close

Вход

Log in using OpenID

embedDownload
Workshop Maps and Grammar, Meertens Institute September 17-18, 2014
Analysis of the morphological
variation using ‘Diatech’ tool
Gotzon Aurrekoetxea
University of the Basque Country
(UPV/EHU)
This work has been made in the research project awarded by the University of
the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) for 2012-2015.
Workshop Maps and Grammar, Meertens Institute September 17-18, 2014
1. Basque Dialectology: some works

Alvarez, J. L. & Aurrekoetxea, G., 1987, Euskal dialektologiaren
hastapenak [Handbook of the Basque dialectology], Bilbao: UEU.

Martínez-Areta, M., 2013, “Basque dialects”, in M. Martínez-Areta
(ed.), Basque and proto-Basque. Language-Internal and
Typological Approaches to Linguistic Recostruction, Frankfurt and
Main: Peter Lang, 31-87.

Euskaltzaindia, 2010-2013, Euskararen Herri Hizkeren Atlasa
[Linguistic atlas of the Basque Language](EHHA), I-IV vol, Bilbao.
Workshop Maps and Grammar, Meertens Institute September 17-18, 2014
2. The Basque: an agglutinative language
[zazpi leiho]tatik
[seven windows] from
‘from seven windows’
Workshop Maps and Grammar, Meertens Institute September 17-18, 2014
3. The inflexion of the Basque

Grammatical cases:

Absolutive (-Ø)

Ergative (-k)

Dative (-i)

Partitive (-ik)

Genitives

genitive (-en)

relational (-ko)
• Postpositions
• Locative cases:
• locative (-n) ‘in’
• Ablative (-tik) ‘from’
• Allative (-ra) ‘to’
• Directional (-rantz) ‘towards’
• Terminate (-raino) ’up to’
• Non locative cases:
• Commitative (-ekin) (‘with’)
• Benefactive (–rentzat) (‘for’)
• Instrumental (-z)
• prolative (–tzat)
• Cause (-gatik)
(Euskaltzaindia, 2003, Euskal gramatika laburra: perpaus bakuna
[Brief Grammar of the Basque], Bilbao: Euskaltzaindia.
For the names of the cases see Hualde & Ortiz de Urbina 2003)
Workshop Maps and Grammar, Meertens Institute September 17-18, 2014
4. The inflexion in the dialects

Different suffices for the same inflexion case:
-areki(n)/-arekila(n) vs. –agaz (‘with’)

Different phonological rules (PhRs): Dissimilation,
assimilation, deletion, addition…
-o + -ak: -oak, -ook, -ok, -uak, -uek…
Workshop Maps and Grammar, Meertens Institute September 17-18, 2014
5. The inflexion in the EHHA project

All inflexion cases

Each case with words finished with different
vowels and consonants

Each word in indefinite, singular and plural forms

188 questions
Workshop Maps and Grammar, Meertens Institute September 17-18, 2014
6. The data of the contribution





Data from the EHHA-V
51 questions about the inflexion of the words
finished by “–o” vowel
Direct questions vs. Proposals
astuak
vs.
*astuek
Empty answers and multiple responses (MR)
Responses and underlying representation
6
1
Fig. 1: Empty answers
5
oarenganantz
6
oengana
3
oarengana
3
orengana
6
orengandik
oengan
1
orengan
14
ora arte
1
oraino
8
oetara
1
otatik
3
otako
3
otzat
4
oez
1
oentzat
1
oekin
1
oek
2
oak
Workshop Maps and Grammar, Meertens Institute September 17-18, 2014
7. Empty answers
12
12
10
5
3
1
0
- 7.250 items
- 64 empty answers
- 0.88%
- From 51 cases in
18 empty answers
Workshop Maps and Grammar, Meertens Institute September 17-18, 2014
8. Multiple Responses (MR)
Workshop Maps and Grammar, Meertens Institute September 17-18, 2014
9. MR (questions/localities)
60
56
53
52
50
47
41
38
40
30
20
10
3
131415
121413
11
10 111011
7
76
25 25
23
19 19 20
16
41
38
30
29
25
1718
7
37
30
31
27
24
21 23 20
26
17
16
14
13
11
3
0
1
3
5
7
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51
Fig. 2: Quantifications of MR in each question
Workshop Maps and Grammar, Meertens Institute September 17-18, 2014
10. The analysis of the data
a) Orthographic answers
astoak >
-o + ak
>
-oak
>
>
>
-ok
-oog
-uak
‘donkey’ + det + abs. mark
astok >
astoog >
astuak >
…
-o + ak
-o + ak
-o + ak
b) Underlying representations
-oak
c) Phonological rules
Workshop Maps and Grammar, Meertens Institute September 17-18, 2014
11. Hierarchical structure of PhR of “–o+ak” case
A: Dissimilation rule
B: Assimilation rule
C: Assimilation rule
D: Voiceless rule
E: monoptongation rule
Fig 3: Hierarchical structure of the PhR
Workshop Maps and Grammar, Meertens Institute September 17-18, 2014
12. Linguistic distances in Diatech
www.eudia.ehu.es/diatech
Workshop Maps and Grammar, Meertens Institute September 17-18, 2014
13. Analysis of the data: linguistic distance-1
a) Phonetic distance (Levenshtein unit)
(Heeringa 2004, Spruit, Heeringa & Nerbonne 2008...)
b) Phonological distance (RIV unit)
(Goebl 1981,1992...)
Workshop Maps and Grammar, Meertens Institute September 17-18, 2014
14. Analysis of the data: linguistic distance using PhRs

–o+ak > –oag distance: 1 (D level)
(one PhR needed to pass form –oak to –oag)

–o+ak > -ook distance: 2 (B and C)
(two PhRs needed to pass from –oak to –ook)

–o+ak > –ok distance: 3 (B, C and E)
(three PhRs needed to pass from –oak to -ok)

–o+ak > –uk distance: 4 (A, B, C and E)
(four PhRs needed to pass from –oak to –uk)
1 map: EHHA-morphology -51 questions (phonetic distance)
Orthographic answers
Levenshtein distance
Cluster analysis
Ward method-7
Workshop Maps and Grammar, Meertens Institute September 17-18, 2014
15. Phonetic distance
Workshop Maps and Grammar, Meertens Institute September 17-18, 2014
16. Phonetic distance: comparison
Map 2: Cluster (Levenshtein dist., ortog., Ward-7)
L.L. Bonaparte (1868)
Map 3: Cluster (Levenshtein dist., ortog., Ward-5)
Zuazo (1998)
17. Phonological distance
Map 7
Map 8
Map 9
18. Phonetic vs. Phonological distance
Map 4
Map 7
Map 5
Map 8
Map 6
Map 9
Workshop Maps and Grammar, Meertens Institute September 17-18, 2014
19. Discussion

Which is the best cluster partition?

Dialectologists have made great progress quantifying linguistic
distances and drawing dialectal areas

Have we make similar efforts in the theoretical aspects of
linguistic variation?

The comparability of the outcomes…
20. What is the best cluster partition?
Map 4
Map 5
Map 6
Workshop Maps and Grammar, Meertens Institute September 17-18, 2014
21. Discussion


Dialectologists have made great progress quantifying linguistic
distances and drawing dialectal areas

Have we make similar efforts in the theoretical aspects of
linguistic variation?

The comparability of the outcomes…
Workshop Maps and Grammar, Meertens Institute September 17-18, 2014
22. Conclusions

The first time we use data from the Linguistic Atlas of the Basque
(EHHA) project;

I have shown the hierarchical classification of the Basque dialects
using two data types (phonetic and phonological) and two
linguistic distances (Levenshtein and RIV distances);

I have shown the contrast between two distances.
Workshop Maps and Grammar, Meertens Institute September 17-18, 2014
References
Alvarez Enparantza, J. L. “Txillardegi” & Aurrekoetxea, G. 1987, Euskal dialektologiaren hastapenak, Bilbao: UEU,
[www.inguma.org].
Aurrekoetxea, G., 1995, BIzkaieraren egituraketa geolinguistikoa [The geolinguitic structure of Biscayen dialect], Bilbao:
UPV/EHU.
Aurrekoetxea, G. & Ch. Videgain, 2014, “Outils por la géolinguistique automatisée”, In Fabio Tosques, Fabio (ed.), 2014, 20
Jahre digitale Sprachgeographie - Tagungsband (Berlin 02. bis 03. November 2012), Berlin: Humboldt-Universität zu
Berlin, Institut für Romanistik (http://www2.hu-berlin.de/vivaldi/tagung/beitraege/pdf/04_aurrekoetxea_videgan.pdf)
Aurrekoetxea, G.; Karmele Fernandez-Aguirre; Jesus Rubio; Borja Ruiz; Jon Sanchez, 2013, “'DiaTech': A new tool for
dialectology”, Literary and Linguistic Computing; doi: 10.1093/llc/fqs049
Euskaltzaindia, 1993, Euskal Gramatika Laburra: Perpaus Bakuna [Brief grammar of the Basque], Bilbao: Euskaltzaindia.
Euskaltzaindia, 2010-2013, Euskararen Herri Hizkeren Atlasa I-V [Linguistic Atals of the Basque Language I-V], Bilbao:
Euskaltzaindia("http://www.euskaltzaindia.net/"www.euskaltzaindia.net])
Clua, E., 2010, “Relevancia del análisis lingüístico en el tratamiento cuantitativo de la variación dialectal”, in G. Aurrekoetxea &
J. L. Ormaetxea (eds.), Tools for linguistic variation, Bilbao: UPV/EHU, 151-166.
Goebl, H., 2013, “Le Baiser de la Belle au bois dormant our: des péripéties encourues par la géographie linguistique depuis
Jules Gilliéron”, Corpus 12 “Dialectologie: corpus, atlas, analyses” (numéro coordonné et présenté par Rita Caprini), 6184.
Hyvönen, S., Leino, M., Salmenkivi, M., 2007, “Multivariate Analysis of Finnish Dialect Data: An Overview of Lexical Variation”,
Literary and Linguistic Computing 22 (3), 271-290.
Hualde, J.I., 1997b, “Rules vs. Constraints: Palatalization in Biscayan Basque and Related Phenomena” in F. Martínez-Gil eta
A. Morales-Front (arg.), Issues in the Phonology and Morphology of the Major Iberian Languages. Georgetown University
Press: Washington.
Hualde, J. I. & Ortiz de Urbina, J. (eds.), 2003, A Grammar of Basque, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Martínez Areta, M., 2013, “Basque dialects”. In Mikel Martínez-Areta (ed.), Basque and Proto-Basque, Mikroglottika. Minority
language Studies 5, 31-87.
Laka, I., 1994, A brief grammar of Euskara, the Basque language, in http://www.ei.ehu.es/p05612532/eu/contenidos/informacion/euskara_inst_lexiko_gramatika/eu_lex_gram/adjuntos/Laka2.pdf
San Martin, I., 1998, “An OT Account of the Formation of Definite Forms in the Vizcayan Basque Dialect of Markina”,
University of Maryland Working Papers in Linguistics 7.
Spruit, M.R., Nerbonne, J., Heeringa, W., 2008, "Associations among linguistical levels", Lingua, Special issue on Syntactic
databases. Selected papers presented in the special session Comparing Aggregate Syntaxes, Digital Humanities
conference, Paris, July 6,2006, 65-99.
1/--pages
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа