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Some Arithmetic Functions
in Counting Unrooted Topological Maps
and Coverings of Surfaces
Valery Liskovets
Institute of Mathematics
National Academy of Sciences
Minsk, Belarus
liskov@im.bas-net.by
International Conference
“Embedded Graphs”
Euler International Mathematical Institute,
St. Petersburg, Russia, October 27 – 31, 2014
Introduction: intention
• Exact closed enumeration formulae.
• Unrooted maps and related objects, such as non-equivalent
coverings of surfaces and subgroups of finitely gen. groups.
• Planar (i.e. spherical) maps and maps on other
orientable surfaces.
Unweighted, i.e. ”weighted” by 1, rather than 1/|Aut|, etc!..
A brief survey. Phenomenologically.
Selectively: initial and characteristic examples,
not necessarily latest or most general.
Ordered by involved arithmetic functions. Two parts:
(I) classical multiplicative functions and
(II) a multivariate function introduced recently. In more detail.
1
Introduction: intention
• Exact closed enumeration formulae.
• Unrooted maps and related objects, such as non-equivalent
coverings of surfaces and subgroups of finitely gen. groups.
• Planar (i.e. spherical) maps and maps on other
orientable surfaces.
• Unweighted, i.e. ”weighted” by 1, rather than 1/|Aut|, etc!..
A brief survey. Phenomenologically.
Selectively: initial and characteristic examples,
not necessarily latest or most general.
Ordered by involved arithmetic functions. Two parts:
(I) classical multiplicative functions and
(II) a multivariate function introduced recently. In more detail.
1-a
Introduction: intention
• Exact closed enumeration formulae.
• Unrooted maps and related objects, such as non-equivalent
coverings of surfaces and subgroups of finitely gen. groups.
• Planar (i.e. spherical) maps and maps on other
orientable surfaces.
• Unweighted, i.e. ”weighted” by 1, rather than 1/|Aut|, etc!..
• A brief survey. Phenomenologically.
Selectively: initial and characteristic examples,
not necessarily latest or most general.
• Ordered by involved arithmetic functions. Two parts:
(I) classical multiplicative functions and
(II) a multivariate function introduced recently. In more detail.
1-b
Introduction: basic definitions
• Unrooted (maps) = non-isomorphic, = unlabeled,
considered up to (sense-preserving) symmetries.
Rooting a map: (after Tutte): distinguishing one half-edge
(the root) so as to deprive the map all non-trivial automorphisms.
The root is known under diverse names, and there are other
equivalent definitions (say, via a distinguished corner)
An arithmetic function f (n) is called multiplicative
if
f (1) = 1
and
(
)=1
f (km) = f (k)f (m)
whenever GCD k; m
.
f n is determined by the values
()
f ( pa )
for all prime
p
and
a 1.
2
Introduction: basic definitions
• Unrooted (maps) = non-isomorphic, = unlabeled,
considered up to (sense-preserving) symmetries.
• Rooting a map: (after Tutte): distinguishing one half-edge
(the root) so as to deprive the map all non-trivial automorphisms.
The root is known under diverse names, and there are other
equivalent definitions (say, via a distinguished corner)
An arithmetic function f (n) is called multiplicative
if
f (1) = 1
and
(
)=1
f (km) = f (k)f (m)
whenever GCD k; m
.
f n is determined by the values
()
f ( pa )
for all prime
p
and
a 1.
2-a
Introduction: basic definitions
• Unrooted (maps) = non-isomorphic, = unlabeled,
considered up to (sense-preserving) symmetries.
• Rooting a map: (after Tutte): distinguishing one half-edge
(the root) so as to deprive the map all non-trivial automorphisms.
The root is known under diverse names, and there are other
equivalent definitions (say, via a distinguished corner)
• An arithmetic function f (n) is called multiplicative
if f (1) = 1 and
f (km) = f (k)f (m)
whenever GCD(k, m) = 1.
f (n) is determined by the values f (pa) for all prime p and a ≥ 1.
2-b
Enumeration: unrooted/unlabeled
Unrooted maps/unlabeled objects.
Typical way: enumeration in terms of rooted/labeled ones.
Burnside/Redfield/P´
olya. Recall:
Burnside’s Lemma (the name is improper, but. . . ).
(
∑
1
|G\\Y | =
|Y | +
|Yg |
|G|
g∈G, g̸=1
)
G\\Y : the set of orbits (“unlabelled” objects)
of a finite group G in its action on a set Y .
Yg : the set of objects in Y (“labelled” ) fixed by g.
• Reduction to separate elements of the group.
Particularly efficient when the group G acts semi-regularly.
Just for maps, coverings,. . . [ cycles of equal length in every g 2 G]
3
Enumeration: unrooted/unlabeled
Unrooted maps/unlabeled objects.
Typical way: enumeration in terms of rooted/labeled ones.
Burnside/Redfield/P´
olya. Recall:
Burnside’s Lemma (the name is improper, but. . . ).
(
∑
1
|G\\Y | =
|Y | +
|Yg |
|G|
g∈G, g̸=1
)
G\\Y : the set of orbits (“unlabelled” objects)
of a finite group G in its action on a set Y .
Yg : the set of objects in Y (“labelled” ) fixed by g.
• Reduction to separate elements of the group.
• Particularly efficient when the group G acts semi-regularly∗.
Just for maps, coverings,. . . [∗ cycles of equal length in every g ∈ G]
3-a
Enumeration: rooted/labeled
• Rooted maps (equivalent to ‘labeled’ ones in terms of
enumerative combinatorics). Much easier to enumerate.
• Very specific and well developed techniques.
In many important cases formulae are remarkably simple.
Example: A0 n :=#(rooted n-edged planar maps). Maps
without restrictions: multiple edges and loops are allowed.
[W.Tutte, 1963]:
()
n(2n)!
2
3
0
A (n ) =
n!(n + 2)!
Related rooted objects (other than maps) are enumerated
effectively as well, although often with not so simple formulae.
Diverse techniques.
4
Enumeration: rooted/labeled
• Rooted maps (equivalent to ‘labeled’ ones in terms of
enumerative combinatorics). Much easier to enumerate.
• Very specific and well developed techniques.
In many important cases formulae are remarkably simple.
• Example: A′(n):=#(rooted n-edged planar maps). Maps
without restrictions: multiple edges and loops are allowed.
[W.Tutte, 1963]:
2 · 3n(2n)!
′
A (n) =
n! (n + 2)!
Related rooted objects (other than maps) are enumerated
effectively as well, although often with not so simple formulae.
Diverse techniques.
4-a
Enumeration: rooted/labeled
• Rooted maps (equivalent to ‘labeled’ ones in terms of
enumerative combinatorics). Much easier to enumerate.
• Very specific and well developed techniques.
In many important cases formulae are remarkably simple.
• Example: A′(n):=#(rooted n-edged planar maps). Maps
without restrictions: multiple edges and loops are allowed.
[W.Tutte, 1963]:
2 · 3n(2n)!
′
A (n) =
n! (n + 2)!
• Related rooted objects (other than maps) are enumerated
effectively as well, although often with not so simple formulae.
Diverse techniques.
4-b
I. CLASSICAL MULTIPLICATIVE FUNCTIONS
Euler totient function: necklaces, plane trees, etc.
∏
ϕ(n):=#(units of Cn). ϕ(n) = n
• As a multiplicative function:
(1 − p−1).
p|n prime
ϕ(pa) = pa−1(p − 1)
p prime, a ≥ 1
Trivially arises for counting objects up to the action
of cyclic groups
Cn.
Lk (n):=#(necklaces
E.g.,
with
n
beads of
k
types up to rotations).
X
1
n m
L (n ) =
k
k
n mjn
m
Plane trees. Similarly. Less trivial.
Chord diagrams. Similarly. Even less trivial in general. . .
5
I. CLASSICAL MULTIPLICATIVE FUNCTIONS
Euler totient function: necklaces, plane trees, etc.
∏
ϕ(n):=#(units of Cn). ϕ(n) = n
• As a multiplicative function:
(1 − p−1).
p|n prime
ϕ(pa) = pa−1(p − 1)
p prime, a ≥ 1
• Trivially arises for counting objects up to the action
of cyclic groups Cn. E.g.,
Lk (n):=#(necklaces with n beads of k types up to rotations).
(
)
1 ∑
n m
Lk (n) =
k
ϕ
n m|n
m
Plane trees. Similarly. Less trivial.
Chord diagrams. Similarly. Even less trivial in general. . .
5-a
I. CLASSICAL MULTIPLICATIVE FUNCTIONS
Euler totient function: necklaces, plane trees, etc.
∏
ϕ(n):=#(units of Cn). ϕ(n) = n
• As a multiplicative function:
(1 − p−1).
p|n prime
ϕ(pa) = pa−1(p − 1)
p prime, a ≥ 1
• Trivially arises for counting objects up to the action
of cyclic groups Cn. E.g.,
Lk (n):=#(necklaces with n beads of k types up to rotations).
(
)
1 ∑
n m
Lk (n) =
k
ϕ
n m|n
m
• Plane trees. Similarly. Less trivial.
• Chord diagrams. Similarly. Even less trivial in general. . .
5-b
Euler totient function: unrooted arbitrary planar maps
A+(n):=#(unrooted planar maps with n edges). Sense-preserving: +.
Theorem [VL, 1981].

(
)
n+3
n−1

′
] 
[
A
, n odd

(
)

)
(
∑
m+2
n
1
4
2
A′(m) +
A′(n)+
ϕ
A+(n) =
(
)

n−1
n−2
2
2n
m

m<n
′


A
, n even
m|n
4
2
The first result of this form. Most significant (and unexpected!)
was the very existence of such a simple closed formula.
A0(n):=#(all rooted planar maps). Tutte’s formula, repeatedly:
0
A (n) =
2
3
n
(2n)!
n! (n + 2)!
=
2
3
n
(n + 1)(n + 2)
2n
n
;
n0
A technique based on quotient maps (= orbifolds) with respect
to rotations of order `: spheres with two `-poles.
`
: boring technical complications (one or two half-edges).
Reproved and generalized later. Rather elementary presently.
=2
6
Euler totient function: unrooted arbitrary planar maps
A+(n):=#(unrooted planar maps with n edges). Sense-preserving: +.
Theorem [VL, 1981].

(
)
n+3
n−1

′
] 
[
A
, n odd

(
)

)
(
∑
m+2
n
1
4
2
A′(m) +
A′(n)+
ϕ
A+(n) =
(
)

n−1
n−2
2
2n
m

m<n
′


A
, n even
m|n
4
2
• The first result of this form. Most significant (and unexpected!)
was the very existence of such a simple closed formula.
A0(n):=#(all rooted planar maps). Tutte’s formula, repeatedly:
0
A (n) =
2
3
n
(2n)!
n! (n + 2)!
=
2
3
n
(n + 1)(n + 2)
2n
n
;
n0
A technique based on quotient maps (= orbifolds) with respect
to rotations of order `: spheres with two `-poles.
`
: boring technical complications (one or two half-edges).
Reproved and generalized later. Rather elementary presently.
=2
6-a
Euler totient function: unrooted arbitrary planar maps
A+(n):=#(unrooted planar maps with n edges). Sense-preserving: +.
Theorem [VL, 1981].

(
)
n+3
n−1

′
] 
[
A
, n odd

(
)

)
(
∑
m+2
n
1
4
2
A′(m) +
A′(n)+
ϕ
A+(n) =
(
)

n−1
n−2
2
2n
m

m<n
′


A
, n even
m|n
4
2
• The first result of this form. Most significant (and unexpected!)
was the very existence of such a simple closed formula.
• A′(n):=#(all rooted planar maps). Tutte’s formula, repeatedly:
(2n)
2 · 3n
2 · 3n (2n)!
=
,
A (n) =
n! (n + 2)!
(n + 1)(n + 2) n
′
n≥0
A technique based on quotient maps (= orbifolds) with respect
to rotations of order `: spheres with two `-poles.
`
: boring technical complications (one or two half-edges).
Reproved and generalized later. Rather elementary presently.
=2
6-b
Euler totient function: unrooted arbitrary planar maps
A+(n):=#(unrooted planar maps with n edges). Sense-preserving: +.
Theorem [VL, 1981].

(
)
n+3
n−1

′
] 
[
A
, n odd

(
)

)
(
∑
m+2
n
1
4
2
A′(m) +
A′(n)+
ϕ
A+(n) =
(
)

n−1
n−2
2
2n
m

m<n
′


A
, n even
m|n
4
2
• The first result of this form. Most significant (and unexpected!)
was the very existence of such a simple closed formula.
• A′(n):=#(all rooted planar maps). Tutte’s formula, repeatedly:
(2n)
2 · 3n
2 · 3n (2n)!
=
,
A (n) =
n! (n + 2)!
(n + 1)(n + 2) n
′
n≥0
• A technique based on quotient maps (= orbifolds) with respect
to rotations of order ℓ: spheres with two ℓ-poles.
ℓ = 2: boring technical complications (one or two half-edges).
• Reproved and generalized later. Rather elementary presently.
6-c
Euler totient function: unrooted non-separable planar maps
B +(n):=#(unrooted non-separable (= 2-connected) planar maps).
Theorem [VL–T.Walsh, 1983].

(
)
n+1
n+1

′
[
] 

( )(
B
, n odd

)
∑
1
3m−1
n
4
2
B +(n) =
B ′(n)+
B ′(m) +
ϕ
( )

3n−4 ′ n
2n
m
2

m<n

B
,
n even

m|n
16
2
A much more unexpected reductive formula because
quotient maps (up to 2 poles) are not necessarily non-separable.
B 0(n):=#(rooted non-separable planar maps). [W.Tutte, 1963]:
3n
4
2(3
n 3)!
0
=
;
n1
B (n ) =
n!(2n 1)! 3(3n 2)(3n 1) n
Further. Eulerian planar maps, loopless,. . . : similar formulae.
Again: despite that quotient maps do not generally preserve the
underlying property (even valency,. . . ). Partially explained.
7
Euler totient function: unrooted non-separable planar maps
B +(n):=#(unrooted non-separable (= 2-connected) planar maps).
Theorem [VL–T.Walsh, 1983].

(
)
n+1
n+1

′
[
] 

( )(
B
, n odd

)
∑
1
3m−1
n
4
2
B +(n) =
B ′(n)+
B ′(m) +
ϕ
( )

3n−4 ′ n
2n
m
2

m<n

B
,
n even

m|n
16
2
• A much more unexpected reductive formula because
quotient maps (up to 2 poles) are not necessarily non-separable.
B 0(n):=#(rooted non-separable planar maps). [W.Tutte, 1963]:
3n
4
2(3
n 3)!
0
=
;
n1
B (n ) =
n!(2n 1)! 3(3n 2)(3n 1) n
Further. Eulerian planar maps, loopless,. . . : similar formulae.
Again: despite that quotient maps do not generally preserve the
underlying property (even valency,. . . ). Partially explained.
7-a
Euler totient function: unrooted non-separable planar maps
B +(n):=#(unrooted non-separable (= 2-connected) planar maps).
Theorem [VL–T.Walsh, 1983].

(
)
n+1
n+1

′
[
] 

( )(
B
, n odd

)
∑
1
3m−1
n
4
2
B +(n) =
B ′(n)+
B ′(m) +
ϕ
( )

3n−4 ′ n
2n
m
2

m<n

B
,
n even

m|n
16
2
• A much more unexpected reductive formula because
quotient maps (up to 2 poles) are not necessarily non-separable.
• B ′(n):=#(rooted non-separable planar maps). [W.Tutte, 1963]:
2(3n − 3)!
=
B ′(n) =
n! (2n − 1)!
(3n)
4
,
3(3n − 2)(3n − 1) n
n≥1
Further. Eulerian planar maps, loopless,. . . : similar formulae.
Again: despite that quotient maps do not generally preserve the
underlying property (even valency,. . . ). Partially explained.
7-b
Euler totient function: unrooted non-separable planar maps
B +(n):=#(unrooted non-separable (= 2-connected) planar maps).
Theorem [VL–T.Walsh, 1983].

(
)
n+1
n+1

′
[
] 

( )(
B
, n odd

)
∑
1
3m−1
n
4
2
B +(n) =
B ′(n)+
B ′(m) +
ϕ
( )

3n−4 ′ n
2n
m
2

m<n

B
,
n even

m|n
16
2
• A much more unexpected reductive formula because
quotient maps (up to 2 poles) are not necessarily non-separable.
• B ′(n):=#(rooted non-separable planar maps). [W.Tutte, 1963]:
2(3n − 3)!
=
B ′(n) =
n! (2n − 1)!
(3n)
4
,
3(3n − 2)(3n − 1) n
n≥1
• Further. Eulerian planar maps, loopless,. . . : similar formulae.
Again: despite that quotient maps do not generally preserve the
underlying property (even valency,. . . ). Partially explained.
7-c
M¨
obius function: subgroups of the free group
µ(n): the M¨
obius inversion. (Recall: µ(n) is the multiplicative function
determined by µ(p) := −1, µ(pa) := 0 for p prime and a > 1.)
Fr := the free group of rank r ≥ 2,
NFr (n):=#(conjugacy classes of subgroups of index n in Fr ). Also:
=#(transitive permutation r-tuples up to joint conjugacy);
=#(non-equivalent n-fold coverings of a bordered surface).
Theorem [VL, 1971].
X
X
n r
1
d
MFr (m)
NFr (n) =
n
md
n
(
mjn
1)m+1
dj m
MFr (n):=#(n-index subgroups of Fr ). [M.Hall, 1949]:
MFr (n) = n n!r
1
nX1
t=1
(n t)!r
1
MFr (t);
n > 1;
and
MFr (1) = 1:
Again: unexpectedly simple formula. Reproved subsequently:
R.Stanley, G.Jones,. . . Admits a smarter representation: later.
8
M¨
obius function: subgroups of the free group
µ(n): the M¨
obius inversion. (Recall: µ(n) is the multiplicative function
determined by µ(p) := −1, µ(pa) := 0 for p prime and a > 1.)
Fr := the free group of rank r ≥ 2,
NFr (n):=#(conjugacy classes of subgroups of index n in Fr ). Also:
=#(transitive permutation r-tuples up to joint conjugacy);
=#(non-equivalent n-fold coverings of a bordered surface).
Theorem [VL, 1971].
(
)
∑
n
1 ∑
µ
d(r−1)m+1
NFr (n) =
MFr (m)
n m|n
md
d| n
m
• MFr (n):=#(n-index subgroups of Fr ). [M.Hall, 1949]:
MFr (n) = n · n!r−1 −
n−1
∑
(n − t)!r−1MFr (t),
n > 1, and MFr (1) = 1.
t=1
Again: unexpectedly simple formula. Reproved subsequently:
R.Stanley, G.Jones,. . . Admits a smarter representation: later.
8-a
M¨
obius function: subgroups of the free group
µ(n): the M¨
obius inversion. (Recall: µ(n) is the multiplicative function
determined by µ(p) := −1, µ(pa) := 0 for p prime and a > 1.)
Fr := the free group of rank r ≥ 2,
NFr (n):=#(conjugacy classes of subgroups of index n in Fr ). Also:
=#(transitive permutation r-tuples up to joint conjugacy);
=#(non-equivalent n-fold coverings of a bordered surface).
Theorem [VL, 1971].
(
)
∑
n
1 ∑
µ
d(r−1)m+1
NFr (n) =
MFr (m)
n m|n
md
d| n
m
• MFr (n):=#(n-index subgroups of Fr ). [M.Hall, 1949]:
MFr (n) = n · n!r−1 −
n−1
∑
(n − t)!r−1MFr (t),
n > 1, and MFr (1) = 1.
t=1
• Again: unexpectedly simple formula. Reproved subsequently:
R.Stanley, G.Jones,. . . Admits a smarter representation: later.
8-b
M¨
obius function: smooth coverings of surfaces
Sγ : a closed orientable surface of genus γ.
NSγ (n):=#(non-equivalent smooth n-sheeted coverings over Sγ ).
Theorem [A.Mednykh, 1982] (the Hurwitz problem for smooth cov.).
X
X
1
n
NS (n) =
M S (m)
d
n
md
n
(2
mjn
2)m+2
dj m
MS (n):=#(n-index subgroups in the fundamental group of S ).
M S (n )
is expressed in terms of irreducible characters
of the symmetric group Sn [AM, 1982]. . .
Subsequently has been generalized to non-orientable surfaces and
branched coverings (less transparently). A lot of results.
Proof: initially heavy and rather artificial. Presently this is
a particular case of a much more general and clear result!
9
M¨
obius function: smooth coverings of surfaces
Sγ : a closed orientable surface of genus γ.
NSγ (n):=#(non-equivalent smooth n-sheeted coverings over Sγ ).
Theorem [A.Mednykh, 1982] (the Hurwitz problem for smooth cov.).
(
)
∑
1 ∑
n
NSγ (n) =
MSγ (m)
µ
d(2γ−2)m+2
n m|n
md
d| n
m
• MSγ (n):=#(n-index subgroups in the fundamental group of Sγ ).
MSγ (n) is expressed in terms of irreducible characters
of the symmetric group Sn [AM, 1982]. . .
Subsequently has been generalized to non-orientable surfaces and
branched coverings (less transparently). A lot of results.
Proof: initially heavy and rather artificial. Presently this is
a particular case of a much more general and clear result!
9-a
M¨
obius function: smooth coverings of surfaces
Sγ : a closed orientable surface of genus γ.
NSγ (n):=#(non-equivalent smooth n-sheeted coverings over Sγ ).
Theorem [A.Mednykh, 1982] (the Hurwitz problem for smooth cov.).
(
)
∑
1 ∑
n
NSγ (n) =
MSγ (m)
µ
d(2γ−2)m+2
n m|n
md
d| n
m
• MSγ (n):=#(n-index subgroups in the fundamental group of Sγ ).
MSγ (n) is expressed in terms of irreducible characters
of the symmetric group Sn [AM, 1982]. . .
• Subsequently has been generalized to non-orientable surfaces and
branched coverings (less transparently). A lot of results.
Proof: initially heavy and rather artificial. Presently this is
a particular case of a much more general and clear result!
9-b
M¨
obius function: smooth coverings of surfaces
Sγ : a closed orientable surface of genus γ.
NSγ (n):=#(non-equivalent smooth n-sheeted coverings over Sγ ).
Theorem [A.Mednykh, 1982] (the Hurwitz problem for smooth cov.).
(
)
∑
1 ∑
n
NSγ (n) =
MSγ (m)
µ
d(2γ−2)m+2
n m|n
md
d| n
m
• MSγ (n):=#(n-index subgroups in the fundamental group of Sγ ).
MSγ (n) is expressed in terms of irreducible characters
of the symmetric group Sn [AM, 1982]. . .
• Subsequently has been generalized to non-orientable surfaces and
branched coverings (less transparently). A lot of results.
• Proof: initially heavy and rather artificial. Presently this is
a particular case of a much more general and clear result!
9-c
Coverings vs subgroups
Recall:
For connected coverings of a manifold M
with the fundamental group π1(M)
• its pointed (rooted) n-fold coverings bijectively correspond to
n-index subgroups of π1(M)
• its n-fold coverings up to equivalence bijectively correspond to
n-index subgroups of π1(M) up to conjugacy.
10
Non-conjugate subgroups vs epimorphisms onto Cm
NG(n):=#(conjugacy classes of n-index subgroups of group G).
Theorem [AM, 2006]. For any finitely generated group G,
1 ∑ ∑
NG(n) =
|Epi(H, Cm)|
n m|n H<G
mk=n
k
H < G denotes summing over subgroups of index k,
k
|Epi(H, Cm)|:=#(epimorphisms of H onto cyclic Cm)
Clarifies everything! Easily calculated for (S ), etc.
Lemma [G.Jones, 1995]. If jHom(H; Cm)j:=#(homomorphisms),
X n
jEpi(H; Cn)j = d jHom(H; Cd)j
1
djn
Corollary. For a free group
Fr ;
jEpi(Fr ; Cn)j =
P
djn
n
d
dr :
11
Non-conjugate subgroups vs epimorphisms onto Cm
NG(n):=#(conjugacy classes of n-index subgroups of group G).
Theorem [AM, 2006]. For any finitely generated group G,
1 ∑ ∑
NG(n) =
|Epi(H, Cm)|
n m|n H<G
mk=n
k
H < G denotes summing over subgroups of index k,
k
|Epi(H, Cm)|:=#(epimorphisms of H onto cyclic Cm)
• Clarifies everything! Easily calculated for π1(S), etc.
Lemma [G.Jones, 1995]. If |Hom(H, Cm)|:=#(homomorphisms),
∑ (n)
|Hom(H, Cd)|
|Epi(H, Cn)| =
µ
d
d|n
Corollary. For a free group Fr ,
|Epi(Fr , Cn)| =
∑
d|n
( )
µ nd dr .
11-a
Jordan totient functions: definition
ϕk (n):=#(k-tuples jointly coprime to n).
Denoted often Jk (n).
ϕk (n) := nk
∏
(1 − p−k ),
k≥0
p|n prime
• Defined as a multiplicative function:
ϕk (pa) := pk(a−1)(pk − 1),
p prime, a ≥ 1
• In particular, ϕ1 = ϕ (Euler totient).
In general, ϕ(n)| ϕk (n), k ≥ 1.
Proposition.
n k
k (n) = d
d
djn
X
Easy. Is sometimes used as the definition of k(n).
12
Jordan totient functions: definition
ϕk (n):=#(k-tuples jointly coprime to n).
Denoted often Jk (n).
ϕk (n) := nk
∏
(1 − p−k ),
k≥0
p|n prime
• Defined as a multiplicative function:
ϕk (pa) := pk(a−1)(pk − 1),
p prime, a ≥ 1
• In particular, ϕ1 = ϕ (Euler totient).
In general, ϕ(n)| ϕk (n), k ≥ 1.
Proposition.
∑ (n)
ϕk (n) =
µ
dk
d
d|n
• Easy. Is sometimes used as the definition of ϕk (n).
12-a
Jordan totient functions: free groups and coverings, revisited
Recall for the conjugacy classes of subgroups of Fr :
∑ ( n )
1∑
NFr (n) =
MFr (m)
µ
d(r−1)m+1
n
md
m|n
d| mn
( )
∑ ( n ) (r−1)m+1
n .
• As we just saw:
µ md d
= ϕ(r−1)m+1 m
n
d| m
Therefore
NFr
X
1
(n ) =
n mjn
(r
1)m+1
n
MFr (m)
m
– the very first enumeration result with Jordan’s functions.
Such a considerable rˆole of the Jordan function in this context
has been realized (a simple observation) only recently [VL, 2003].
Rather popular presently.
Similarly: non-equivalent smooth coverings NS (n), etc.
13
Jordan totient functions: free groups and coverings, revisited
Recall for the conjugacy classes of subgroups of Fr :
∑ ( n )
1∑
NFr (n) =
MFr (m)
µ
d(r−1)m+1
n
md
m|n
d| mn
( )
∑ ( n ) (r−1)m+1
n .
• As we just saw:
µ md d
= ϕ(r−1)m+1 m
n
d| m
Therefore
(
)
1 ∑
n
NFr (n) =
MFr (m)
ϕ(r−1)m+1
n m|n
m
– the very first enumeration result with Jordan’s functions.
• Such a considerable rˆ
ole of the Jordan function in this context
has been realized (a simple observation) only recently [VL, 2003].
Rather popular presently.
Similarly: non-equivalent smooth coverings NS (n), etc.
13-a
Jordan totient functions: free groups and coverings, revisited
Recall for the conjugacy classes of subgroups of Fr :
∑ ( n )
1∑
NFr (n) =
MFr (m)
µ
d(r−1)m+1
n
md
m|n
d| mn
( )
∑ ( n ) (r−1)m+1
n .
• As we just saw:
µ md d
= ϕ(r−1)m+1 m
n
d| m
Therefore
(
)
1 ∑
n
NFr (n) =
MFr (m)
ϕ(r−1)m+1
n m|n
m
– the very first enumeration result with Jordan’s functions.
• Such a considerable rˆ
ole of the Jordan function in this context
has been realized (a simple observation) only recently [VL, 2003].
Rather popular presently.
• Similarly: non-equivalent smooth coverings NSγ (n), etc.
13-b
Jordan totient functions: variations
Modified “odd” Jordan totient function:
∏
k
ϕodd
k (n) := n
(1 − p−k ),
k≥0
p|n
p odd prime
• Defined as a multiplicative function:
a
a
ϕodd
k (p ) := ϕk (p ), p odd;
(For comparison:
•
ϕodd
k (n) =
∑
d|n
( )
µ nd dk
a
ka
ϕodd
k (2 ) := 2
ϕk (2a) = 2k(a−1) (2k − 1).)
n/d odd
odd
k (n) arises often in counting maps/coverings on
non-orientable surfaces, or up to reflection [RN–AM &Co, 2008],
or so-called circular maps [M.Deryagina, 2013].
Also even
(n) . . . Less significant.
k
14
Jordan totient functions: variations
Modified “odd” Jordan totient function:
∏
k
ϕodd
k (n) := n
(1 − p−k ),
k≥0
p|n
p odd prime
• Defined as a multiplicative function:
a
a
ϕodd
k (p ) := ϕk (p ), p odd;
(For comparison:
•
ϕodd
k (n) =
∑
d|n
( )
µ nd dk
a
ka
ϕodd
k (2 ) := 2
ϕk (2a) = 2k(a−1) (2k − 1).)
n/d odd
• ϕodd
k (n) arises often in counting maps/coverings on
non-orientable surfaces, or up to reflection [RN–AM &Co, 2008],
or so-called circular maps [M.Deryagina, 2013].
• Also ϕeven
(n) . . . Less significant.
k
14-a
Jordan functions: subgroups of F2 and dessins d’enfants
( )
∑
1
n M (m), n ≥ 1.
r := 2. Free gr. F2. Recall: NF2 (n) = n
ϕm+1 m
F2
m|n
NF2 (n)=#(transitive pairs of permutations up to joint conjugacy).
=#(non-isomorphic dessins d’enfants (aka hypermaps)).
• The initial numerical values: 1, 3, 7, 26, 97, 624, 4163,. . .
(A057005 in the On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences).
“7” for n
edges (in a bipartite representation):
=3
.
[Pic.: L.Zapponi, Not. AMS, v.50, 2003]
15
Jordan functions: subgroups of F2 and dessins d’enfants
( )
∑
1
n M (m), n ≥ 1.
r := 2. Free gr. F2. Recall: NF2 (n) = n
ϕm+1 m
F2
m|n
NF2 (n)=#(transitive pairs of permutations up to joint conjugacy).
=#(non-isomorphic dessins d’enfants (aka hypermaps)).
• The initial numerical values: 1, 3, 7, 26, 97, 624, 4163,. . .
(A057005 in the On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences).
• “7” for n = 3 edges (in a bipartite representation):
3
2
3
1
2
1
Figure 1. The dessins with three edges. The cyclic ordering at each
vertex is indicated geometrically. The last two are distinct because
of different cyclic orders at the bottom vertex—(1, 3, 2) against
(1, 2, 3) . [Pic.: L.Zapponi, Not. AMS, v.50, 2003]
15-a
Dedekind totient function: cyclic regular dessins d’enfants
2 (n) . Equivalently:
ψ(n). Related to Jordan functions: ψ(n) := ϕϕ(n)
ψ(n) := n
∏
(1 + p−1)
p|n prime
• Defined as a multiplicative function:
ψ(pa) := pa−1(p + 1),
p prime, a ≥ 1
A dessin [d’enfant] D is called cyclic regular if
the group Aut(D) is cyclic and acts regularly on the edges.
R(n):=#(non-isomorphic
cyclic regular dessins with
Theorem [R.Nedela & Co, 2014].
R(n) =
n
edges).
(n)
The very first appearance of Dedekind’s psi in this context.
16
Dedekind totient function: cyclic regular dessins d’enfants
2 (n) . Equivalently:
ψ(n). Related to Jordan functions: ψ(n) := ϕϕ(n)
ψ(n) := n
∏
(1 + p−1)
p|n prime
• Defined as a multiplicative function:
ψ(pa) := pa−1(p + 1),
p prime, a ≥ 1
• A dessin [d’enfant] D is called cyclic regular if
the group Aut(D) is cyclic and acts regularly on the edges.
R(n):=#(non-isomorphic cyclic regular dessins with n edges).
Theorem [R.Nedela & Co, 2014].
R(n) = ψ(n)
• The very first appearance of Dedekind’s psi in this context.
16-a
Sum/number of divisors: coverings of the torus/Klein bottle
Two more multiplicative functions. Exclusive applications.
Theorem. [AM, 1988]. For unrooted (connected) coverings
of the (2-dim) torus T and the Klein bottle K:
NT (n) = σ(n)
NK (n) = d(n) if n is odd
NK (n) = (5d(n/2) + σ(n/2))/2 if n ≡ 2 (mod 4)
NK (n) = . . . if 4|n
where
σ(n) :=
d(n) :=
∑
d|n
∑
d (the sum of divisors)
1 (the number of divisors)
d|n
Generalizations: dodd
(n), . . . in the same context.
17
Sum/number of divisors: coverings of the torus/Klein bottle
Two more multiplicative functions. Exclusive applications.
Theorem. [AM, 1988]. For unrooted (connected) coverings
of the (2-dim) torus T and the Klein bottle K:
NT (n) = σ(n)
NK (n) = d(n) if n is odd
NK (n) = (5d(n/2) + σ(n/2))/2 if n ≡ 2 (mod 4)
NK (n) = . . . if 4|n
where
σ(n) :=
d(n) :=
∑
d|n
∑
d (the sum of divisors)
1 (the number of divisors)
d|n
Generalizations: dodd(n), . . . in the same context.
17-a
II. A NEW MULTIVARIATE MULTIPLICATIVE FUNCTION
Return to unrooted planar maps. Loosely speaking:
1( ′
+
A0(n) +
A0 (n) =
2n
∑
)
′
ϕ(ℓ)Ab0(n/ℓ)
ℓ≥2, ℓ|2n
A+
0 (n) := #(arbitrary non-isomorphic n-edge planar maps),
A′0(n) := #(rooted n-edge planar maps),
Ab′0(n/ℓ) := #(rooted planar quotient maps) with respect to
rotations of order ℓ.
What further for the torus and surfaces of greater genera?
The answer expected long ago: a similar reduction to rooted maps,
i.e. a summation formula in terms of
#(rooted quotient maps) with some coefficients.
With respect to all possible finite automorphisms of the surface.
However: Which terms?? Which coefficients??
18
II. A NEW MULTIVARIATE MULTIPLICATIVE FUNCTION
Return to unrooted planar maps. Loosely speaking:
1( ′
+
A0(n) +
A0 (n) =
2n
∑
)
′
ϕ(ℓ)Ab0(n/ℓ)
ℓ≥2, ℓ|2n
A+
0 (n) := #(arbitrary non-isomorphic n-edge planar maps),
A′0(n) := #(rooted n-edge planar maps),
Ab′0(n/ℓ) := #(rooted planar quotient maps) with respect to
rotations of order ℓ.
• What further for the torus and surfaces of greater genera?
The answer expected long ago: a similar reduction to rooted maps,
i.e. a summation formula in terms of
#(rooted quotient maps) with some coefficients.
With respect to all possible finite automorphisms of the surface.
However: Which terms?? Which coefficients??
18-a
II. A NEW MULTIVARIATE MULTIPLICATIVE FUNCTION
Return to unrooted planar maps. Loosely speaking:
1( ′
+
A0(n) +
A0 (n) =
2n
∑
)
′
ϕ(ℓ)Ab0(n/ℓ)
ℓ≥2, ℓ|2n
A+
0 (n) := #(arbitrary non-isomorphic n-edge planar maps),
A′0(n) := #(rooted n-edge planar maps),
Ab′0(n/ℓ) := #(rooted planar quotient maps) with respect to
rotations of order ℓ.
• What further for the torus and surfaces of greater genera?
The answer expected long ago: a similar reduction to rooted maps,
i.e. a summation formula in terms of
#(rooted quotient maps) with some coefficients.
With respect to all possible finite automorphisms of the surface.
• However: Which terms?? Which coefficients??
18-b
Non-planar maps: basic enumeration theorem
A far-reaching generalization of the planar case!
Sγ : a closed oriented surface of genus γ ≥ 0.
A+
γ (n)=#(arbitrary unrooted maps with n edges on Sγ ).
Theorem (A.Mednykh–R.Nedela, 2006). (Loosely)
∑
∑
1 ∑
+
Aγ (n) =
|Epio(π1(Ω), Cℓ)|
#(rooted q.m.) . . .
2n ℓ|2n Ω∈Orb(Sγ /C )
ℓ
Ω=Ω(g;m1 ,...,mr )
• Orb(Sγ /Cℓ): the set of all cyclic orbifolds: quotient spaces by
orientation-preserving actions of the cyclic group Cℓ on Sγ .
• Orbifold Ω = Ω(g; m1, . . . , mr ) ∈ Orb(Sγ /Cℓ): a closed surface
with a distinguished finite set of branch points of signature
(g; m1, . . . , mr ), where g:= its genus,
mj := the orders of branch points.
19
Degression on rooted quotient maps
#(rooted quotient maps) in the RHS.
• Classes of generalized maps: with pendant semi-edges, etc.
• Easily reduce to ordinary rooted maps on orientable surfaces:
A′δ (n), δ ≤ γ.
• Counted long ago with rather heavy formulae:
T.Walsh, A.Giorgetti.
A great progress presently: much more efficient formulae,
numerical results,. . . Outside of our topic.
20
Degression on rooted quotient maps
#(rooted quotient maps) in the RHS.
• Classes of generalized maps: with pendant semi-edges, etc.
• Easily reduce to ordinary rooted maps on orientable surfaces:
A′δ (n), δ ≤ γ.
• Counted long ago with rather heavy formulae:
T.Walsh, A.Giorgetti.
• A great progress presently: much more efficient formulae,
numerical results,. . . Outside of our topic.
20-a
Order preserving epimorphisms
∑
∑
1 ∑
+
Aγ (n) =
|Epio(π1(Ω), Cℓ)|
#(rooted q.m.)
2n ℓ|2n Ω∈Orb(Sγ /C )
ℓ
Ω=Ω(g;m1 ,...,mr )
Epio(π1(Ω), Cℓ) :={order preserving epimorphisms π1(Ω) → Cℓ}.
The fundamental
group:
⟨
π1(Ω) = x1, y1, . . . , xg , yg , z1, . . . , zr :
g
∏
i=1
[xi, yi]
r
∏
j=1
zj = 1,
⟩
mj
zj = 1, j = 1, . . . , r
• Order preserving epimorphism π1(Ω) → Cℓ:
preserves the orders of the periodical generators zj , j = 1, . . . , r
(aka: smooth epimorphism, or
epimorphism with the torsion-free kernel).
jEpi ( (
); C`)j=??
o
1
21
Order preserving epimorphisms
∑
∑
1 ∑
+
Aγ (n) =
|Epio(π1(Ω), Cℓ)|
#(rooted q.m.)
2n ℓ|2n Ω∈Orb(Sγ /C )
ℓ
Ω=Ω(g;m1 ,...,mr )
Epio(π1(Ω), Cℓ) :={order preserving epimorphisms π1(Ω) → Cℓ}.
The fundamental
group:
⟨
π1(Ω) = x1, y1, . . . , xg , yg , z1, . . . , zr :
g
∏
i=1
[xi, yi]
r
∏
j=1
zj = 1,
⟩
mj
zj = 1, j = 1, . . . , r
• Order preserving epimorphism π1(Ω) → Cℓ:
preserves the orders of the periodical generators zj , j = 1, . . . , r
(aka: smooth epimorphism, or
epimorphism with the torsion-free kernel).
• |Epio(π1(Ω), Cℓ)|=??
21-a
Definition of the function E(m1, . . . , mr )
Theorem [AM–RN, 2006]. For
Ω = Ω(g; m1, . . . , mr ) ∈ Orb(Sγ /Cℓ),
|Epio(π1(Ω), Cℓ)| = m2g · ϕ2g (ℓ/m) · E(m1, . . . , mr )
Again, g , the Jordan totient function of order 2g.
E (m ; : : : ; mr ) := the number of solutions of the system
9
x + + xr 0 (mod `) >
>
>
=
2
1
(x ; `) = `=m
:::
GCD(xr ; `) = `=mr
where LCM(m ; : : : ; mr ) = m and mj`.
E (m ; : : : ; mr ) does not depend on `.
1
GCD
1
1
>
>
>
;
1
1
Later I investigated this function and suggested
to call it orbicyclic . It is a multivariate generalization
of the Euler totient function.
22
Definition of the function E(m1, . . . , mr )
Theorem [AM–RN, 2006]. For
Ω = Ω(g; m1, . . . , mr ) ∈ Orb(Sγ /Cℓ),
|Epio(π1(Ω), Cℓ)| = m2g · ϕ2g (ℓ/m) · E(m1, . . . , mr )
• Again, ϕ2g , the Jordan totient function of order 2g.
E m1; : : : ; mr := the number of solutions of the system
(
)
x1 + + xr 0 (mod `)
GCD(x1 ; `) = `=m1
:::
GCD(xr ; `) = `=mr
where LCM(m1; : : : ; mr ) = m and mj`.
E (m1; : : : ; mr ) does not depend on `.
9
>
>
>
=
>
>
>
;
Later I investigated this function and suggested
to call it orbicyclic . It is a multivariate generalization
of the Euler totient function.
22-a
Definition of the function E(m1, . . . , mr )
Theorem [AM–RN, 2006]. For
Ω = Ω(g; m1, . . . , mr ) ∈ Orb(Sγ /Cℓ),
|Epio(π1(Ω), Cℓ)| = m2g · ϕ2g (ℓ/m) · E(m1, . . . , mr )
• Again, ϕ2g , the Jordan totient function of order 2g.
• E(m1, . . . , mr ) := the number of solutions of the system
x1 + · · · + xr ≡ 0 (mod ℓ)
GCD(x1 , ℓ) = ℓ/m1
...
GCD(xr , ℓ) = ℓ/mr









where LCM(m1, . . . , mr ) = m and m|ℓ.
E(m1, . . . , mr ) does not depend on ℓ.
Later I investigated this function and suggested
to call it orbicyclic . It is a multivariate generalization
of the Euler totient function.
22-b
Definition of the function E(m1, . . . , mr )
Theorem [AM–RN, 2006]. For
Ω = Ω(g; m1, . . . , mr ) ∈ Orb(Sγ /Cℓ),
|Epio(π1(Ω), Cℓ)| = m2g · ϕ2g (ℓ/m) · E(m1, . . . , mr )
• Again, ϕ2g , the Jordan totient function of order 2g.
• E(m1, . . . , mr ) := the number of solutions of the system
x1 + · · · + xr ≡ 0 (mod ℓ)
GCD(x1 , ℓ) = ℓ/m1
...
GCD(xr , ℓ) = ℓ/mr









where LCM(m1, . . . , mr ) = m and m|ℓ.
E(m1, . . . , mr ) does not depend on ℓ.
• Later I investigated this function and suggested
to call it orbicyclic . It is a multivariate generalization
of the Euler totient function.
22-c
Orbicyclic function: initial formula and elementary properties
Proposition [AM–RN]. For m := LCM(m1, . . . , mr ),
m
1 ∑
cm (k) · · · cmr (k)
E(m1, . . . , mr ) =
m k=1 1
E(∅) := 1
(m := 1 for r = 0)
where cn(k) is the famous Ramanujan (trigonometric) sum:
∑
cn(k) :=
d (mod n)
GCD(d,n)=1
(
2ikd
exp
n
)
Inconvenient for calculations and study.
E (m ; : : : ; mr ) is symmetric.
mi = 1 play no role. (m ; : : : ; mr ) is called reduced if all mj > 1.
E (m) = 0 for m > 1. E (m ; m ) = 0 for m 6= m .
E (m; m) = (m) – just the coefficients in our formula for
1
1
1
2
1
2
counting planar maps!
23
Orbicyclic function: initial formula and elementary properties
Proposition [AM–RN]. For m := LCM(m1, . . . , mr ),
m
1 ∑
cm (k) · · · cmr (k)
E(m1, . . . , mr ) =
m k=1 1
E(∅) := 1
(m := 1 for r = 0)
where cn(k) is the famous Ramanujan (trigonometric) sum:
cn(k) :=
∑
d (mod n)
GCD(d,n)=1
(
2ikd
exp
n
)
Inconvenient for calculations and study.
• E(m1, . . . , mr ) is symmetric.
• mi = 1 play no role. (m1, . . . , mr ) is called reduced if all mj > 1.
• E(m) = 0 for m > 1. E(m1, m2) = 0 for m1 ̸= m2.
• E(m, m) = ϕ(m) – just the coefficients in our formula for
counting planar maps!
23-a
Properties of the Ramanujan sum
H¨
older’s formula:
(
ϕ(n)
cn(k) = (
ϕ GCDn(k,n)
n
)µ
GCD(k, n)
)
• ϕ and µ again. Ramanujan’s identity:
cn(k) =
∑
d|GCD(k,n)
( )
dµ
k
d
Lemma. cn(k) is multiplicative by n and for any p prime and a ≥ 1,

a−1 if

 (p − 1)p
a−1 if
cpa (k) =
−p


pa|k
pa - k, pa−1|k
0 otherwise
• cn(k) is alternating. Unlike E(m1, . . . , mr ).
24
Multivariate multiplicativity
A multivariate function g = g(m1, . . . , mr ) is called multiplicative if
g(1, . . . , 1) = 1 and
g(m1, . . . , mr ) = g(m′1, . . . , m′r ) · g(m′′1, . . . , m′′r )
whenever mj = m′j m′′j , j = 1, . . . , r, and GCD(M ′, M ′′) = 1, where
∏
∏
M ′ = j m′j and M ′′ = j m′′j .
Theorem [VL, 2010].
The orbicyclic function
E ( m 1 ; : : : ; mr )
is multiplicative.
Thus: reduction to prime powers, i.e.
E (m1; : : : ; mr ) is determined by its values
when m=GCD(m1; : : : ; mr ) is a prime power.
25
Multivariate multiplicativity
A multivariate function g = g(m1, . . . , mr ) is called multiplicative if
g(1, . . . , 1) = 1 and
g(m1, . . . , mr ) = g(m′1, . . . , m′r ) · g(m′′1, . . . , m′′r )
whenever mj = m′j m′′j , j = 1, . . . , r, and GCD(M ′, M ′′) = 1, where
∏
∏
M ′ = j m′j and M ′′ = j m′′j .
Theorem [VL, 2010].
The orbicyclic function E(m1, . . . , mr ) is multiplicative.
• Thus: reduction to prime powers, i.e.
E(m1, . . . , mr ) is determined by its values
when m=GCD(m1, . . . , mr ) is a prime power.
25-a
The primary case m = p a. Main efficient formula
Introduce three parameters: r = rp, s = sp, v = vp.
For mj = paj , aj > 0, j = 1, . . . , r, without loss of generality,
a1 = . . . = a s = a > as+1 · · · ≥ a r > 0.
s := the multiplicity of the greatest exponent.
v :=
∑
(aj − 1) =
j≥2
Theorem [VL, 2010].
hs(x)
∑
aj − r − a + 1
j≥1
E (pa1 ; : : : ; par ) = (p
1)r
is the (“chromatic” ) polynomial
h1(x) = 0
h2(x) = 1
h3(x) = x
h4(x) = x2
h5(x) = (x
s+1pv h
s
hs(x) :=
2
3x + 3
2)(x 2x + 2)
( p)
(x
1)s
1+(
x
1)s
:
2
26
The primary case m = p a. Main efficient formula
Introduce three parameters: r = rp, s = sp, v = vp.
For mj = paj , aj > 0, j = 1, . . . , r, without loss of generality,
a1 = . . . = a s = a > as+1 · · · ≥ a r > 0.
s := the multiplicity of the greatest exponent.
v :=
∑
j≥2
(aj − 1) =
∑
aj − r − a + 1
j≥1
Theorem [VL, 2010].
E(pa1 , . . . , par ) = (p − 1)r−s+1pv hs(p)
(x−1)s−1+(−1)s
hs(x) is the (“chromatic” ) polynomial hs(x) :=
.
x
h1(x) = 0
h2(x) = 1
h3(x) = x − 2
h4(x) = x2 − 3x + 3
h5(x) = (x − 2)(x2 − 2x + 2)
26-a
Further properties
• E(pa1 , pa2 , . . . , par ) is non-negative and integer.
• E(pa1 , pa2 , . . . , par ) vanishes iff s = 1 or p = 2 and s is odd.
• ϕ(m)|E(m1, . . . , mr ).
fr (n) := E (n;
: : : ; n) (the diagonal) is
| {z }
r
the multiplicative function determined by
fr (pa) = (p
1)p r
(
1)(a
1)
hr (p);
p
prime;
a 1:
One more generalization of the Euler totient function:
in particular f2 n
n.
( )= ( )
()
I called fr n (by certain historical reasons)
the Rademacher–Brauer totient.
27
Further properties
• E(pa1 , pa2 , . . . , par ) is non-negative and integer.
• E(pa1 , pa2 , . . . , par ) vanishes iff s = 1 or p = 2 and s is odd.
• ϕ(m)|E(m1, . . . , mr ).
• fr (n) := E(n,
. . . , n) (the diagonal) is
| {z }
r
the multiplicative function determined by
fr (pa) = (p − 1)p(r−1)(a−1)hr (p),
p prime, a ≥ 1.
One more generalization of the Euler totient function:
in particular f2(n) = ϕ(n).
I called fr (n) (by certain historical reasons)
the Rademacher–Brauer totient.
27-a
Non-vanishing conditions for E(m1, . . . , mr )
Recall:
|Epio(π1(Ω), Cℓ)| = m2g · ϕ2g (ℓ/m) · E(m1, . . . , mr )
(g; m ; : : : ; mr); where all mj 2;
Orb(S =C`); ` 2; iff its parameterssatisfy
Corollary. 1. An orbifold
exists and belongs to
the Riemann–Hurwitz condition
1
2
2 =
`
2
2g
r
P
j =1
1
1
mj
2g (`=m) and E (m1; : : : ; mr ) do not vanish.
2.
2g (`=m) = 0 iff
(e1) m - ` [by definition, any f (n) := 0 for a non-integer argument] or
(e2) g = 0 and ` > m.
3. E (m1; : : : ; mr ) = 0 iff
(e3) sp = 1 for some odd prime pjm or
(e4) 2jm and s2 is odd. [s2:= the multiplicity of the highest 2-power]
and both
(e3) & (e4) are equivalent to Harvey’s conditions (1966) on
branching data of finite cyclic groups acting on Riemann surfaces.
Unexpected enumerative refinement.
28
Non-vanishing conditions for E(m1, . . . , mr )
Recall:
|Epio(π1(Ω), Cℓ)| = m2g · ϕ2g (ℓ/m) · E(m1, . . . , mr )
Corollary. 1. An orbifold Ω(g; m1, . . . , mr ), where all mj ≥ 2,
exists and belongs to Orb(Sγ /Cℓ), ℓ ≥ 2, iff its parameters satisfy
the Riemann–Hurwitz condition
(
r (
))
∑
1
2 − 2γ = ℓ 2 − 2g −
1 − mj
j=1
and both ϕ2g (ℓ/m) and E(m1, . . . , mr ) do not vanish.
2.
ϕ2g (ℓ/m) = 0 iff
(e1) m - ℓ [by definition, any f (n) := 0 for a non-integer argument] or
(e2) g = 0 and ℓ > m.
(
=1
2j
)=0
3. E m1; : : : ; mr
iff
(e3) sp
for some odd prime p m or
(e4) m and s2 is odd. [s2:= the multiplicity of the highest 2-power]
j
(e3) & (e4) are equivalent to Harvey’s conditions (1966) on
branching data of finite cyclic groups acting on Riemann surfaces.
Unexpected enumerative refinement.
28-a
Non-vanishing conditions for E(m1, . . . , mr )
Recall:
|Epio(π1(Ω), Cℓ)| = m2g · ϕ2g (ℓ/m) · E(m1, . . . , mr )
Corollary. 1. An orbifold Ω(g; m1, . . . , mr ), where all mj ≥ 2,
exists and belongs to Orb(Sγ /Cℓ), ℓ ≥ 2, iff its parameters satisfy
the Riemann–Hurwitz condition
(
r (
))
∑
1
2 − 2γ = ℓ 2 − 2g −
1 − mj
j=1
and both ϕ2g (ℓ/m) and E(m1, . . . , mr ) do not vanish.
2.
ϕ2g (ℓ/m) = 0 iff
(e1) m - ℓ [by definition, any f (n) := 0 for a non-integer argument] or
(e2) g = 0 and ℓ > m.
3. E(m1, . . . , mr ) = 0 iff
(e3) sp = 1 for some odd prime p|m or
(e4) 2|m and s2 is odd. [s2:= the multiplicity of the highest 2-power]
• (e3) & (e4) are equivalent to Harvey’s conditions (1966) on
branching data of finite cyclic groups acting on Riemann surfaces.
Unexpected enumerative refinement.
28-b
Toth’s summation formula
A compact number-theoretic representation:
Theorem [L´
aszl´
o T´
oth, 2011].
(m )
( mr )
d1 · · · dr
1
E(m1, . . . , mr ) =
µ
···µ
.
LCM(d1 , . . . , dr )
d
d
r
1
d1 |m1,...,dr |mr
∑
Further generalizations . . .
[L.T´
oth, 2014]: an explicit formula for the generalized average
Es = Es(m1, . . . , mr ) :=
1
m
∑
ms+1 k=1
kscm1 (k) · · · cmr (k)
(so that E0 = E).
29
Concluding remark: what are (generalized) totients?
• A lot of arithmetic functions (and their families) are called
totients. Why? There is no generally accepted precise definition.
Etymology: http://mathforum.org/kb/message.jspa?messageID=65511
J.Sylvester [1879] for Euler’s : from Latin “totiens” “that many”
(similarly to “quotiens” “how many”). Totients are often enumerators.
Tentative definition. An arithmetic function f (n) is called
a totient iff it is multiplicative and the values
f p ; f p2 ; f p3 ,. . .
() ( ) ( )
form a geometric progression for each prime p.
Suggested (in an equivalent form) by R.Vaidyanathaswamy
in the classical paper [The theory of multiplicative arithmetic
functions, Trans. AMS, 1931]. All totient functionds are such!
It makes sense to restrict this definition: non-completely
multiplicative functions with non-negative integer values. . .
30
Concluding remark: what are (generalized) totients?
• A lot of arithmetic functions (and their families) are called
totients. Why? There is no generally accepted precise definition.
• Etymology: http://mathforum.org/kb/message.jspa?messageID=65511
J.Sylvester [1879] for Euler’s ϕ: from Latin “totiens” ≈“that many”
(similarly to “quotiens” ≈“how many”). Totients are often enumerators.
Tentative definition. An arithmetic function f (n) is called
a totient iff it is multiplicative and the values
f p ; f p2 ; f p3 ,. . .
() ( ) ( )
form a geometric progression for each prime p.
Suggested (in an equivalent form) by R.Vaidyanathaswamy
in the classical paper [The theory of multiplicative arithmetic
functions, Trans. AMS, 1931]. All totient functionds are such!
It makes sense to restrict this definition: non-completely
multiplicative functions with non-negative integer values. . .
30-a
Concluding remark: what are (generalized) totients?
• A lot of arithmetic functions (and their families) are called
totients. Why? There is no generally accepted precise definition.
• Etymology: http://mathforum.org/kb/message.jspa?messageID=65511
J.Sylvester [1879] for Euler’s ϕ: from Latin “totiens” ≈“that many”
(similarly to “quotiens” ≈“how many”). Totients are often enumerators.
• Tentative definition. An arithmetic function f (n) is called
a totient iff it is multiplicative and the values
f (p), f (p2), f (p3),. . .
form a geometric progression for each prime p.
Suggested (in an equivalent form) by R.Vaidyanathaswamy
in the classical paper [The theory of multiplicative arithmetic
functions, Trans. AMS, 1931]. All totient functionds are such!
It makes sense to restrict this definition: non-completely
multiplicative functions with non-negative integer values. . .
30-b
Concluding remark: what are (generalized) totients?
• A lot of arithmetic functions (and their families) are called
totients. Why? There is no generally accepted precise definition.
• Etymology: http://mathforum.org/kb/message.jspa?messageID=65511
J.Sylvester [1879] for Euler’s ϕ: from Latin “totiens” ≈“that many”
(similarly to “quotiens” ≈“how many”). Totients are often enumerators.
• Tentative definition. An arithmetic function f (n) is called
a totient iff it is multiplicative and the values
f (p), f (p2), f (p3),. . .
form a geometric progression for each prime p.
• Suggested (in an equivalent form) by R.Vaidyanathaswamy
in the classical paper [The theory of multiplicative arithmetic
functions, Trans. AMS, 1931]. All totient functionds are such!
• It makes sense to restrict this definition: non-completely
multiplicative functions with non-negative integer values . . .
30-c
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