj, K‡jR ev G ai‡bi cÖwZôv‡bi RvqMvq exRZjv Ki‡Z nq|
GB cwiw¯’wZ‡Z KwgDwbwU exRZjvi aviYv wb‡q AMÖmi n‡j e¨vcK
myweav cvIqv †h‡Z cv‡i| hw` GKUv ¯’vbxq Rj AeevwnKv GjvKvi
K…l‡Kiv cÖvß cvwb ev †mP my‡hvM Kv‡R jvMv‡Z GKwÎZ nq Ges cvwbi
Drm msjMœ ¯’v‡b Pvwn`v Abyhvqx KwgDwbwU exRZjv ¯’vcb K‡i, Zvn‡j
Zv †_‡K Drcbœ av‡bi Pviv †mB GjvKvq myweavg‡Zv wewfbœ ¯’v‡bi RvZ
Abyhvqx ci¯úi msjMœ †ek eo RvqMv Ry‡o e¨vcK Rwg‡Z AvMvg
†gŠmy‡g A_©vr RyjvB gv‡m †gŠmywg e„wócv‡Zi mv‡_ mv‡_B mgqg‡Zv
†ivcY wbwðZ Kiv m¤¢e| Gi d‡j dmj AvMvg cÖwZôv cv‡e, e„w×jvf
myôz n‡e Ges e¨vcK GjvKvq av‡bi D”Pdjb cvIqv hv‡e| mwZ¨Kvi
A‡_©B avb Pv‡l D”Pdj‡bi Rb¨ mgqg‡Zv I mevB wg‡j GK mv‡_
Rwg‡Z Pviv †ivcY †ek Kg Li‡PB m¤¢e|
KwgDwbwU exRZjv Kivi myweavejx
1.mgqg‡Zv av‡bi my¯’ mej Pviv cvIqvi e¨vcv‡i wbwðZ nIqv hvq
Ges 30 Ry‡bi Av‡MB exRZjvq exR ey‡b RyjvB gv‡m †gŠmy‡g el©vi
ïiæ‡ZB 25-30 w`b eq‡mi †ivcv Avgb av‡bi Pviv Rwg‡Z AvMvg
†ivcY Kiv hvq| †ivcv Avgb av‡bi Giƒc AvMvg Pviv evsjv‡`‡ki
DËiv‡ji †Rjv¸‡jv‡Z †ivcv Avgb avb KvUvi cieZ©x‡Z AvMvg Mg,
mwilv, fyÆv, m~h©gyLx Ges Ab¨vb¨ dmj Pv‡l LyeB mnvqK|
2. GKUv MÖv‡g ev A‡j f~wg I AvenvIqvi ¯’vbxq wfbœZv Abyhvqx
Dc‡hvMx av‡bi RvZ cvkvcvwk Rwg‡Z e¨vcKfv‡e wbðqZvi mv‡_
Avev` Kivmn dmj Pv‡l el©v †gŠmy‡gi cvwbi Dchy³ mبenvi, GKB
mg‡q dmj jvMv‡bvi Kvi‡Y dm‡ji †cvKv I †ivM RxevYy¸‡jvi
†cŠbt†cŠwYK e„w× wbeviY Ges dm‡ji D”P djb wbwðZ Kiv hvq|
3. G‡Z †ivcv Avg‡bi exRZjvq Pviv Drcv`‡b cvwbi e¨envi I Li‡P
A‡bK mvkªq nq|
4.Gi d‡j exRZjvi e¨e¯’vcbv A‡bK mnR n‡q hvq Ges K…lK‡`i
gv‡S AwfÁZv wewbgq I †hvMv‡hvM e„w×i AwaK my‡hvM m„wó nq|
5.G‡Z K‡i AwZwi³ Pviv wewµ A_ev wewbg‡qi gva¨‡g wfbœ Rv‡Zi
Pviv †RvMvo Kivi my‡hvM mnRZi nq I †e‡o hvq|
6.Gi gva¨‡g `je× cÖqvm I ¯’vbxq D‡`¨vM MwZwkjZv jvf K‡i|
KwgDwbwU exRZjv ˆZwii Kg©m~wP MÖn‡Y c~e© Avek¨KZv¸‡jv
1.wba©vwiZ Dc‡Rjvi evQvB Kiv MÖvg¸‡jv‡Z Askx`vwiZ¡g~jK `je×
cÖqv‡mi j‡ÿ¨ K…lK‡`i gv‡S m‡ZPbZv I mg‡SvZv m„wó Ki‡Z n‡e|
2.cuvP GKi Rwg‡Z av‡bi Pviv Drcv`‡bi j‡ÿ¨ cvwbi Drm ev bjK~c
GjvKvi KvQvKvwQ GK‡Î 35-40 kZvsk RvqMv †e‡Q wb‡q, Zv‡Z
KwgDwbwU exRZjv ¯’vcb K‡i exR eyb‡Z n‡e| †ewk Rwg‡Z avb Pv‡li
Rb¨ wnmve K‡i exRZjvi Rwgi AvqZb e„w× Ki‡Z n‡e|
3.Avev` †gŠmyg I GjvKvq Dc‡hvMx RvZ wba©viY K‡i IB Rv‡Zi
weï× ex‡Ri e¨e¯’v ev †RvMvb wbwðZ Ki‡Z n‡e|
4.exRZjv ˆZwii me w`K †hgb, Rwg ˆZwi, ecb, mylg mvi I †mP
cÖ‡qv‡Mi e¨e¯’vcbv, mgwš^Z evjvB wbqš¿Y e¨e¯’vcbv BZ¨vw` wel‡q
GmGGI Ges RwoZ K…lK‡`i h‡_vchy³ cÖwkÿY w`‡Z n‡e Ges
exRZjvi †`Lv‡kvbv I iÿYv‡eÿ‡Y `je× cÖqvm †Rvi`vi Ki‡Z n‡e|
5.GjvKvi f~wgi De©iZv I AvenvIqvi wfbœZv Abyhvqx Dchy³ av‡bi
RvZ evQvB K‡i wb‡q KwgDwbwU exRZjvq IB Rv‡Zi Pviv Drcv`b
K‡i †mB Pviv cvkvcvwk Rwg‡Z GKB mv‡_ †ivcY Ki‡Z n‡e|
(Drm : K…wl †m±‡i Liv I eb¨v c~e© e¨e¯’vcbv I SuzwK n«vmKiY cÖwkÿY
gwWDj, 2006, cÖvKwUK¨vj A¨vKkb-evsjv‡`k)
eb¨v I Liv cÖeY GjvKvq eQie¨vcx emZevwo‡Z mewR Pvl
evsjv‡`‡ki †gvU cwiev‡ii kZKiv 66.18 fvM K…wl cwievi| K…wl
cwiev‡ii kZKiv 52.55 fvM f~wgnxb Ges 23.63 fvM cÖvwšÍK|
µgea©gvb RbmsL¨vi Pv‡c Gi nvi w`b w`b e„w× cv‡”Q| ZvB Avevw`
Rwgi cÖvq m¤ú~Y© AskB `vbv`vi km¨ Pv‡l e¨eüZ n‡”Q| Avi mewRi
cwigvY LyeB mvgvb¨| A_P DbœZ †`‡k kvKmewR I `vbv`vi Lvev‡ii
AbycvZ n‡”Q 1:2| Avgv‡`i †gvU Avevw` Rwgi kZKiv 5 fvM
emZevwoi AvIZvq i‡q‡Q hvi myôz e¨envi K‡i MÖvg evsjvi `wi`ª gvbyl
eQie¨vcx cÖPzi kvKmewR I djg~j Drcv`b Ges Lv`¨ wn‡m‡e e¨envi
K‡i cÖ‡qvRbxq cywói Pvwn`v †gUv‡Z cv‡i|
emZevwo‡Z mewR Pv‡li myweav
Aí cwigvY Rwg‡Z A‡bK cÖKvi mewR Avev` Kiv hvq|
mewR Avev‡` A‡cÿvK…Z Kg mgq jv‡M| GKB Rwg‡Z eQ‡i
K‡qKevi mewR Pvl Kiv m¤¢e|
cywói w`K w`‡q cÖvq me kvKmewR DbœZ gvbm¤úbœ n‡q _v‡K|
d‡j eQie¨vcx Dchy³ cwigvY mewR †L‡q cywónxbZv `~i Kiv
Ges †ivM gy³ _vKv m¤¢e nq|
cwiev‡ii Pvwn`v wgwU‡q evowZ mewR wewµ K‡i cwiev‡ii Rb¨
evowZ Av‡qi ms¯’vb Kiv hvq|
emZevwoi AvwObvq cwiev‡ii gwnjv I †Q‡j‡g‡q‡`i Aemi mgq
mewR Pv‡li Kv‡R jvwM‡q cvwievwiK kª‡gi myôz e¨envi wbwðZ
Kiv hvq|
mewR Pv‡li wbqgvejx
¯’vb wbe©vPb - emZevwoi AvwObvq †h me RvqMvq †gvUvgywU mvivw`b
†iv` c‡o Ges el©vKv‡j cvwb `uvovq bv †mme RvqMv mewR Pv‡li Rb¨
wbe©vPb Ki‡Z n‡e|
mewR evMv‡bi bKkv
wbe©vwPZ Rwg‡Z 4 wgUvi j¤^v I 1 wgUvi PIov AvKv‡ii 5wU eo †eW
ˆZwi Kiv nq| cÖwZ †e‡Wi cv‡k 25 †mwg. bvjv _vKv evÃbxq hv
AvšÍ:cwiPh©v I †mP-wbKv‡ki mnvqK n‡e| Rwgi AvKvi 6.0 wgUvi x
6.0 wgUvi Dchy³| Z‡e ev¯Íe Ae¯’vi †cÖwÿ‡Z Rwgi I †e‡Wi AvKvi
Kg †ewk n‡Z cv‡i| LACC-II cÖKí †_‡K mycvwikK…Z AvKvi n‡”Q
6 wgUvi x 6 wgUvi Ges †e‡Wi AvKvi 5wgUvi x 90 †mw›UwgUvi|
BARI Gi mycvwik nj, Rwgi AvKvi 7 wgUvi x 5 wgUvi, †e‡Wi
AvKvi 5 wgUvi x 80 †mw›UwgUvi|
†eW I bvjv ˆZwi- wbe©vwPZ Rwgi AvMvQv Zz‡j cwi®‹vi Kivi ci †eovi
Pvwiw`‡K 25 †mwg. RvqMv ev` w`‡q Aewkó Ask †Kv`vj w`‡q Lye
fvjfv‡e Kzwc‡q Rwgi gvwU Dchy³fv‡e ˆZwi K‡i wb‡Z n‡e| Zvici
†eov †`qvi RvqMv Lvwj †i‡L bKkvbymv‡i †eW I bvjv ˆZwi Ki‡Z
n‡e| evMv‡bi myweavg‡Zv †Kvb ¯’v‡b bvjv †K‡U w`‡Z n‡e hv‡Z
el©vKv‡j bvjv¸‡jvi cvwb †ewi‡q †h‡Z cv‡i| evMv‡bi †eW I
bvjv¸‡jv †hb b`©gvi w`‡K µgk Xvjy _v‡K Zvi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z n‡e|
†eov ˆZwi- Miæ, QvMj, nuvm, gyiwM I †Pv‡ii Dc`ªemn †h †Kvb cÖKvi
ÿqÿwZi nvZ †_‡K mewR evMvb iÿvi Rb¨ †eW †_‡K 50 †mwg. `~‡i
evMv‡bi Pviw`‡K †eov ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e| euvk I Mv‡Qi Wvjcvjv,
wm‡÷wUK Rvj w`‡q †eov ˆZwi Ki‡j †eov‡Z Avjv`vfv‡e jZv‡bv
mewRi Pvl Kiv hvq|
mewR wbe©vPb- kxZ, MÖx®§ I ev‡ivgvwm me wgwj‡q evsjv‡`‡k cÖvq 60
cÖKv‡ii mewR Pvl Kiv hvq| emZevwoi evMv‡b mewR Pv‡li †ejvq
Ggb mewR wbe©vPb Kiv DwPZ †h¸‡jv cÖ‡qvRbxq cywói w`K †_‡K DuPz
gv‡bi, †L‡ZI my¯^v`y Ges evowZ mewR wewµ Ki‡ZI Amyweav bv nq|
ZvQvov ¯’vbxq Rjevqy‡Z Rb¥v‡bvi Dc‡hvMx wKbv †m welqwUI we‡ePbv
Ki‡Z n‡e| DwjøwLZ mewRi web¨vm QvovI gvPv Ges N‡ii Pv‡j wewfbœ
jZv‡bv mewRi Pvl Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| mewR Pvwliv Zv‡`i AvwObvi GK
cv‡k gvPv w`‡q gvPvq jZv‡bv mewR †hgb jvD, wS½v, kmv, Kijv
BZ¨vw`i Pvl K‡i jvfevb n‡Z cv‡ib|
mR©vb/Kvw›` †eo c×wZ‡Z mewR I d‡ji Pvl (DcK~jxq A‡ji Rb¨)
mewR Avev‡`i Rb¨ mR©vb GKwU we‡kl c×wZ| †h Rwg †Rvqv‡ii
cvwb‡Z cøvweZ nq ev eQ‡ii †ewki fvM mgq cvwb R‡g _v‡K †m
Rwg‡Z mR©vb c×wZ‡Z mewR I d‡ji Pvl Kiv hvq| G‡ÿ‡Î gvwU
†K‡U DuPz †eW ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e| cvkvcvwk 2wU †e‡Wi gv‡Si gvwU
†K‡U DuPz †eW ˆZwi K‡i dmj Pvl KivB mR©vb c×wZi ˆewkó¨| DuPz
†e‡W mewR I d‡ji Pvl Kiv hvq|
mR©vb c×wZ‡Z mewR I dj Pv‡li Rb¨ †eW ˆZwi
gvN-dvêyb (ga¨-Rvbyqvwi †_‡K ga¨-gvP©) gv‡m mR©vb †eW ˆZwi Ki‡Z
nq| G mgq Rwg ïKbv _v‡K Ges †Kv‡bv dmj nq bv| cÖvq 28 wgUvi
j¤^v Ges 11 wgUvi PIov G
KLÐ Rwg‡Z 10 x 2 wgUvi AvKv‡ii 5wU †eW ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e| Z‡e
†e‡Wi D”PZv Kgc‡ÿ 1 wgUvi n‡e| cÖ_‡g `wo I Lywu Ui mvnvh¨ bKkv
K‡i wb‡Z n‡e| †e‡Wi gv‡Si gvwU Lyu‡o 2 cv‡ki †eW ˆZwi Ki‡Z
n‡e| ïiæ‡Z Dc‡ii ¯Íi †e‡Wi 8-10 †mw›UwgUvi/†mwg. gvwU †K‡U
GKcv‡k ivL‡Z n‡e Ges †eW ˆZwi †kl n‡j Zv †e‡Wi Dci wewQ‡q
w`‡Z n‡e|
†jeyLvjx mewR Drcv`b g‡Wj (DcK~jxq A‡ji Rb¨)
cUzqvLvjx GjvKvq AwaKvsk mgq Rwg †Rvqv‡ii cvwb‡Z Wy‡e _v‡K|
GRb¨ mewR Avev` Kiv m¤¢e nq bv| ZvB cvwievwiK cywói Dbœq‡b I
mewRi Pvwn`v c~i‡Yi j‡ÿ¨ GB cÖhyw³ D™¢veb Kiv n‡q‡Q| wb‡P ewY©Z
mewR web¨vm AbymiY K‡i eQ‡i cÖvq 260-300 †KwR mewR Drcv`b
Kiv m¤¢e| cwiev‡ii mewR Pvwn`v c~iY K‡i wKQy evowZ AvqI Kiv
hvq| GRb¨ emZ evwoi †iv`hy³ ¯’v‡b 8 wgUvi j¤^v I 1.5 wgUvi
PIov cuvPwU †eW ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e|
Kjvcvov mewR Drcv`b g‡Wj (jeYv³ A‡ji Rb¨)
cUzqvLvjx †Rjvi Kjvcvov Dc‡Rjv jeYv³ GjvKv| GLv‡b †ivcv
Avgb avb Qvov Ab¨ dm‡ji Pvl nq bv ej‡jB P‡j| d‡j mewRi
Avev` Z_v cvwievwiK cywói Dbœq‡bi j‡ÿ¨ GB cÖhyw³ D™¢veb Kiv
n‡q‡Q| evMv‡b 5 wgUvi j¤^v Ges 5 wgUvi PIov 5wU †eW ˆZwi Ki‡Z
n‡e| cuvPwU †e‡W wb‡P ewY©Z mewR web¨vm AbymiY K‡i eQ‡i cÖvq
155-175 †KwR mewR msMÖn Kiv hv‡e|
DcK~jxq A‡j wgwb cyKiz wfwËK mgwš^Z Pvl
DcK~jxq A‡ji Rb¨ G cÖhwy ³i AvIZvq 12 wgUvi j¤^v, 10 wgUvi
PIov Ges 1.6 wgUvi AvKv‡ii GKwU cyKzi †K‡U Zvi Pviw`‡Ki cvo 1
wgUvi DuPz Ges 3 wgUvi PIov K‡i ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e| G DuPz cvomg~‡n
mewR I dj-g~j Ges cyKz‡i gv‡Qi Pvl Ki‡Z n‡e| G ai‡bi GKUv
cyKzi KvU‡Z cÖvq AvovB nvRvi UvKv LiP nq| cÖ_g eQ‡iB dmj I
gvQ †_‡K wbU Avq (cyKzi KvUv LiP ev` w`‡q) cÖvq 4 nvRvi UvKv n‡Z
cv‡i| e„nËi cUzqvLvjx †Rjvi mewR Pvwn`v c~i‡Y G cÖhyw³ ¸iæZ¡c~Y©
f~wgKv ivL‡Z cv‡i|
DcK~jxq A‡j †N‡ii †ewoeuv‡a mviv eQie¨vcx mewR Pvl
evsjv‡`‡ki DcK~jxq †Rjvi b`-b`xi cvwb jeYv³| eQ‡ii †deªæqvwi
†_‡K Ryb gvm ch©šÍ G jeYv³Zvi cÖfve AviI e„w× cvq d‡j G mgq
dmj Drcv`‡bi Rb¨ Abyc‡hvMx n‡q c‡o| ZvQvov Rjve×Zvi Kvi‡Y
G †Rjvq mewR Pv‡li Rb¨ ch©vß Rwg †bB ej‡jB P‡j| GKwU mywbw`©ó
Rjvk‡qi Pvwiw`‡K gvwU DuPz K‡i PjvP‡ji Rb¨ 3-4 nvZ PIov K‡i
†N‡ii †ewo ˆZwi Kiv nq| GB †N‡i wPswo ev Ab¨vb¨ gvQ Pvl Kiv nq
Ges †ewo¸‡jv cwZZ c‡o _v‡K| †N‡ii GB †fwo‡Z 3-4 nvZ ch©šÍ
PIov ¯’v‡b Pvlvev‡`i gva¨‡g mviveQi mewR Drcv`b Kiv hvq|
AwaKvsk GjvKv Rjve× _vKvi Kvi‡Y emZevwo‡Z AwZwi³ †Kvb
RvqMv †bB e‡j †mLv‡b mewR Avev` Kiv m¤¢e nq bv| Lwic-1
†gŠmy‡g cvwb AwZwi³ jeYv³ _vKvi Kvi‡Y G cvwb w`‡q mewR dm‡ji
†mP KvR Kiv m¤¢e nq bv| Rwgi ¯^íZvi Kvi‡Y G GjvKvi †N‡ii
†ewo‡Z wewfbœ jeYv³Zv mwnòz mewRi Avev` K‡i mviv eQi mewRi
Pvwn`v c~iY Kiv m¤¢e| †N‡ii †ewoeuv‡a U‡g‡Uv-MxgvKjwg I wgwó
Kzgov-Kijv mewR web¨vmwfwËK Pvl Kiv hvq| GB cÖhyw³ ev¯Íevq‡bi
†ÿ‡Î †h mKj wel‡qi cÖwZ ¸iæZ¡ Av‡ivc Kiv n‡q‡Q Zv n‡jv-
1. f~wgi m‡e©v”P e¨envi wbwðZKiY|
2. mviv eQie¨vcx mewRi Avev` Kiv|
3. K…l‡Ki A_©‰bwZK Ae¯’vi Dbœqb Kiv|
4. jeYv³Zv wbqš¿Y I jeYv³ mwnòz RvZ evQvBKiY|
5. f~wgi De©iZv e„w× I gvwUi ÿq †iva Kiv|
(Drm: DcK~jxq GjvKvq dmj Drcv`‡bi Kjv‡KŠkj, 2007,
evsjv‡`k K…wl M‡elYv Bbw÷wUDU)|djbdmj msMÖnAšÍe©Z©x KvjxY
cwiPh©v mvi cÖ‡qvM c×wZ
8-10 Ub
1-1.5 Ub
140-160 †KwR
19-21 †KwR
100-120 †KwR
15-16 †KwR
100-120 †KwR
15-16 †KwR †Mvei, wUGmwc I
GgIwc mvi Rwg †kl Pv‡li mgq cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z n‡e| BDwiqv mvi 3
wKw¯Í‡Z h_vµ‡g 1g, 2q I 3q evi dmj KvUvi ci cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z
nq|Pviv jvMv‡bvi ci cÖ‡Z¨K †e‡W A_©vr 15 †mwg. (6 BwÂ) AšÍi 1wU
K‡i Pviv ivL‡Z n‡e| Rwg me mgq AvMvQvgy³ ivL‡Z n‡e I wbovwb
w`‡q gvwU AvjMv K‡i w`‡Z n‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b †mP w`‡Z n‡e| jeYv³Zv
†ewk n‡j gvjP (Rveov) e¨envi Ki‡Z n‡e|ec‡bi 30 w`‡bi g‡a¨
wMgvKjwg †Zvjvi Dchy³ nq| †Zvjvi 8-10 w`b ci ci 3-4 evi
mewR †Zvjv hvq| 33.47 Ub/†n±i (4.5 Ub/weNv)|50.48 Ub/†n±i
(7 Ub/weNv)|Pviv jvMv‡bvi 75-80 w`‡bi g‡a¨ U‡g‡Uv msMÖn ïiæ
nq| cÖwZ MvQ †_‡K 7-8 evi dj msMÖn Kiv hvq| evwi U‡g‡Uv-2 Gi
RxebKvj 105-110 w`b|1g I 2q wKw¯Íi mvi cÖ‡qv‡Mi Av‡M
cvk©¦Kzwk, giv cvZv QuvUvB K‡i w`‡Z n‡e| euv‡ki Kw ev ˆaÂvi KvwV
ev Wvj cy‡u Z †VKbv w`‡Z n‡e| exRZjvq jvMv‡bvi Av‡M wfUv‡f·200 w`‡q exR †kvab Ki‡Z n‡e| AvµvšÍ MvQ Zz‡j gvwU‡Z cuy‡Z
ivL‡Z n‡e| gvwU‡Z ch©vß im bv _vK‡j †m‡Pi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z n‡e|
jeYv³Zv †iv‡a gvjwPs e¨envi Ki‡Z n‡e|A‡a©K †Mvei I wUGmwc
mvi †kl Pv‡li mgq Rwg‡Z wQwU‡q w`‡Z nq| Aewkó †Mvei Pviv
jvMv‡bvi Av‡M M‡Z© Ges BDwiqv I GgIwc mvi Pviv jvMv‡bvi 3q I
5g mßv‡n mgvb 2 wKw¯Í‡Z wis c×wZ‡Z w`‡Z n‡e|
8-12 Ub
1-1.5 Ub
500-600 †KwR
67-80 †KwR
400-500 †KwR
53-67 †KwR
200-300 †KwR
27-120†KwR†Mvei
BDwiqv wUGmwc Ggwcecb/†ivcY
`~iZ¡ex‡Ri cwigvYecb mgq b‡f¤^i-wW‡m¤^i ch©šÍ|
Ryb-RyjvB ch©š|
Í Rwg ˆZwiRvZ evwi U‡g‡Uv-2 (iZb) 3 I 9
evwi MxgvKjwg-1f~wgKvMxgvKjwg GKwU cvZvRvZxq mewR| GwU GKwU
jvfRbK mewR| GwU wfUvwgb G mg„×, †L‡Z my¯v^ `y I evRv‡i h‡_ó
Pvwn`v Av‡Q|gvwU I Rwgi cÖKvi‡f‡` 3-4 evi †Kv`vj w`‡q Kzwc‡q wU
Pvl I gB w`‡q gvwU SziSz‡i K‡i wb‡Z n‡e|10-12 †KwR/†n±i (11.5†KwR/weNv) ex‡Ri cÖ‡qvRb nq|mvwi †_‡K mvwii `~iZ¡ 30 †mwg.
(12 BwÂ)Pviv †ivcY 60 x 40 †mwg. (24 x 18 BwÂ)exRZjvq Pviv
ˆZwii Rb¨ 150-200 MÖvg/†n±i (20-26 MÖvg/weNv) ex‡Ri cÖ‡qvRb
nq|Rwg 3-4 evi †Kv`vj w`‡q Kzwc‡q I gB w`‡q gvwU SziSz‡i K‡i
wb‡Z n‡e|U‡g‡Uv wfUvwgb mg„× GKwU kxZKvjxb mewR| U‡g‡Uv
wfUvwgb G, wm, Avwgl I K¨vjwmqvg mg„× Lv`¨| U‡g‡Uv wKQyUv
jeYv³Zv mwnòz&|
welq U‡g‡Uv Mxgv Kjwg Drcv`b cÖhyw³ : (U‡g‡Uv-MxgvKjwg mewR
web¨vm)38
eb¨vKewjZ Pi GjvKvq wcU c×wZ‡Z mewR Pvl cÖhyw³
evjygq Pi f~wgi ey‡K Mwie K…l‡Kiv mbvZbx c×wZ‡Z wKQy wKQy ¯’vbxq
kvKmewR I Ab¨vb¨ dmj Pvl K‡i _v‡Kb| wKš‘ cÖwZ eQi eb¨v,
Abyei© Rwg, b`xfvOb, evwjqvwo ˆZwi, eo eo Rjvkq m„wó, N~wY©So
BZ¨vw` bvbvwea mgm¨vi Kvi‡Y GLv‡b dmj Drcv`b e¨vcKfv‡e
evavMÖ¯Í n‡q _v‡K| we‡kl K‡i Pievmx‡`i AwZ cwiwPZ mewR c‡Uvj,
wgwóKygov, jvD Ges Kijv Drcv`‡bi †ÿ‡Î †`Lv hvq wkKo Rov‡bv
(Root Coiling), dzj ev dj bv aiv, kZKiv 40 †_‡K 50 fvM
cyiæl (c‡Uvj) MvQ nIqv, dj †QvU nIqv, Mv‡Qi e„w× bv nIqv, MvQ
njy` n‡q hvIqv, djbkxj RvZ bv cvIqv, cÖhyw³MZ Ávb I `ÿZvi
Afve BZ¨vw` mgm¨vq mewR Pvl e¨nZ nq|
wcU c×wZ: DbœZ gv‡bi wcU n‡”Q evjyi g‡a¨ 2 dzU x 2 dzU AvKv‡ii
GKwU MZ© hvi Pvicv‡ki †`qvj Qvjvi PU wKsev mvj‡d‡Ui e¯Ív w`‡q
wmj (Seal) Kiv nq d‡j gvwU †f‡O †h‡Z cv‡i bv (wb‡Pi wPÎ
†`Lyb)| M‡Z©i Zj‡`k fv‡jv Gu‡Uj gvwU (3 BwÂ) w`‡q wcwU‡q k³
K‡i †`qv nq| Avlvp gv‡mi cÖ_g w`‡K A_©vr Pi GjvKvq eb¨vi cvwb
Avmvi Av‡MB MZ©My‡jv ˆZwi K‡i M‡Z©i g‡a¨ 9 Bw cwigvY cyiæ K‡i
¯’vbxqfv‡e Drcvw`Z dm‡ji Aewkóvsk (†hgb-ev`v‡gi MvQ) †`qv
nq| Avi Dc‡i 1 Bw cwigvY b`xi g‡a¨ Rb¥v‡bv (meyR) †kIjv, Zvi
Dc‡i 6 Bw cwigvY cuPv †Mvei Ges me †k‡l 6 Bw cyiæ K‡i fv‡jv
(K„wl) gvwU w`‡q DuPz K‡i †`qv nq| GBfv‡e 4 nvZ `~‡i `~‡i wcU Ges
mvwi K‡i cÖ‡Z¨KwU wc‡Ui Ici fv‡jv k³ Ae¯’vb cwi®‹vi eySv hvq|
Avlvp †_‡K Avwk¦b, GB Pvi gvm wcU¸‡jv cvwbi wb‡P Wy‡e _v‡K Ges
wc‡Ui g‡a¨ ¯Í‡i ¯Í‡i †`qv wRwbm¸‡jv cP‡Z _v‡K|
wcU c×wZ‡Z km¨chv©q
c‡Uvj, wgwó Kzgov I Kijv GB mewR wZbwUi Rwg¸‡jv‡Z km¨ chv©q
AbymiY Kiv hvq A_ev D³ wcU¸‡jv‡Z bZzb / weKí mewR (†hgb
†Xuok, †e¸b, wkg, U‡g‡Uv, jvD BZ¨vw`) Pvl Kiv hvq| wb‡Pi wP‡Îi
gva¨‡g welqwU eySv hv‡e-
eb¨vi cvwb m‡i †M‡j hv hv Ki‡Z n‡ewc‡Ui Dc‡i R‡g _vKv evwj mwi‡q †djv|
wc‡Ui †fZ‡i c‡P hvIqv wRwbm¸‡jv (K‡¤úv÷ mvi) †Kv`vj
w`‡q †b‡o fv‡jv K‡i wgwk‡q †`qv|
1-2 w`‡bi g‡a¨ wc‡Ui g‡a¨ ch©vß im _vKv Ae¯’vq c~e© wba©vwiZ
mewRi exR wKsev Pviv jvMv‡bv|
cieZ©x‡Z mewR Drcv`‡bi cwiPh©vg~jK KvR¸‡jv Pvwj‡q hvIqv|
wcU c×wZ‡Z mewR Drcv`b Kv‡j eb¨vi ¯’vqxZ¡Kvj hw` †ewk nq Ges
wc‡U exR ev Pviv †ivc‡Yi mgq AwZevwnZ n‡q hvIqvi Avk¼v _v‡K
Zvn‡j Avjv`v DuPz ¯’v‡b A_ev Szwo, Kv‡Vi ev ev· Ab¨ †h †Kvb
c×wZ‡Z mwVK mg‡q wbw`©ó mewRi Pviv ˆZwi K‡i ivLv †h‡Z cv‡i|
eb¨vi cvwb m‡i hvIqvi m‡½ m‡½ wPwýZ wcU¸‡jv‡Z Drcvw`Z
Pviv¸‡jv †ivcY Ki‡j djb Kg nIqvi Szwu K †_‡K iÿv cvIqv hv‡e|
(Drm : K…wl †m±‡i Liv I eb¨v c~e© e¨e¯’vcbv I SzuwK n«vmKiY cÖwkÿY
gwWDj, 2006, cÖvKwUK¨vj A¨vKkb-evsjv‡`k)
* eb¨vcÖeY GjvKvi Rb¨ Dc‡hvMx Ab¨vb¨ km¨ web¨vm
wbgœwjwLZ km¨ web¨vm eb¨vi SzuwK Kgv‡Z Dc‡hvMx e‡j cÖgvwYZ
n‡q‡Q1.
Avjy/kvKmewR-fzÆv-cwZZ
2.
gwiP-cvU-cwZZ
3.
ev`vg/KvDb/wPbv-cwZZ-Avjy/ kvKmewR
4.
Wvj-cwZZ-†ivcv Avgb
5.
Mg-cvU-†ivcv Avgb
6.
†cuqvR/kvKmewR-cvU-†ivcv Avgb
7.
Avjy -fzÆv-†ivcv Avgb avb
8.
mwilv-†ev‡iv avb-Avgb
9.
†ev‡iv avb-†ivcv Avgb-cwZZ
AvMvg eb¨vcÖeY Ges †mP myweav †bB †mme GjvKvq eb¨vi SzuwK
Gwo‡qjvfRbK wn‡m‡e km¨web¨vm 1-3 K…lK ch©v‡q eb¨vi SuzwK Gwo‡q
Pvl Kiv m¤¢e|
Aí †mP myweavhy³ GjvKvq wbweo Pvlvev‡`i gva¨‡g AwaKZi
jvfRbK wnmv‡e km¨web¨vm 4-7 Dchy³| †Kbbv G km¨web¨v‡m 2wU
eb¨vgy³ mg‡q 2wU A_©Kix dmj i‡q‡Q hv eb¨vRwbZ ÿqÿwZ KvwU‡q
DV‡Z mnvqK n‡e|
†mP myweavhy³ GjvKvq kl¨web¨vm 8-9 Dchy³| G web¨v‡m km¨ ˆewPΨ
iÿv Ges Rwgi m‡Ÿ©v”P e¨envi wbwðZ K‡i AwaK jvfevb nIqv hvq|
dmj Pv‡li SzuwK Kgv‡Z eb¨v Ges Livi ZxeªZv, gvwUi aib Ges †m‡Pi
myweav we‡ePbv K‡i wb‡P wjwLZ dmj Avev` Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i1. †e‡j gvwU‡Z ev`v‡gi Pvl|
2. eb¨v Ges Liv Dfq ¯’v‡b KvDb, Pxbv Ges evwj© dm‡ji Avev`|
3. †ev‡iv Avev` Kwg‡q †mLv‡b fzÆv Ges M‡gi Avev` Kiv|
4. evmgwZ avb (weªavb-34, weªavb-37 Ges weªavb-38) Ges gvwU
e¨e¯’vcbv wbwðZ K‡i D”Pdjbkxj av‡bi Avev`|
5. ¯^í‡gqvw` †Mvj Avjy A_ev Rvg Avjyi Avev` evovb|
6. gmjvRvZxq dm‡ji Avev`, †hgb-a‡b cvZv, †cuqvR, imyb I
Av`vi Pvl|
7. Pi GjvKvq †Mvj Avjyi Avev` m¤cÖmviY|
8. RbwcÖq kvK wn‡m‡e jvD‡qi cvZvi Avev`|
9. Pi GjvKvq Wvj Ges ˆZj dm‡ji Avev`|
10. AvMvg gyjv Ges dzjKwci Avev` m¤cÖmviY|
11. Liv GjvKvq d‡ji evMvb m„Rb|
(Drm : K…wl †m±‡i Liv I eb¨v c~e© e¨e¯’vcbv I SuzwK n«vmKiY cÖwkÿY
gwWDj, 2006,
cÖ¨vKwUK¨vj A¨vKkb-evsjv‡`k)
DcK~jxq A‡ji Dc‡hvMx cÖavb km¨web¨vm
DcK‚jxq A‡ji 7wU †Rjv- ewikvj, cUzqvLvjx, wc‡ivRcyi, SvjKvwV,
†fvjv, ei¸bv, ev‡MinvU †Rjv¸‡jvi cÖavb cÖavb km¨web¨vm wbgœ
ewY©Z n‡jv-
1. cwZZ-cwZZ-†ivcv Avgb
2. cwZZ-†ivcv AvDk-†ivcv Avgb
3. †ev‡iv-cwZZ-cwZZ
4. †ev‡iv-cwZZ-†ivcv Avgb
5. cwZZ-wgkª †evbv AvDk+†evbv Avgb
6. wi‡j †djb/gyM-†ivcv AvDk-†ivcv Avgb
7. cwZZ-wWewjs AvDk-†ivcv Avgb
8. wi‡j†Lmvwi/gyM/†djb/gwiP/Mg/-wWewjs AvDk-†ivcv Avgb
9. wi‡j†Lmvwi/gyM/gwiP/Mg/wgwóAvjy/Avjyy/gmyi/†Qvjv/fzÆv
AvDk/cvU/†g¯Ív/
10. wZj-†ivcv Avgb
11. Avjy/wgwóAvjy/gwiP/cvjskvK/WuvUv/wgwóKzgov/†Xuom/†e¸b/euvav
Kwc/dzjKwc/
12. ZigyR/-cwZZ-†ivcv Avgb
(Drm : ewikvj, wc‡ivRcyi, SvjKvwV, †fvjv, ei¸bv, cUzqvLvjx I
ev‡MinvU †Rjvi cwZZ Rwgi cwigvY wba©viY I dmj Drcv`b
cwiKíbv, 2008 : evsjv‡`k K…wl M‡elYv KvDwÝj, dvg©‡MU, XvKv)
AvMvg eb¨vcÖeY Ges †mP myweav †bB †mme GjvKvq eb¨vi SzuwK
Gwo‡qjvfRbK wn‡m‡e km¨web¨vm 1-3 K…lK ch©v‡q eb¨vi Suwz K
Gwo‡q Pvl Kiv m¤¢e|
Aí †mP myweavhy³ GjvKvq wbweo Pvlvev‡`i gva¨‡g AwaKZi
jvfRbK wnmv‡e km¨web¨vm 4-7 Dchy³| †Kbbv G km¨web¨v‡m
2wU eb¨vgy³ mg‡q 2wU A_©Kix dmj i‡q‡Q hv eb¨vRwbZ
ÿqÿwZ KvwU‡q DV‡Z mnvqK n‡e|
†mP myweavhy³ GjvKvq kl¨web¨vm 8-9 Dchy³| G web¨v‡m km¨
ˆewPΨ
iÿv Ges Rwgi m‡Ÿ©v”P e¨envi wbwðZ K‡i AwaK jvfevb nIqv
hvq|
dmj Pv‡li SzuwK Kgv‡Z eb¨v Ges Livi ZxeªZv, gvwUi aib Ges
†m‡Pi myweav we‡ePbv K‡i wb‡P wjwLZ dmj Avev` Kiv †h‡Z
cv‡i-
1. †e‡j gvwU‡Z ev`v‡gi Pvl|
2. eb¨v Ges Liv Dfq ¯’v‡b KvDb, Pxbv Ges evwj© dm‡ji Avev`|
3. †ev‡iv Avev` Kwg‡q †mLv‡b fzÆv Ges M‡gi Avev` Kiv|
4. evmgwZ avb (weªavb-34, weªavb-37 Ges weªavb-38) Ges gvwU
e¨e¯’vcbv wbwðZ K‡i D”Pdjbkxj av‡bi Avev`|
5. ¯^í‡gqvw` †Mvj Avjy A_ev Rvg Avjyi Avev` evovb|
6. gmjvRvZxq dm‡ji Avev`, †hgb-a‡b cvZv, †cuqvR, imyb I
Av`vi Pvl|
7. Pi GjvKvq †Mvj Avjyi Avev` m¤cÖmviY|
8. RbwcÖq kvK wn‡m‡e jvD‡qi cvZvi Avev`|
9. Pi GjvKvq Wvj Ges ˆZj dm‡ji Avev`|
10. AvMvg gyjv Ges dzjKwci Avev` m¤cÖmviY|
11. Liv GjvKvq d‡ji evMvb m„Rb|
(Drm : K…wl †m±‡i Liv I eb¨v c~e© e¨e¯’vcbv I SuzwK n«vmKiY cÖwkÿY
gwWDj, 2006,
cÖ¨vKwUK¨vj A¨vKkb-evsjv‡`k)
DcK~jxq A‡ji Dc‡hvMx cÖavb km¨web¨vm
DcK‚jxq A‡ji 7wU †Rjv- ewikvj, cUzqvLvjx, wc‡ivRcyi, SvjKvwV,
†fvjv, ei¸bv, ev‡MinvU †Rjv¸‡jvi cÖavb cÖavb km¨web¨vm wbgœ ewY©Z
n‡jv-
1. cwZZ-cwZZ-†ivcv Avgb
2. cwZZ-†ivcv AvDk-†ivcv Avgb
3. †ev‡iv-cwZZ-cwZZ
4. †ev‡iv-cwZZ-†ivcv Avgb
5. cwZZ-wgkª †evbv AvDk+†evbv Avgb
6. wi‡j †djb/gyM-†ivcv AvDk-†ivcv Avgb
7. cwZZ-wWewjs AvDk-†ivcv Avgb
8. wi‡j†Lmvwi/gyM/†djb/gwiP/Mg/-wWewjs AvDk-†ivcv Avgb
9. wi‡j†Lmvwi/gyM/gwiP/Mg/wgwóAvjy/Avjyy/gmyi/†Qvjv/fzÆv
AvDk/cvU/†g¯Ív/
10.
wZj-†ivcv Avgb
11.
Avjy/wgwóAvjy/gwiP/cvjskvK/WuvUv/wgwóKzgov/†Xuom/†e¸b/eu
vavKwc/dzjKwc/
12.
ZigyR/-cwZZ-†ivcv Avgb
(Drm : ewikvj, wc‡ivRcyi, SvjKvwV, †fvjv, ei¸bv, cUzqvLvjx I
ev‡MinvU †Rjvi cwZZ Rwgi
cwigvY wba©viY I dmj Drcv`b cwiKíbv, 2008 : evsjv‡`k
K…wl M‡elYv KvDwÝj,
dvg©‡MU, XvKv)
* LivcÖeY GjvKvi Dc‡hvMx Ab¨vb¨ km¨web¨vm|
1.
Avjy---fzÆv---†ivcv Avgb avb
2.
†ev‡iv---†ivcv Avgb--kvKmewR
3.
kxZKvjxb mewR---AvDk avb/ cvU--- †ivcv Avgb
4.
mwilv---†ev‡iv avb---ˆaÂv---Avgb
5.
†cuqvR ---cvU---†ivcv Avgb
6.
fzÆv --- cwZZ---†ivcv Avgb
7.
gwiP---cwZZ---†ivcv Avgb
8.
Wvj---cwZZ---†ivcv Avgb
9.
ev`vg---KvDb/Pxbv/Mg---cwZZ
10. †ev‡iv avb---cwZZ---†ivcv Avgb avb
* we‡klfv‡e e‡i›`ª GjvKvi Rb¨ cÖ‡hvR¨ wKQy km¨ web¨vm1.
U‡g‡Uv---†ev‡iv---AvDk (†mPwbf©i)
2.
Mg---cvUkvK---†ivcv Avgb (e„wówbf©i)
3.
†ev‡iv---†ivcv AvDk---cwZZ
4.
†ev‡iv---†ivcv AvDk---†ivcv Avgb (myMwÜ RvZ, e„wówbf©i)
5.
wZwm/he/†Qvjv---cwZZ---†ivcv Avgb (e„wówbf©i)
6. mwilv/Avjy--- †ivcv AvDk--- †ivcv Avgb (myMwÜ RvZ,
e„wówbf©i)
(Drm : wiwfD Kg©kvjv †_‡K cÖvß)
†m‡Pi myweavhy³ GjvKvq wbweo Pvlvev‡`i gva¨‡g AwaKZi
jvfRbK wn‡m‡e km¨ web¨vm-1 mdj wn‡m‡e K…lK ch©v‡q
MÖnY‡hvM¨ n‡q‡Q hv m¤cÖmviY Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
Aí †m‡Pi myweavhy³ GjvKvq wbweo Pvlvev‡`i gva¨‡g AwaKZi
jvfRbK wn‡m‡e km¨ web¨vm-6 mdj wn‡m‡e K…lK ch©v‡q
MÖnY‡hvM¨ n‡q‡Q hv wewfbœ Liv GjvKvq AbymiY Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
†m‡Pi myweav †bB Ggb GjvKvi Rb¨ km¨ web¨vm 7, 8 I 9
Dchy³ Ges mdj wn‡m‡e K…lK ch©v‡q MÖnY‡hvM¨ n‡q‡Q hv wewfbœ
Liv GjvKvq m¤cÖmviY Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
Mfxi bjK~c GjvKvq Kg¨vÛ GjvKvq km¨web¨vm 10 AbymiY
Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
†mP myweavhy³ GjvKvq km¨ web¨vm 2-4 Dchy³ |
(Drm : K…wl †m±‡i Liv I eb¨v c~e© e¨e¯’vcbv I Suwz K n«vmKiY cÖwkÿY
gwWDj, 2006, cÖ¨vKwUK¨vj A¨vKkb-evsjv‡`k)|
KwgDwbwU †iwWI
KwgDwbwU †iwWI
GUv Ab¯^xKvh© †h, G †`‡ki †cÖÿvc‡U K…wlcÖhyw³ n¯ÍvšÍ‡i †iwWI
¸iæZ¡c~Y© f‚wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| †iwWI †QvU, mn‡R enb‡hvM¨ I
`v‡gI †gvUvgywU m¯Ív| mgm¨v n‡”Q eZ©gv‡b †iwWI‡Z †hme K…wlwelqK
Abyôvb cÖPvwiZ n‡”Q †m¸‡jv ¯’vbxq RbM‡Yi cÖZ¨vkv c~i‡Y e¨_©
n‡q‡Q| Zv‡`i Pvwn`v Abyhvqx Abyôvb ˆZwi I m¤cÖPvi nq bv|
KwgDwbwU †iwWI G †ÿ‡Î hyMvšÍKvix f‚wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| cv_©K¨
n‡”Q GwUi m¤cÖPvi mxwgZ GjvKvi Rb¨ mxgve×| eZ©gvb miKvi
KwgDwbwU †iwWIi ¸iæZ¡ Abyaveb K‡i GwU ¯’vc‡bi Rb¨ jvB‡mÝ cÖ`vb
Kivi KvR ïiæ K‡i‡Q| we‡kl we‡kl GjvKvi Rb¨ KwgDwbwU †iwWI
¯’vcb Kiv n‡j Hme GjvKvi Dbœqb Kg©KvÐ Z¡ivwš^Z n‡e e‡j Avkv
Kiv hvq| KwgDwbwU †iwWI ¯’vwcZ n‡j †hme myweavewÂZ GjvKv
we‡kl K‡i DcK‚jxq RbMY †eZv‡ii UªvÝwgk‡bi AvIZvq Avm‡e|
¯’vbxq RbMY cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi Z_¨, AvMvg mZK©xKiY I KiYxq
wel‡q cÖ‡qvRbxq w`Kwb‡`©kbv cv‡eb| Gi gva¨‡g ¯’vbxq RbM‡Yi
Rjevqy cwieZ©b welqK m‡PZbZv e„w× cv‡e Ges Zviv cÖ‡qvRbxq
e¨e¯’v MÖn‡b mÿg n‡e|
ˆRweK evjvB e¨e¯’vcbv
Rjevqy cwieZ©b mvwe©K K…wl e¨e¯’vq e¨vcK cÖfve †dj‡Q| GKw`‡K
ZvcgvÎvi ZviZg¨, e„wócv‡Zi cwieZ©b, jeYv³Zv, kxZ †gŠmy‡gi
ZviZg¨ BZ¨vw` wewfbœ dmj Drcv`‡bi †ÿ‡Î mgm¨vi m„wó Ki‡Q;
Ab¨w`‡K Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j m„ó eb¨v, Liv, mvB‡K¬v‡b cÖwZ eQi
K…wl †m±‡i e¨vcK ÿwZ mvwaZ n‡”Q|
evsjv‡`‡ki K…wl e¨e¯’v ivmvqwbK mvi I KxUbvk‡Ki Ici m¤ú~Yi© ƒ‡c
wbf©ikxj| evsjv‡`‡ki Drcvw`Z cÖvq me dm‡j KxUbvk‡Ki h‡_”Q
e¨envi n‡”Q| KxUbvkK e¨envi Qvov fv‡jv djb cvIqv hvq bv e‡j
PvwlivI KxUbvk‡Ki Ici wbf©ikxj Ges cÖvq me †gŠmy‡g e¨envi
K‡i| h‡_”Q KxUbvkK e¨env‡ii d‡j cwi‡e‡ki fvimvg¨ bó n‡”Q,
gvwUi ¸YMZ gvb bó n‡”Q, Dw™¢`/dm‡ji Ici e¨vcKfv‡e cÖfve
co‡Q, Rxe ˆewP‡Î¨i IciI cÖfve co‡Q|
Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j cwiewZ©Z cwiw¯’wZ †gvKv‡ejvi Rb¨
evsjv‡`‡k AÂjwfwËK wewfbœ Kvh©µg nv‡Z †bqv n‡q‡Q| wewfbœ cÖKí
I wewfbœ Kvh©µ‡gi Pvlvev` c×wZ‡Z cwieZ©b Avbv n‡”Q| AÂj
wfwËK wewfbœ ai‡bi dmj Pvlvev‡`i mycvwik Kiv n‡”Q| ¯’vbxq I
DbœZ Pvlvev` cÖhyw³ I dmj Drcv`‡bi †ÿ‡Î cÖavb evav ZvcgvÎvi
ZviZg¨, e„wócv‡Zi avivi cwieZ©b| ZvcgvÎvi ZviZ‡g¨i d‡j wewfbœ
ai‡bi ÿwZKi †cvKv, †cvKv enbKvix †ivM wewfbœ dm‡j AvµgY
Ki‡Q, hvi d‡j djb K‡g hv‡”Q| Pvwliv fv‡jv djb bv †c‡q
Awf‡hvRb/Lvc LvIqv‡bvi †KŠkjmg~n ¯’vqxfv‡e e¨envi Ki‡Q bv|
wKQz wKQz GjvKvq wewfbœ ai‡bi dmj (dj, kvKmewRmn Ab¨vb¨
dmj) fv‡jv djb †`qv ïiæ Ki‡jI Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi d‡j eZ©gv‡b
Avi Zv m¤¢e n‡”Q bv| hvi djkÖæwZ‡Z PvwlivI Awf‡hvRb †KŠkj¸‡jv
cwieZ©b Ki‡Q|
ˆRweK evjvB e¨e¯’vcbvi cÖavb D‡Ïk¨B n‡”Q wewfbœ †cvKvgvKo I
†ivM `g‡bi Rb¨ mgwš^Z evjvB `gb e¨e¯’v, DcKvix eÜz †cvKvi
e¨envi, †cvKvi †m· †d‡ivgb Uª¨vc e¨envi Kiv| AvBwmGg/AvBwcGg
Gi c×wZi gva¨‡g KxUbvk‡Ki e¨envi †`‡ki cÖZ¨šÍ A‡j
A‡bKLvwb K‡g hv‡e Ges cwi‡ek myiÿvq I ¯^v¯’¨ †ÿ‡Î e¨vcK f~wgKv
ivL‡e|
evsjv‡`‡k AvBwcGg (mgwš^Z evjvB`gb e¨e¯’vcbv) c×wZ‡Z dmj I
mewRi evjvB `gb `xN©w`b a‡i cÖPwjZ Av‡Q| ˆRweKfv‡e dm‡ji
evjvB `gb AvBwcGg Gi GKwU jvMmB cÖhyw³ hv mv¤cÖwZK mg‡q
e¨vcK Av‡jvob m„wó K‡i‡Q hv wewfbœ msev` gva¨g ¸‡jv‡Z djvI K‡i
cÖPvwiZ n‡”Q| ˆRweK c×wZ‡Z evjvB `gb e¨e¯’vcbvq †h me
Dcv`vb/cb¨ i‡q‡Q Zvi g‡a¨ Ab¨Zg nj DcKvix eÜz †cvKv I †cvKvi
†m· †d‡ivgb e¨envi Kiv| DcKvix eÜz †cvKv Ges †d‡ivgb ˆZwi
GZw`b wewfbœ miKvwi cÖwZôv‡b M‡elbv ch©v‡q wQj wKš‘ 2005 m‡bi
†Mvovi w`‡K DR‡ewK¯Ívb mv‡qw›UwdK wimvP© BbmwUwUDU Gi K…wl
weÁvbxMY evsjv‡`‡ki K‡qKRb K…wlwe`‡`i wbKU DcKvix eÜz †cKvi
evwYwR¨K Drcv`b †KŠkj n¯ÍvšÍi K‡ib| GKB mg‡q evsjv‡`k K…wl
M‡elYv Bbw÷wUDU Gi mnvqZvq GKRb e„wUk weÁvbx KwZcq †cvKvi
†m· †d‡ivgb Drcv`b †KŠkj nv‡Z Kj‡g wkwL‡q †`b| ZLb †_‡KB
hvÎv ïiæ nj evsjv‡`‡k evwYwR¨Kfv‡e DcKvix eÜz †cvKv (eªvKb,
UªvB‡KvMÖvgv, jwWevW© weUj I wMÖb †jQ DBs) I †cvKvi †m· †d‡ivgb
Drcv`b| 2005 m‡bi †Mvov †_‡K wewfbœ M‡elYv Kvh©µg Gi gva¨‡g
DcKvix eÜz †cvKv Ges †d‡ivgb duv` Gi mgš^‡q †h evjvB `gb
c¨v‡KR Zv gvV ch©v‡q KZUzKz mdjfv‡e Kvh©Kvix c×wZ Zv hvPvB
KivB wQj IB M‡elYvi g~j jÿ¨| cÖvq GK eQi mdj M‡elbvi ci
DcKvix eÜz †cvKv I †d‡ivgb e¨vcKfv‡e K…l‡Ki nv‡Z †cŠ‡Q †`qvi
KvR ïiæ nq| cÖv_wgK fv‡e K…wl m¤cÖmviY Awa߇ii AvBwcGg c×wZ
†`‡ki KwZcq †Rjv †hgb- h‡kvi, biwmsw`, Kzwgjøv, e¸ov, cvebv,
gqgbwmsn, UvsMvBj, Rvgvjcyi, PÆMÖvgmn †`‡ki wewfbœ dmj Drcv`b
GjvKvq DcKvix eÜz †cvKv (eªvKb, UªvB‡KvMÖvgv, jwWevW© weUj I wMÖb
†jQ DBs) I †cvKvi †m· †d‡ivgb K…l‡Ki nv‡Z Zz‡j †`qv nq|
Zvici Av‡¯Í Av‡¯Í Gi mydj we¯Ívi jvf Ki‡Z _v‡K|
eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`‡k cÖPwjZ c×wZi Pvlvev‡` D”P gvÎvq ivmvqwbK mvi
I KxUbvk‡Ki e¨envi w`b w`b †e‡oB Pj‡Q| G‡Z K‡i GKw`‡K
†hgb-Drcv`b LiP evo‡Q, Kg‡Q gvwUi De©iZv I Drcv`b ÿgZv Ab¨
w`‡K Gme ivmvqwbK c`v‡_©i ÿwZKi cÖfve gvwU‡Z I K…wl c‡Y¨
co‡Q| Ggwb cwiw¯’wZ‡Z Rxe ˆewPΨ iÿv, cwi‡ek evÜe K…wl, wbivc`
Lv`¨ I Rxebhvcb, cwi‡ek msiÿY Ges gvwUi ¸Yv¸Y eRvq ivLvi
Rb¨ evsjv‡`‡ki K…wl GLb GKwU cwieZ©bkxj e¨e¯’vi w`‡K †bqv
GKvšÍ Avek¨K| GB Pvwn`v‡K mvg‡b †i‡L ˆRe c×wZ‡Z wbivc` I
`ylYgy³ cwi‡e‡k mewR dmj Drcv`‡bi Rb¨ AvBwcGg cÖKí G
Kg©mw~ P MÖnY Kiv nq|
Bnv GKwU cwi‡ekevÜe c×wZ| cÂvk I lvU Gi `k‡K Sir Albert
Howard Rxe ˆewPΨ iÿv Ges cwi‡ekevÜe K…wl Ges BwÛqv‡Z ˆRe
wel‡q KvR K‡ib| G Kv‡Ri ¯^xK…wZ ¯^iƒc Zv‡K ˆRe K…wli RbK bv‡g
AwfwnZ Kiv nq| ˆRweK evjvB e¨e¯’vcbv Kg©m~wP wb‡q weGAviwm,
weGAviAvB Ges wWGB gv‡V mdj M‡elYv K‡ib| djkÖæwZ‡Z Rxe
ˆewPΨ iÿv Ges cwi‡ek evÜe K…wli Rb¨ AvBwcGg cÖK‡í ˆRweK
evjvB e¨e¯’vcbv Kg©m~wP AšÍfz„³ Kiv nq| eZ©gv‡b K…lKMY evjvB
e¨e¯’vcbvq ïaygvÎ KxUbvk‡Ki Ici wbf©i K‡i _v‡Kb| G‡Z
cwi‡e‡ki fvimvg¨ webó n‡”Q Ges gvbe ¯^v‡¯’¨i Ici weiƒc cÖfve
co‡Q| ZvB cwi‡e‡ki fvimvg¨ iÿv I gvbe ¯^v¯’¨nvwb †_‡K iÿvK‡í
ˆRe K…wl I ˆRweK evjvB e¨e¯’vcbvi †Kvb weKí G gyû‡Z© bvB|
†cvKvi †m· †d‡ivgb †cvKvi †m· †d‡ivgb n‡jv GK ai‡bi ˆRe
ivmvqwbK (†mwgI †KwgK¨vj) c`v_© hv †Kvb cÖRvwZi ¯¿x †cvKv KZ…©K
wb:m„Z nq GKB cÖRvwZi cyiæl †cvKv‡K cÖRbb Kv‡h© AvK…ó Kivi
Rb¨| †m· †d‡ivg‡bi me‡P‡q eo w`K n‡jv GwU cÖvK…wZKfv‡e
Drcvw`Z ˆRe c`v_© hv Rxe I cwi‡e‡ki †Kv‡bv iƒc ÿwZmvab K‡i
bv|
wMÖb nvDm M¨vm cÖkg‡b ¸wU BDwiqv cÖhyw³
dm‡ji Drcv`b e„w× I BDwiqv mv‡ii mvkªqx e¨env‡ii Rb¨ ¸wU
BDwiqv GKwU AvaywbK cÖhwy ³| dmj Drcv`‡bi Rb¨ BDwiqv mv‡ii
¸iæZ¡ Acwimxg| d‡j me cÖKvi dmj Drcv`‡b BDwiqv mvi
e¨vcKfv‡e e¨eüZ n‡q _v‡K| A_P cÖ‡qvMK…Z BDwiqv mv‡ii gvÎ 30
†_‡K 40 fvM bvB‡Uªv‡Rb MvQ MÖnY K‡i, evwK 60 †_‡K 70 fvM
bvB‡Uªv‡Rb
wm‡cR,
cvi‡Kv‡jkb,
†fvjvUvjvB‡Rkb
I
A¨v‡gvwbwd‡Kk‡bi gva¨‡g bó n‡q hvq| BDwiqv mvi n‡Z evqygЇj
wbtmwiZ bvBUªvm A·vBW GKwU ÿwZKi wMÖb nvDm M¨vm wn‡m‡e ¯^xK…Z
hv Kve©b-WvB-A·vBW n‡Z 310 ¸b †ewk cwi‡e‡ki ÿwZ K‡i Ges
ˆewk¦K DòZv e„wׇZ f~wgKv iv‡L| ¸wU BDwiqv e¨env‡ii d‡j MvQ
cÖvq 70-80 fvM bvB‡Uªv‡Rb MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i hv dmj Drcv`‡b
¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv iv‡L| ¸wU BDwiqv e¨env‡ii d‡j †gvU e¨eüZ
BDwiqvi kZKiv 30 fvM mvkªq nq Ges avb Drcv`b cÖvq kZKiv 1015 fvM e„w× Kiv m¤¢e| ¸wU BDwiqv †_‡K bvB‡Uªv‡Rb ax‡i ax‡i
wbiwew”Qbœfv‡e Mv‡Q mieivn n‡Z _v‡K weavq MvQ `xN© mgq a‡i
cÖ‡qvRbxq bvB‡Uªv‡Rb MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i| d‡j Zv Drcv`b e„wׇZ
mnvq‡Ki f~wgKv iv‡L| GQvovI ¸wU BDwiqv mvi e¨env‡ii d‡j
cwi‡e‡ki Rb¨ ÿwZKi IB M¨vm ¸‡jv Kg wbtmwiZ nq hv cwi‡e‡ki
fvimvg¨ e„wׇZ mnvqK f~wgKv cvjb K‡i|
eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`‡k 28.5 jvL †gwUªK Ub BDwiqv mvi K…wl †ÿ‡Î
e¨eüZ n‡”Q| ¸wU BDwiqv e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g Gi cÖvq GK Z…Zxqvsk
mvi mvkªq Kiv m¤¢e| d‡j evsjv‡`k‡K BDwiqv mvi Avg`vwb Ki‡Z
n‡e bv Ges evsjv‡`k BDwiqv mvi Drcv`‡b ¯^qsm¤ú~Y© n‡e| weMZ
GK `kK n‡Z G †`‡k ¸wU BDwiqv e¨eüZ n‡”Q Ges eZ©gv‡b cÖvq
6.5 jÿ †n±i Rwg ¸wU BDwiqv mvi e¨env‡ii AvIZvfz³| BDwiqv
mvi mvkª‡qi Rb¨ K…wl m¤cÖmviY Awa`ßi KZ…K
© BDwiqv mvkª‡qi j‡ÿ¨
¸wU BDwiqv e¨enviÕ kxl©K GKwU we‡kl Kg©m~wPi gva¨‡g weMZ
2007-08 A_© eQ‡i 36wU †Rjvi 150wU Dc‡Rjvi me©‡gvU
14,28,000 †n±i †ev†iv Rwgi g‡a¨ 2,67,715 †n±i Rwg‡Z ¸wU
BDwiqv cÖ‡qvM wbwðZ Kiv nq| Gi d‡j †gvU BDwiqv mv‡ii mvkªq nq
23291 †gwUªK Ub hvi evRvi g~j¨ wQj cÖvq 74 †KvwU 53 jvL UvKv|
GQvov AwZwi³ dmj Drcv`‡bi Avw_©K g~j¨mn †gvU jvf nq 556
†KvwU 41 jvL UvKv| 2008-09 A_© eQ‡i Kg©m~wPi gva¨‡g 36 wU
†Rjvi 150wU Dc‡Rjvi me©‡gvU 3,75,000 †n±i Rwg‡Z ¸wU BDwiqv
cÖ‡qvM wbwðZ Kiv nq| Gi d‡j †gvU BDwiqv mv‡ii mvkªq nq
33,550 †gwUªK Ub hvi evRvi g~j¨ wQj cÖvq 107 †KvwU 36 jvL
UvKv| GQvov AwZwi³ dmj Drcv`‡bi Avw_©K g~j¨mn †gvU jvf nq
632 †KvwU 36 jvL UvKv | 2009-10 A_© eQ‡i Kg©m~Pxi gva¨‡g
7,15,000 †n±i Rwg‡Z ¸wU BDwiqv e¨env‡ii jÿ¨gvÎv wba©viY Kiv
n‡q‡Q| RbM‡bi gv‡S ¸wU BDwiqv e¨env‡ii RbwcÖqZv w`b w`b e„w×
cv‡”Q|
¸wU BDwiqv cÖhyw³ e¨env‡ii DcKvwiZv:
1. ¸wU BDwiqv e¨envi K‡i bvBUªvm A·vBW Gi wbtmiY Kwg‡q
cwi‡ek msiÿY Kiv hvq|
2. BDwiqv mvi e¨env‡i mvkªq nq|
3. AwZwi³ djb wbwðZ nq|
4. jv‡fi d‡j Pvwli Av_© mvgvwRK Dbœqb wbwðZ nq|
5. ¸wU BDwiqv ˆZwii Rb¨ e¨eüZ weª‡Kv‡qU †gwk†bi gva¨‡g
Kg©ms¯’v‡bi my‡hvM m„wó nq|
K…wl Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM †K›`ª (G AvB wm wm)
Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³ eZ©gvb we‡k¦ Dbœq‡bi Ab¨Zg Dcv`vb wn‡m‡e
cwiMwYZ| Gi mydj me©¯Í‡i †cuŠ‡Q w`‡Z KiYxq wba©viYK‡í eZ©gvb
miKvi Zvi c~e©eZ©x kvmbvg‡j GKwU Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³ bxwZgvjv
cÖYq‡bi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Abyaveb K‡i| hvi cÖwZdjb wQj Kw¤úDUv‡ii
Ici †_‡K m¤ú~Y©fv‡e ïé cÖZ¨vnvi K‡i †bqv Ges mve‡gwib K¨ve‡ji
gva¨‡g mycvi nvBI‡qi mv‡_ evsjv‡`‡ki †hvMv‡hvM ¯’vc‡bi e¨e¯’v
MÖnY Kiv| we‡k¦i Ab¨vb¨ †`k AvBwmwUi kw³ Kv‡R jvwM‡q A_©‰bwZK
I mvgvwRK AMÖMwZ AR©b Ki‡Z †c‡i‡Q, evsjv‡`k GLbI Zv Ki‡Z
cv‡iwb| mg‡qi mv‡_ mv‡_ AvBwmwUi ¸iæZ¡ ax‡i ax‡i e„w× †c‡q‡Q
Ges GLb c„w_ex‡Z AvBwmwU wenxb fwel¨Z Kíbv Kiv m¤¢e bq|
cÖ¯ÍvweZ Kg©m~wPwU h_vh_fv‡e ev¯ÍevwqZ n‡j eZ©gvb miKv‡ii cÖwZkªæZ
wfkb-2021 : wWwRUvj evsjv‡`k Movi KvR Z¡ivwš^Z n‡e|
Avgv‡`i cvk¦©eZx© A‡bK †`‡kB KwgDwbwU ch©v‡q K…wli ÔIqvb ÷cÕ
mvwf©mÕ Pvjy n‡q †M‡Q| †hLv‡b K…wlRxex gvbyliv K…wli hveZxq Z_¨
(dmj, Mevw`cï, nuvm-gyiwM, grm¨ I Zv‡`i Drcv`b, cÖwµqvRvZKiY,
evRvi, wecYb BZ¨vw`) †c‡q _v‡Kb| miKvwi ch©v‡q K…wl Z_¨
mvwf©‡mi D‡`¨v‡M cvBjU ch©v‡q cÖwZôv Kiv n‡q‡Q ÔK…wl Z_¨ I
†hvMv‡hvM †K›`ªÕ †hLvb †_‡K MÖv‡gi K…wlRxex gvbyl K…wl I AK…wl
welqK Z_¨, †cvwëª, Mevw`cï, grm¨, ¯^v¯’¨ I cywómn wewfbœ wel‡q Z_¨
I civgk© †c‡Z cv‡ib| Rjevqy cwieZ©‡bi m¤¢ve¨ ÿwZi nvZ †_‡K
evsjv‡`k‡K iÿvi Rb¨ me ¯Í‡ii Rb‡Mvôx‡K m‡PZb Kivi Rb¨ Gme
†K›`ª ¸iæZ¡cY~ © f‚wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| Gme †K‡›`ªi gva¨‡g
GjvKvwfwËK wecbœZv wPwýZ K‡i wewfbœ ai‡bi M‡elYv Kvh©µg nv‡Z
†bqv I Rjevqy cwieZ©†bi M‡elYvjä dj hvPvB evQvB K‡i cÖhyw³
mgyn m¤cÖmvi‡Yi cÖqvm †bqv †h‡Z cv‡i| GAvBwmwm cÖwkÿ‡bi gva¨‡g
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