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Phrases and phrasal categories
Holger Diessel
holger.diessel@uni-jena.de
Phrase structure
Syntactic structure is hierarchical.
S
VP
PP
VP
N
John
NP
NP
NP
V
kissed
DET
N
P
DET
N
a
girl
on
the
street.
Phrase structure tests
• Pronominalization
He kissed her (over) there.
• Movement
On the street John kissed the girl.
• Coordination
John kissed the girl and her friend on the street.
• Sentence fragment
Where did John kiss the girl? On the street.
• Gapping
John kissed the girl on the street, did he __ ?
Phrase structure
S
VP
VP
VP
PP
PP
NP
NP
NP
DET
N
The
man
AUX
will
V
P
DET
N
talk
to
the
boy
P DET
in
the
N
car.
Phrase structure
S
VP
VP
PP
NP
PP
NP
NP
NP
DET
N
The
man
AUX
will
V
P
DET
N
talk
to
the
boy
P DET
in
the
N
car.
NP
mother node
NP
PP
sister nodes
NP
NP
sister nodes
DET
a
N
friend
P DET
N
of
father
head of NP
my
PP
PP
NP
PP
NP
NP
DET N
the room
P DET N
of my sister
head of PP
P
in
Immediate constituents
AP
AP
AP
PP
NP
A
ADV
very happy
P
DET N
about the result
head of AP
VP
VP
VP
PP
NP
NP
V
AUX
was thinking
P
of
head of VP
DET A
a
cold
N
beer
Phrase structure rules
S
→
NP VP
NP
→
(DET) (A) N (PP)
PP
→
P NP
VP
→
V (NP) (PP)
AP
→
(ADV) A
Phrase structure
Draw tree diagrams
1. Someone must clean the dishes after the party.
2. Peter talked to him and Jack called Jane.
3. They helped each other a long time ago.
4. The boy saw the man with the telescope.
5. A friend of mine wants to help us.
6. I believe that John gave me the ball.
Phrase structure
S
VP
VP
PP
VP
PRO
NP
NP
NP
AUX
Someone must
V
DET
clean the
N
P
dishes after
DET
the
N
party.
Phrase structure
S
S
S
VP
VP
PP
N
Peter
NP
NP
NP
NP
V
P
PRO CONJ N
talked
to
him
and
V
N
Jack called Jane.
Phrase structure
S
VP
PP
VP
They
NP
NP
NP
PRO
NP
V
PRO
DET
A
helped
each other
a
long
N
P
time ago.
Phrase structure
S
VP
VP
The
NP
NP
NP
DET
PP
N
V
DET
N
P
DET
boy
saw
the
man
with
the
N
telescope.
Phrase structure
S
VP
PP
PP
DET
The
NP
NP
NP
N
V
DET
N
P
DET
boy
saw
the
man
with
the
N
telescope.
Phrase structure
S
VP
NP
VPSUB
VP
PP
NP
DET
A
NP
NP
N
friend
P PRO
of
mine
V
INF
wants to
V
PRO
help
us.
Phrase structure
S
VP
SSUB
S
VP
NP
PRO
I
NP
NP
V
believe
CONJ
that
N
John
V
NP
PRO DET N
gave me
the
ball.
Phrase structure rules
S
→
NP VP
NP
→
(DET) (A) N (PP)
PP
→
P NP
VP
→
V (NP) (PP)
AP
→
(ADV) A
VP
→
XSUB
VPSUB
→
INF VP
1/--pages
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