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360 /#5
rogori iyo Zveli da rogori iqneba axali weli?
modi, gadavkveToT rame
damfuZneblebi
„inteleqtuali ekonomistebi“
giorgi miqanaZe
malxaz xazarbegiSvili
dakmayofildeba Tu ara studentTa moTxovnebi
saxelmwifo universitetSi
redaqtori
saqarTvelo „duing biznesis“ reitingSi
sofio kaWarava
momavlis bizneslideri
teqnikuri uzrunvelyofa
islamuri bankingi
beqa qvarcxava
levan beglariSvili
rogor iqmneba axalgazrduli xelovneba?
saavtoro jgufi
anano muqaTariZe
givi sixaruliZe
giorgi CubiniZe
eTo oCiauri
elene lobJaniZe
Tabuka cimintia
TamTa kaWaxiZe
TamTa qavTaraSvili
Tornike razmaZe
mariam Citauri
mariam yufaraZe
mariam nozaZe
mariam xuciSvili
nini mWedliSvili
niniko mexaSiSvili
neli SavlaZe
sofio kaWarava
fiqria mamacaSvili
Sorena xalvaSi
xatia Tordua
nata jalaRonia
qarTuli musikaluri tendenciebi
„rok musika geubneba, rom yvelaferi ar aris
kargad, Tumca Sen SegiZlia Secvalo“
legendebi paliastomze
ra enaze metyvelebs sxeuli
brendebi, romlebmac sityvebis mniSvneloba miiRes
poeziis xarisxi da mkiTxvelis gemovneba
poezia CemTvis mRvrie mdinarea, sadac yoveldRe
vixrCobi
mamakaci VS qali
qaluri ekonomika
axali weli da Zveli tradiciebi
ucnauri tradiciebiT savse axali weli msoflioSi
saaxalwlo kreativi reklamaSi
naZvis xis istoria
saidan gaCnda santa klausi
,,Apple” dRiTidRe gvaocebs
Cemi roboti
teqnologiuri progresi
ucnauri dazRveva
Cven SevcvliT!
3
qarTveli
qalis
silamazis
saidumlo
nino WavWavaZis portreti
0
#5/360
4
kvali 180 gradusiT ukan
qarTveli qalis
silamazis saidumlo
giorgi CubiniZe
demis baRSi binadrobda erTi kaci da
erTi qali. sxva yvelaferi maT emorCileboda... dro gadioda da qalis ambiciebic izrdeboda, dadgenil wesebs
ar emorCileboda. „codva“ mwifdeboda, „codva“ am qalma mowyvita da daagemovna.
RmerTma daswyevla qali, gandevna edemis baRidan Tavis meuRlesTan erTad da am droidan
iwyeba misi arseboba, rogorc mokvdavisa.
dRes qali mokvdavia, msoflios aqtiuri
wevria miuxedavad imisa, rom warsulSi misi
uflebebi izRudeboda. magram axla yovelive
istorias Cabarda da qali sazogadoebis srulfasovani wevri gaxda. saqarTveloSi qali yovelTvis iyo sazogadoebis aqtiuri wevri. qali
dRes silamazis, sinazisa da siyvarulis simboloa. qalis qandakebebs gansakuTrebuli sinaziT aqandakebdnen xelovanebi. eTayvanebodnen maT kerpebs da swiravdnen Sesawiravs.
qarTveli qali msoflios TvalSi ucxo xili
iyo. is gansxvavebuli, gamorCeuli da amoucnobi silamaziT gamoirCeoda ucxoel stumarTa
TvalSi. Tu evropaSi qalis uflebebi izRudeboda da misi ganaTleba ar SeiZleboda, saqarTveloSi ganaTlebas umTavresad qalebis TaosnobiT iZendnen.
XVII saukunis pirveli naxevris mogzauri
arqanjelo lamberti saqarTveloSi wera-kiTxvis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb aRniSnavda: ,,qarTuli wera-kiTxva dRes sul mospobili iqneboda
aq, rom qalebs ar SeenaxaT igi. Tu visme unda
kiTxva Seiswavlos, unda romelsame qals miebaros saswavleblad“. aSkara faqtia, rom im
drois saqarTveloSi mamakacebi far-xanjliT
ibrZodnen da SeuZlebeli iyo qaRaldisa da
kalmis daWera xelSi. amitom qarTuli werakiTxva qalebis Sesanaxi gaxda. qarTveli mefis
Teimuraz pirvelis dedis, qeTevan dedoflis,
kalams ekuTvnis ,,anbanTa qeba“.
e
0
360 /#5
uryev wesad iyo dadebuli, rom qals dabadebis dRidanve sxva mziTevTa Soris Sinaur
biblioTekasac atandnen, romelSic pirveli
adgili ,,vefxistyaosans“ eWira.
1843 wels Tbilisis keTilSobil qalTa instituti inaxula germanelma mogzaurma avgust
haksthauzenma da Tavis wignSi Cawera, TbilisSi amJamad ukve arsebobs didi pansioni, sadac
laparakoben qarTveli qaliSvilebi frangulad da originalSi kiTxuloben balzakis romanebso.
amrigad, Zvel saqarTveloSi qarTveli
qalebi udidesi pativiscemiTa da ganaTlebis
maRali doniT gamoirCeodnen. es yovelive ki
xels ar uSlida im faqts, rom isini lamazebic yofiliyvnen da msoflios aRfrTovaneba
da mowoneba daemsaxurebinaT. magaliTad, XVII
saukunis sparsi istorikosi najim hamadaneli
aRniSnavda: ,,Tbiliseli qalebi lamazni da mSvenierebiT aRsavseni arian“. gamoCenili poeti
vagifi Tavis leqsebSi xotbas asxams uCadro
lamaz saxeebs, romelic qarTvel qalebs aqvT.
1621 wels romaeli misioneris faiceli dominikianis mier gamocemul wignSi ,,saqarTvelos
samefoTa Sesaxeb“ vkiTxulobT: ,,qarTveli mandilosnebi tanmaRali da mSvenieri moyvanilobisani arian. cxenosnobac ician, sanadirod mimino dahyavT xeliT, Tan daaqvT mSvild-isari da
kaparWi“.
cnobil frang mogzaurs Jan Sardens saqarTveloSi mogzaurobis Semdeg aRfrTovanebuls
dauweria: ,,qarTvelebis tomi umSvenieresia
aRmosavleTSi da SemiZlia vTqva - mTels msoflioSi. iq ar minaxavs erTi cudi saxis qali an
kaci. angeloziviT lamazebic bevri Semxvedria. qalebis umetesoba bunebas iseTi sikekluciT dausaCuqrebia, rom sxvas aseTs versad
SexvdebiT. SeuZlebelia, Tvali mohkraT iqaur
qals da ar SegiyvardeT. ar SeiZleba, daxatoT
5
kvali 180 gradusiT ukan
qarTveli qalis saxesa da tanadobaze umSvenieresi saxe da
tanadoba. qarTveli qalebi arian sakvirvelad agebulni da
welSi gasaocrad wvrilni, bunebiT metad niWierni, maxvili
gonebisani, zrdilni, Tavazianni, Tavmomwoneni. amasTanave,
amayni da ampartavanni. maT didad mosiyvarule guli aqvT“.
,,mSvenierTa savanes” uwodebs saqarTvelos kaTolike
mRvdeli ioseb dela porti, romelmac 1768 wels imogzaura
saqarTveloSi.
qarTveli qalis qeba-didebas Tu SevajameT, unda vTqvaT,
rom maT silamazesTan erTad ucxoeli misionerebi xazs usvamen maT ganaTlebas. erTi sityviT, es ori ram Zvelad erTmaneTs xels ar uSlida da gaugebaria, ratom uSlis xels
erTmaneTs Tanamedrove saqarTveloSi silamaze da ganaTleba. Zvelad qalis silamaze mis wignierebaSic gamoixateboda
dRes ki mxolod mis CacmulobaSi. silamaze RvTis mier boZebuli madlia da mis flobasTan erTad qals didi pasuxismgeblobac akisria. Tu lamazi xar, silamaze codniTac unda
gaiRrmavo, silamaze unda daimsaxuro da mxolod maSin moipoveb namdvil silamazes, romelic mere kargad unda Semoso
da qarTveli qalis istoriul rolic aRdgeba. ganaTleba
kvlav saqarTvelos savizito baraTi gaxdeba.
~
ratom uSlis xels
erTmaneTs Tanamedrove
saqarTveloSi silamaze da
ganaTleba? silamaze RvTis
mier boZebuli madlia da
mis flobasTan erTad qals
didi pasuxismgeblobac
akisria
`
0
#5/360
6
Cveni problema
ratom ar vzrunavT garemoze
giorgi CubiniZe
0
360 /#5
7
Cveni problema
anqanebi midian, modian. arc gamvlels
epuebian da arc gamomvlels, cotaTi
policiis danaxvis eSiniaT, ramdenime
jarimasac itanen da kvlav midian...
mosaxleobas ar sWirdeba qalaqis gamwvaneba komfortis gareSe. ra parkia Tu sufTa
haeridan kafe-barSi an bavSvTa gasarTob centrSi ar Seirbine. iq xom avtosadgomic kargi
da mosaxerxebelia im mSoblebis gasaCereblad,
romlebic sakuTari avtomobilebiT gadaadgildebian. ganviTarebuli infrastruqtura
ufro kargia, qveyana mdidaria da fulic bevria. farTi didia saWiro, saxlSi xom komforti
aucilebelia, amisTvis ki e.w. saSrobi unda mivuerTo samzareulos da farTic didi gamoCndeba.
ratomRac yvelas erTi ram aviwydeba (aviwydeba saxelmwifos, xrdasrul xalxs da bavSvebsac ki), rom janmrTeli cxovreba yvelaze
mniSvnelovania. janmrTeloba ki mxolod varjiSi, auzze siaruli da cxovrebis jansaRi wesis
dacva araa. janmrTeloba sufTa garemoa. garemo, romelsac adamiani nakleb zians ayenebs da
ar abinZurebs. SeiZleba dabinZureba iyos bunebrivi da anTropogenuri. bunebrivi dabinZurebis mizezi katastrofebia, anTropogenurisa
ki adamianis saqmianobis Sedegi. XX saukunis 50iani wlebidan mecnierul-teqnikuri progresis
Sedegad mkveTrad igrZnoba adamianis negatiuri zemoqmedeba garemomcvel bunebaze. bolo
saukunis manZilze msoflios mosaxleoba daaxloebiT 3,5-jer gaizarda.
mosaxleobis ricxovnobis mateba iwvevs
transportis zrdas, es ukanaskneli ki bunebrivi resursebis gadametebul xarjvas da Sedegad haeris, okeanuri da mtknari wylebis, niadagebis dabinZurebas viRebT. Tumca, rac metia
mosaxleoba, miT meti raodenobiT grovdeba samrewvelo da sayofacxovrebo narCeni, romelic
an unda gadamuSavdes an gauvnebelyofil iqnes,
winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi safrTxe Seeqmneba yvela
cocxal organizms, maT Soris adamiansac. Cvens
qveyanaSi nagavi didi popularobiT sargeblobs
da is faqti, rom adamianis janmrTelobaze cudad moqmedebs meorexarisxovania.
xSirad
komerciuli
da
momsaxurebis
obieqtebi ixsneba parkebSi an maT mimdebare
teritoriaze. Cven xom yvelaferSi fulis suni
gvinda vigrZnoT da konforts garToba unda Se-
m
vuTavsoT. aqac udides problemas vawydebiT da
es faqti saqarTvelos qalaqebSi arsebul isedac mcire mwvane safars kidev metad amcirebs.
aRniSnul obieqtebTan Cndeba transportis nakadebi da sadgomebi, rac abinZurebs haers, warmoSobs xmaursa da narCenebs. atmosferos dabinZureba zrdis gul-sisxlZarRvTa da nervul
sistemaTa daavadebebs. gaeros monacemebiT, atmosferos dabinZurebis Sedegad sasunTqi gzebis da filtvebis daavadebebis simsivneebis Sedegad msoflioSi yovelwliurad 2,7 mln. kaci
iRupeba.
maSasadame, Tu aseTi katastrofuli Sedegi
miiReba garemos anTropogenuri dabinZurebis
Sedegad, logikuria davsvaT kiTxava - ratom
vabinZurebT garemos? Tu gamonabolqvis problemas ver aRmovfxvriT, Tu parkebSi momsaxurebis obieqtebis Senebas ar SevwyvetT is mainc
gavakeToT, rac SegviZlia. nu davagdebT nagavs quCaSi, roca Cvens gverdiT ganTavsebulia
nagvis urna. gavaCeroT, batonebo, manqanebi da
fanjridan nagvis gadagdebis nacvlad movaTavsoT es gamouyenebeli ram saWiro adgilas! amisTvis mxolod manqanis karis gaRebaa saWiro da ar
unda zedmeti „vai-viSi“. zogjer yvelafers isev
Cven, adamianebi, varTulebT. Cvenve viTxriT win
ormos da vWriT im tots, romelzec vzivarT.
ver vxvdebiT, rom TiToeuli CasunTquli haeri
Cveni momavali, Cveni janmrTelobaa.
qalaqebSi erT-erTi mniSvnelovani ekologiuri problemaa SenobebSi haeris dabinZureba, romlebic ZiriTadad gamowveulia bunebriv
airsa da sxva sawvavze momuSave individualuri
gamaTboblebis gamoyenebiT. Senobebis dabali
Tboefeqturoba xels uwyobs sawvavis Rarib
moxmarebas, rac zrdis Senobebis Sida dabinZurebas. swored am dabinZurebis Tavidan asacileblad arsebobs Cvens sacxovrebel korpusebSi is saSrobebi, romlebic ase zrdis Cveni binis
farTs. garemos uaryofiT zemoqmedebaSi Cvens
mimarT Cvenve varT damnaSaveni. xSirad ki damnaSaved buneba gamogvyavs da gvikvirs, ratom
xdeba amdeni bunebrivi katastrofa, ratom imata daavadebaTa ricxvma. yovelTvis gvaxsovdes,
rom Tu gvsurs janmrTeli cxovreba, ar unda
gadaveRoboT bunebas. buneba unda SemovuSvaT
CvenSi da davicvaT is. misTvis zrunva Cveni erTerTi pirveli mizani unda iyos, Tu rasakvirvelia, gvsurs didxans da bednierad cxovreba.
0
#5/360
8
memkvidreoba
mziani Ramea - male gaTendeba
giorgi CubiniZe
anamedrove epoqis adamianebi bevrs
vaSavebT, bevr kargsac vakeTebT, Tanamedroveobas yurs vugdebT da aqtiurad viyurebiT momavlisken. TiTqos
gvinda, yoveldRiurobisgan daRlil
sulSi imedi gagviCndes, es imedi momavalSi vipovoT da xsna raRac axalSi veZioT.
„mizani amarTlebs saSualebebs“ aris aseTi
fraza, Tumca, Cemi azriT, mizansac gaaCnia da saSualebebsac. pesimist adamianebs mizani TiTqos
ekargebaT, optimistebi gamudmebiT axal miznebs
isaxaven da iqiTken midian. am sayovelTao qaosSi
aris adamiani, romelsac SeuZlia Cagvisaxos imedi, rwmena da naTeli momavlisTvis brZolis Jini.
es pirovneba sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqi, uwmidesi da unetaresi, mcxeTa-Tbilisis
mTavarepiskoposi da biWvinTisa da cum-afxazeTis
mitropoliti, ilia II-a.
qarTvelebisTvis XX saukune uamravi problemiT daiwyo: ar gvqonda damoukidebloba, arc
politikuri da arc saeklesio; ar gvqonda imedi,
radgan 1907 wels mogvikles saqarTvelos mtrebma. es imedi ilia WavWavaZe iyo. magram borotebas
isev sikeTe jobnida da male nanatri wuTebic dadga, saqarTvelos eklesiam avtokefalia (TavisTavadoba) gamoacxada da amieridan saqarTvelos
T
0
360 /#5
eklesia egzarqosis nacvlad kaTolikos-patriarqs unda emarTa. pirvel kaTalikosad kirion II
airCies. tanjviT da wamebiT icvlebodnen mas Semdeg patriarqebi, uZlebdnen dros, romelic maT
moWyletas da daxrCobas cdilobda. kirionis
Semdeg saqarTvelos eklesiis saWeTmpyroblebi
iyvnen uwmidesni: leonide oqropiriZe, ambrosi
xelaia, qristefore III (cicqiSvili), kalistrate
cincaZe, melqisedek III (fxalaZe), efrem II, daviT V.
1977 wels gardaicvala sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqi daviT V. wmida sinodma axal
kaTolikos-patriarqad 23 dekembers airCia cxumafxazeTis mitropoliti ilia (SiolaSvili). 25
dekembers sveticxovlis sapatriarqo taZarSi
moxda sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos patriarqis, uwmidesisa da unetaresis ilia II-is aRsaydreba.
qarTul komunistur sivrceSi, sadac mkvdari
iyo yovelgvari imedi da rwmena naTeli momavlisa, gamoCnda axali naTeli wertili patriarqis
saxiT. qarTvelebsa da Cveni dedaqalaqis mcxovreblebs gauCndaT rwmena da sasoeba, romelic daexmara sruliad saqarTvelos gadaelaxa yovelgvari
dabrkoleba damoukideblobisken. miuxedavad imisa, rom kirionis Semdgom saqarTvelos eklesia
damoukidebeli iyo, es ar iyo msoflio sapatri-
9
memkvidreoba
~
am sayovelTao qaosSi
aris adamiani, romelsac
SeuZlia Cagvisaxos
imedi, rwmena da naTeli
momavlisTvis brZolis
Jini. es pirovneba
sruliad saqarTvelos
kaTolikos-patriarqi,
uwmidesi da unetaresi,
mcxeTa-Tbilisis
mTavarepiskoposi da
biWvinTisa da cxumafxazeTis mitropoliti,
ilia II-a
`
arqosgan oficialurad damtkicebuli, ilia II–is
damsaxurebiT swored 90-ian wlebSi msoflio sapatriarqom scno vaxtang gorgaslis dros miRebuli saqarTvelos avtokefalia. patriarqis RvawliT Caeyara safuZveli wmida samebis sakaTedro
taZris mSeneblobas da mis wiaRSi mravali sikeTe
ganxorcielda. sapatriarqom iTava axalgazrduli organizaciebis ganviTareba, jansaRi cxovrebis wesis danergva. sapatriarqosTan arsebuli
axalgazrduli moZraoba ,,daviTiannis“ uSualo
organizebiT ewyoba msvlelobebi, 100 000 wmida
mowamis saxelze, sportuli Tu inteleqtualuri
TamaSebi, yovelive es patriarqis damsaxurebaa. am
drois manZilze gamravldnen sasuliero pirebi,
aSenda taZrebi, ganaxlda Zveli da axalgazrdoba
kidev ufro dauaxlovda ufals.
2012 wlis 25 dekembers patriarqs aRsaydrebi-
dan 35 weli Seusrulda, xolo mRvdelmTavrobidan 50, 2013 wlis 4 ianvars ki – dabadebidan 80
weli. es didebuli zeimia, radgan Cven momswre
varT patriarqis cxovrebis da moRvaweobisa.
Cven vuerTdebiT sruliad saqarTvelos zeims
da vulocavT saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqs,
uwmidessa da unetaress iubiles. dRegrZelobas
da janmrTelobas vusurvebT. dae, male gvecxovros erTian saqarTveloSi, asrulebodes patriarqs es diadi survili da saqarTvelos Zlierebas
yvela erTad SevegeboT!
axla mziani Ramea, rogorc patriarqi xSirad
gvauwyebs xolme da male gaTendeba, gaTendeba is
dRe, romelsac gulis siRrmeSi yvela veliT, yvelas gvsurs sinaTle SemovuSvaT sulSi da naTeli
momavlis momswreni viyoT. manamde ki erTad vilocoT da gvjerodes erTmaneTis.
0
#5/360
10
axalgazrduli politika
ratom Txridnen saflavebs?
giorgi CubiniZe
ro ise icvleba Zirfesvianad Txris warsulis fesvebs da axal nergebs rgavs momavlis velze. warsulis adamianebi iRupebian, zogi Rirseulad,
zogic uRirsad, magram am wuTisoflis cas aravin gamokerebia. kargi Tu cudi yvela erT saerTo savaneSi, imqveyniur sasufevelSi, gadabargebula. ori
saqarTvelo arsebobs, miwis zeda da miwis qveda. adamianTa
naklebobas arcerTi ganicdis. yovel mxares Tavisi arsebobis mizezi aqvs, erTi gansxvaveba ki SesamCnevia: im qveynad
sazRvrebi ar arsebobs, am qveynad ki, cudi politikis wyalobiT, sazRvrebi jerac darRveulia.
kargi da cudi adamianebi yvela qveyanasa da droSi arsebobdnen. cud adamianebs gardacvalebis Semdeg sadRac daflavdnen da amiT mTavrdeboda yvelaferi. karg adamianebs
romelime sasaflaoze pativiT dakrZalavdnen da momgonebelic ar asvenebdaT yovel aRdgoma dRes Tu sxva dResaswaulze. metad gamorCeul adamianebs ki qveynis yvelaze cnobil da mniSvnelovan samarxebSi krZalavdnen.
sazogado moRvaweTa panTeonebi msoflios mraval qveyanaSia. maTi formireba XVIII saukuneSi daiwyo evropis sxvadasxva qveyanaSi. safrangeTSi burJuaziuli revoluciis
periodSi Seiqmna panTeoni da iq marati, volteri, Jan-Jak
ruso, viqtor hiugo da sxvebi dakrZales. londonSi, vensminsteris saabatoSi ganisveneben isaak niutoni, Carlz dik-
d
0
360 /#5
ensi da sxva gamoCenili moRvaweebi. rogorc yovelTvis xdeboda xolme, evropuli politika da idealebi saqarTveloSi
cota mogvianebiT SemoiWra da mTawmindis sasaflaomac axali funqcia miiRo. aq adre erTi Cveulebrivi sasaflao iyo,
sadac mravali wlis win griboedovi dakrZales. mas Semdeg
sxva cnobili pirovnebebic dakrZales, iseTebi, rogorebic iyvnen ilia WavWavaZe, dimitri yifiani da sxvebi. Tumca
qveynis mTavari sasaflaos statusi mTawmindis sasaflaom
1929 wels, griboedovis gardacvalebis 100 wlis Tavze, miiRo. gadawyda, rom swored mTawmindaze unda gaekeTebinaT
sazogado moRvaweTa panTeoni. didubis panTeoni gacilebiT
adre iyo sazogado moRvaweTa gansasvenebeli, Tumca komunistur epoqaSi nomer pirveli sasaflaos statusi man mTawmindis panTeons dauTmo da aq gaisma pirveli sityva sasaflaos istoriaSi. sityvas sityva mohyva da ase ametyvelda
politikaze (oRond komunistur epoqaze) es mSvidi sulTa
sacxovrisi.
komunistebma Tu veraferi daakles ilia WavWavaZes
da ver Sebedes misi wminda miwidan amoTxra da gadasveneba, sxva gziT iZies Suri erovnuli TviTmyofadobis ilias
mier dacvisTvis. kerZod, ilias misive mkvlelebi miuwvines
gverdiT, rogorebic iyvnen filipe maxaraZe, mixa cxakaia,
silibistro Todria. saocaria, rogor emTxveva erTmaneTs Zeglebis mogzauroba da saflavebis adgilsamyofelis
Secvla. gansxvaveba erTia, Tu Zegls turistebis mozidva
mainc SeuZlia, ilia WavWavaZis saflavis gverdiT filipe
maxaraZes araferi esaqmeba. mas Semdeg grZeldeboda diadi
komunizmis mSeneblebis saflavebis gaTxra mTawmindaze da
maTi Rvawlis saqveynod gacxadeba. gardacvlilTa saxelebs
saqarTvelos qalaqebs arqmevdnen, adidebdnen, gvirgvinebiT
mosavdnen. aSenebdnen komunizms da angrevdnen qarTvelobas,
qarTul sulsa da guls.
politikaze mosaubre saflavebma RaRadi daiwyes da imdeni iRaRades sanam am wuTisofelSi ar Seirya maTi naSenebi wiTeli Senoba da saZirkveli samudamod ar gamoecala.
swored amitom daiwyes saflavebis amoTxra, afeTqeba da
darbeva damoukidebeli saqarTvelos Svilebma, Tumca rac
unda engriaT, mainc ver SeZlebdnen amoefxikaT saqarTvelodan komunizmis nangrevebi. dRes mTawmindis panTeonSi aRar
ganisveneben „amxanagi mSromelebi“, samagierod ganisvenebs
didi beladis stalinis deda, keke juRaSvili, Tumca amis
araferi maqvs sawinaaRmdego iseve, rogorc ar msurs Zeglebis aqeT-iqiT „mogzauroba“. komunistebisTvis gaWril
saflavebSi dRes ganisveneben solomon dodaSvili, veriko anjafariZe, qaquca ColoyaSvili, zviad gamsaxurdia da
sxva diadi pirovnebebi. am panTeonSi surdaT noe Jordanias
levilis(safrangeTi) qarTvelTa sasaflaodan gadmosveneba,
Tumca ilia WavWavaZis gverdiT verc mas dakrZalaven. mizezebi saqarTvelos istoriis CaxlarTul furclebSi veZioT
da misi avkargianobis gamokvleva istorias mivandoT.
90-iani wlebis Semdeg aRar arsebobs „nostalgiuri“ wiTeli namgali, aRar arsebobs „didebuli“ uro, Tumca arseboben adamianebi da arsebobs istoriis kuTvnili gayviTlebuli furclebi da gaSavebuli fotoebi. dRes mTawmindis
sasaflao kvlav mdumarea, rogorc 1800-ian wlebSi. aRar
borgaven aforiaqebuli micvalebulebi, TiTqos dawynarda miwis zeda da qveda saqarTvelo, Tumca ki politikis
xeli yvelgan da yvelaferSi urevia, im saflavis qvebSic ki,
romelic Cvens mdumare saflavebzea wamoskupebuli. es ukve
istoriis kuTvnilebaa da saflavTa „siaruli“ kvlav Cveni
sazogadoebis damsaxurebaa.
axalgazrduli politika
iqrebi, ocnebebi, survilebi adamianebs gonebas
umRvrebs, suls uforiaqebs, rogorc Rvino daduRebamde. aduRebuli goneba survilebs emorCileba, imas akeTebs, rasac instiqti ubiZgebs da
Secdomebic imatebs. fiqrebSi CaZiruli goneba
galias ikeTebs, SigniT iketeba da ocnebobs Tavisuflebaze
da arc ki icis, rom es Tavisufleba Tavad SeizRuda, daimona da daatyveva.
problemebi gauTavebelia yvela drosa da epoqaSi. mizezi
mravalia da dausrulebeli, socialuri Tu, ubralod, Sinagani. problema axlavs Tavisuflebis SezRudvas, survilebis
CaxSobas. sxeuli ki, romelic Cveni sulieri samyaros WurWelia, ireklavs im gancdebs, romelic CvenSi trialebs. adamianis Tvalebi sulis sarkea, iq Cans Cveni naklic da dadebiTi
mxarec. iq irekleba Cveni mzera, erTi „me“ erkineba meores
da am WidilSi saxidan Rimili qreba.
sad midis saxidan Cveni Rimili? sadRac usasrulod
ikargeba, gvemSvidobeba. qalaqis quCebSi gasuls iseTi
grZnoba geufleba, TiTqos yvela gabrazebulia, yvela nawyenia. robotad naqcevi sazogadoeba - punqtidan - punqtamde
gadaadgildeba, emociebi nulia da martiv amocanaSi daismis
kiTxva: ratom ar gvaqvs Rimili saxeze? pasuxi Cvens TavSia
saZiebeli. kidev mravali problemaa sazogadoebaSi. yvelgan
uxasiaToba, ukmexi pasuxi da jibri. maRaziaSi Sesuli kargad
gamoilanZRebi uxasiaTo gamyidvelisgan. avtobusSi asuls
kontroliori ise uxeSad mogTxovs bileTs, TiTqos misi vali
gqondes an „wina cxovrebaSi mamis mkvleli iyavi“. Rimilze da
Tavazian moTxovnaze aq laparakic zedmetia. Rimili metros
sadgurebSi warmoudgenelia. kvlav lanZRva da uxeSi, ukmexi
pasuxebi Warbobs. albaT uhaerobis bralia. kidev ramdeni
Rimili gvaklia, vin mosTvlis? Zneli saTqmelia.
rac Seexeba televiziebs, iqac katastrofuli situaciaa. mudam cinizmi da usamarTlobis suni trialebs.
cinikuri Rimili dasTamaSebT saxeze, yvelas
aviwydeba piradi warsuli, yvela axals
akritikebs da dauCemebiaT ,,kohabitacia“.
me is mainteresebs, nuTu qarTveli eri im
donemde daveciT, rom RimilTan erTad qarTul
enasac vkargavT?! ras uwuneben qarTl sityvas
,,Tanacxovreba“, gaugebaria. yvelas dauCemebia
sityva „korufcia“. gamudmebiT mas ebrZvian da
jerac veraferi mouxerxebiaT. sadac amoTxares
iq amovida swored da gaCnda axali problema.
politika reformebis gareSe ar iqneba efeqturi da gama-
f
11
rTlebuli. reforma ar niSnavs, fesvinad amoagdo Zveli
da Cargo axali, aramed reforma unda gavdes xisTvis miwis
gafxvierebas, gamxmari totebis moWras, Sewamvlas, movlas
da patronobas. rTulia, roca politikur procesebs Soridan akvirdebi da kidev ufro rTulia, roca am procesebis
uSualo monawile xar.
korufcia politikisTvis igivea, rac yvavilovan mdeloze sarevalas Sereva, Tu xSirad ar amoZirkve gamravldeba da mTel mdelos moicavs. ase rom, politikaSi antikorufciuli prevencia mudmivi unda iyos da aqtiurad unda
mimdinareobdes.
parlamenti irCeva xalxis mier, mTavrobas parlamenti
amtkicebs. gamodis, rom xalxia politikuri procesebis
warmmarTveli, xelisufleba ki xalxis politikuri nebis
aRmsrulebeli. imisaTvis, rom xalxi ar gamoeTiSos politikur procesebs saWiroa mudmivad CarTuloba am procesebSi da gamWvirvaleoba. es Cveni realobaa – sazogadoeba da
politika. ratom ar gvaqvs Rimili saxeze, gasagebia. imitom,
rom Tavad politikaa problematuri da politikis idealebi ar gadis xalxis bednierebaze.
rodis gaiRimebs qarTveli xalxi im RimiliT, rasac Tavisubleba da bedniereba qvia? yvela veliT politikuri procesebis samarTlianad warmarTvas. winasaarCevno dapirebaTa asrulebas da bednierebis eleqsiric swored es iqneba.
samarTlianoba qveyanaSi, yvela socialuri fenisTvis Rimilis sawindaria.
ratom
ar gvaqvs
Rimili
saxeze?
giorgi CubiniZe
~ `
reforma ar niSnavs
fesvinad amoagdo Zveli da
Cargo axali, aramed reforma
unda gavdes xisTvis miwis
gafxvierebas, gamxmari
totebis moWras, Sewamvlas,
movlas da patronobas
0
#5/360
12
biznesi
ucxouri investicia iklebs
Tabuka cimintia
veyanaSi Semosuli investiciebi ekonomikis ganviTarebis indikatoria. pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis meSveobiT kargad Cans, ra Tanxebi moizida qveyanam, rogor ixarjeba da romel seqtorebSi
nawildeba Semosuli fuli. amdenad, wlis ganmavlobaSi Semosuli ucxouri investiciebis dinamika da struqtura kargad asaxavs qveynis ganviTarebis dones.
saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli biuros monacemebiT, 2012 wlis mesame kvartalSi pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi bolo sami wlis maCveneblebTan SedarebiT Semcirda.
2012 wlis pirvel kvartalSi pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis moculobam 269,4 milioni dolari Seadgina, meore
kvartalSi - 219,4 milioni, xolo mesame kvartalSi qveyanaSi
195,4 milioni dolaris investicia Semovida.
q
Semosuli investiciebi qveynebis
mixedviT ase nawildeba:
holandia . ...................................... (25%);
saerTaSoriso
organizaciebi .............................. (22%);
TurqeTi ......................................... (17%);
didi britaneTi . .......................... (8%);
iaponia . .......................................... (7%);
amerika . .......................................... (6%);
ruseTi ............................................ (6%);
CineTi . ............................................ (5%);
danarCeni qveynebi......................... (4%).
0
360 /#5
ekonomikis seqtorebs Tu gadavxedavT, mesame kvartlis monacemebiT, safinanso seqtori 24%-iT liderobs, mas
mohyveba energetika (21%); transporti da kavSirgabmuloba
(17%); gadamamuSavebeli mrewveloba (14%); mSenebloba (5%);
soflis meurneoba (4%) da danarCeni seqtorebi (16%).
sami kvartlis monacemebiT, qveyanaSi 2012 wels sul 684
milioni dolaris investicia Semovida. „saqstatis” kalendris mixedviT, ucxouri investiciebis meoTxe kvartlis monacemebi 2013 wlis 11 marts gamoqveyndeba.
Tu monacemebs wina wlebis amave kvartlis monacemebs SevadarebT, 2010 wlis mesame kvartalSi Semosuli kapitalis
moculobam 226 milioni aSS dolari Seadgina. 2011 wlis mesame kvartalSi ki sul 317 milioni dolaris ucxouri investicia ganxorcielda saqarTveloSi.
bolo rva wlis ganmavlobaSi investiciebis TvalsazrisiT, yvelaze aqtiuri 2006-2007 wlebi iyo. kerZod, 2006
wels Semosulma pirdapirma ucxourma investiciebma erT
miliard aSS dolars, xolo 2007 wels or miliard aSS
dolars gadaaWarba. klebis tendencia 2008 wlis mesame kvartlidan aRiniSna. saqarTveloSi bolo oTx welSi jamurad,
daaxloebiT, naxevari miliardi dolariT naklebi investicia ganxorcielda, vidre mxolod erT, 2007 wels.
biznesi
eqspertebi investiciebis moculobis Semcirebas winasaarCevno periods ukavSireben. maTi SefasebiT, politikurad arastabiluri garemos gamo investorebi Tavs ikaveben, qveyanaSi investiciebi ganaxorcielon, radgan riskTan
aris dakavSirebuli. Sesabamisad, es tendencia gagrZeldeba, vidre ar Seiqmneba investorebisTvis stabiluri biznesgaremo.
dekemberSi finansTa ministri nodar xaduri JurnalistebTan saubarSi aRniSnavda, rom 2013 wels qveyanaSi ucxouri investiciebis mozidvis kuTxiT mniSvnelovani winsvla iqneba.
“amis Tqmis safuZvels Semdeg ifaqtorebi maZlevs:
pirveli - investorebs qonebas aravin waarTmavs; meore - investorebi iqnebian daculni, maT Soris saxelmwifos mxridan zemoqmedebisgan, da mesame - saqarTvelos aqvs perspeqtiva ruseTis da evrokavSiris bazrebis nawili gaxdes, rac
Zalian didi winapirobaa imisa, rom investors saqarTveloSi fulis dabandeba moundes”.
politikuri gaerTianeba “axali memarjveneebis” wevri
levan kalandaZe 2013 wlis pesimistur prognozs akeTebs da
Tvlis, rom investiciebis Semcirebis tendencia mimdinare
wlis maCveneblebzec aisaxeba. misi TqmiT, garda Sida da gare
faqtorebisa, investiciebis mozidvis kuTxiT mniSvnelovania is mesijebi, rasac politikuri figurebi avrceleben,
vinaidan arastabiluri politikuri garemo investicie-
13
bs mTavar problemas uqmnis. „investorebisaTvis yvelaze
mniSvnelovani stabilurobaa. investiciebis Semcirebas ki
ramdenime rogorc Sida, ise gare faqtori ganapirobebs.
politikurad cxeli periodis dros investorebis mxridan
garkveuli TavSekaveba bunebrivi movlenaa. isini elodebian, gansakuTrebiT arCevnebis Semdeg, ramdenad Seicvleba
garemo. gare faqtori ki is ekonomikuri krizisia, romelic
evropaSi dRemde grZeldeba,“- aRniSnavs levan kalandaZe.
rac Seexeba qveynidan gasul kapitals, 2012 wlis mesame
kvartalSi saqarTvelodan ucxoeTis 19 qveyanaSi 60 milioni aSS dolaris kapitali gavida. yvelaze meti kapitalis
gadineba CexeTSi moxda, 38,323 milioni aSS dolaris odenobiT. mas moyveba saudis arabeTi – 6 milioni aSS dolariT,
SvedeTi – 5,050 milioni aSS dolari, Sveicaria – 3,357 milioni dolari, azerbaijani – 2,229 milioni dolari, ukraina
– 1,803 milioni dolari da norvegia – 1,020 milioni dolari.
2012 wlis pirvel kvartalSi saqarTvelodan 117 milioni aSS dolari, 2012 wlis meore kvartalSi ki 23 milioni
aSS dolari gavida.
0
#5/360
14
biznesi
uCveulo biznesideebi
is
uCveulo Sinaars
saiti
is saitia,
Ashleymadison.com - es gacnob
od daqorTumca masze registracia mxol
saZlebeli
winebuli xalxisTvisaa Se
xis gacnoba
an maTTvis, visac aseTi xal
oebiT ase
surs. saitis devizi daaxl
. moaswari
JRers “sicocxle xanmoklea
saitis meRalati!”. gasakviria, magram
hyavs coli
patrone yofili iuristia,
Tan dakavda bednierad cxovrobs. sait
mayofileSirebiT bevri gamoTqvams uk
registribas, Tumca faqti saxezea, da
odenoba 7
rebuli momxmareblebis ra
milionze metia.
mzis saTvaleebi
ZaRlebisTvis
bebos muraba
dRes bevri Tineijeri,
romlebic Tanamedrove
teqnologiebiT arian
gatacebulni, iswrafvian Seqmnan biznesi,
romelic cifruli
saqonlis gayidvasTan
aris dakavSirebuli.
Tumca freizer dogerti sxva gzas daadga: 14
wlis asakSi man bebiis
receptis gamoyenebiT
murabis mzadeba daiwyo. roca is 16-is gaxda
skola miatova, raTa
mTeli Tavisi dro da
energia jemis biznesze
daexarja. axla kompania
„SuperJam“ weliwadSi
500 000 qila jems yidis,
rac didi britaneTis
jemis bazris 10%-s
Seadgens. dResdReobiT
am axalgazrdas honorari 1-2 mln. dolars
Seadgens.
0
360 /#5
. kompania
ucnaurad JRers, magram asea
elebis saT„Goggles.com“-ma biznesi cxov
da axla es
valeebis gamoSvebiT daiwyo
saxeb werda
milioniani biznesia. amis Se
Geographic“
„CNN“, „Women’s World“, „National
eebis garda „Animal Planet“. axla saTval
sxva aqsesuda Sinauri cxovelebisTvis
magaliTad:
arebis yidvac SesaZlebelia,
ebis, maizurgCanTebis, samaSvelo rgol
is da sxva.
surebis, kepebis, saTamaSoeb
Tabuka cimintia
biznesi
15
uCveulo biznesideebi
nur
v
o
l
e
x
i
b
e
n
o
i
l
i
m
Zvlebze
Zvlebs TamaSSic aqvs
albaT gagigiaT, rom qaTmis
T Zvals eqaCeba da Zver
ni
ia
am
ad
i
or
:
ba
ne
ye
mo
ga
buli is iqneba, visac
ve
rj
ma
ga
eg
md
Se
is
xv
te
ga
lis
lT. TiTqos uinxe
a
eb
rC
Se
i
l
wi
na
di
di
ufro
milionebi iSova.
iT
am
ma
on
ar
n
ke
a
mc
Tu
a,
so
tere
moSvebiT daiwyo
ga
is
eb
l
Zv
is
as
tm
as
pl
i
es
man bizn
la yoveldRe 30
ax
a.
od
uw
k
rea
yB
ck
Lu
ts
uq
da prod
iZleba feris
Se
a
eT
kv
Se
a.
eb
id
iy
i
al
Zv
000 aseTi
is da sxva. am biznesis
mixedviT, warwerebis, reklam
n dolars Seadgens.
wliuri Semosavali 2.5 milio
Tu Tqven samsaxurSi daagvianeT da ar iciT, rogor gaimarTloT Tavi, Tqvens problemas specialistebi moagvareben kompania „The Excused Absence Network“-dan. mxolod 25
dolarad isini damajerebel axsna-ganmartebas moifiqreben: morgis daskvnas, sasamarTlos dokuments da sxva. aseTi
dokumentebi qvens ufross daarwmunebs, rom marTlac mniSvnelovani saqmis gamo gaacdineT dRe. aseve SesaZlebelia
1000 sxvadasxva variantidan erTis amorCeva sul raRac 9.95
dolarad. es servisi amerikulia da amitom mxolod inglisurenovan qveynebSi SeiZleba misi gamoyeneba. kompaniis
mflobeli ambobs, rom TveSi, daaxloebiT, 15 000 SekveTas
iRebs, rac TaviTavad did Semosavals niSnavs.
baliSi mikrotal
Rovan
RumelSi
diasaxlisma
kim levinma
alabamadan
da origina
metad mart
luri ram m
ivi
oifiqra. ma
dis marcvl
n baliSi si
ebiT gaavso
minda ise Seke
iSi advila
ra. aseTi b
d iwovs saW
aliro sineste
Sreba, magr
s da advila
am yvelaze
dve
saintereso
ZliaT bali
isaa, rom S
Si mikrotal
egiRovan Rumel
da Zilis wi
Si moaTavso
n siTboTi d
T
a komforti
baliSs Wuv
T datkbeT.
it ewoda da m
am
okle droS
laroba, ad
i
m
o
gilobriv s
ixveWa popu
upermarket
lideri gax
ebSi gayidv
da. kimi mal
ebis
e mixvda, ro
niSa aRmoaC
m
b
a
zarze Tavis
ina da axla
i
milionebad
znesis mepat
Sefasebuli
ronea. Semd
bieg man wigni
warmatebis
dawera Tavi
a da aRiare
si
bis Sesaxeb.
Tavis gamarTleb
is
servisi
0
#5/360
16
saavtoro gverdi
`deda, ici,
aq isvrian...
sul isvrian...
marTla
isvrian...
es tyviebic
marTla
klavs...
biWebi,
Rimiliani
biWebic
marTla
kvdebian...
deda...
Tabuka cimintia
0
360 /#5
saavtoro gverdi
17
deda, ici, xuTi dRis win pirvelad movkali kaci... mec visvri, deda.. deda, es jojoxeTia, sadac unda gadarCe.. sadac unda daaswro, deda, Torem dagaswreben... ukve bevrs daaswres da bevri
gacivda..
deda, Camqrali Tvalebi damCemda. RamiT wiTeli tyviebis qrolva mesizmreba da biWebis xma
mesmis, deda... me vtiri, oRond veRar ganvicdi. deda, vxedav da aRar mtkiva.. sisxli mdis da vxeldebi..
ici, xuTi dRis win irakli mokles. xom gaxsovs ika?! erTad vswavlobdiT. mxiaruli biWi.. Sen
xom gaxsovs, deda, rogor vmegobrobdiT. unda gaxsovdes, Torem me Tu gadavrCi, vici, bevri aRaraferi memaxsovreba, Tavidan unda momiyve Cemi cxovreba..
me mxolod gasrolidan gasrolamde vcxovrob..
xuTi dRis win iraklisac daaswres... deda, ver moaswro srola. gaxeda da ar esrola, iaraRi
dauSva... deda, vaJkaci biWi iyo, misi mokvla sacodaobas daatrialebda da ar mokla. manac dauSva
iaraRi, daindes erTmaneTi... ikam gamomxeda da acremlebulma miTxra, amis mokvla sacodaobaa,
Sexe, ra biWia.. es rom movkla, ra namusiT vicxovroo, da gaiRima. xom gaxsovs, de, rogori Rimili
hqonda? magram sxvebma ar daindes... sxvam esrola ikas da Rimiliani davarda. aRaraferi aRar
uTqvams, iraklis sisxlis suni dadga haerSi... iq codvis dRe datrialda, de... ici, ra moxda?
iman, im biWma, Tavisiani mokla... ar daindo, ar apatia omis megobari rom moukles. aravis apatia...
mere is gagiJebuli egonaT, de, da moerivnen. ver moviTmine... xom gesmis Cemi, Sen unda gesmodes,
sxva gza ar gaqvs, deda, unda gesmodes, rom ver moviTmine. erTdroulad ori kargi adamiani wavida am qveynidan..
da visrole..
visrole da tyvias gavyevi, mTeli survili Cavatane, mizans ver acdeboda, ar hqonda ufleba,
rom ascdenoda. ara... vigrZeni, rogor gaiara civi haeri, kvamli... rogor daadno haerSi gzad
Semxvedri fifqebi. mec davaswari sxvas...
da mere gaisma is xma... is saSineleba, romelic yovelRamiT mesmis... am xmas veraferi sxva ver
Seedreba.22-25 wlis biWis jer kidev norCi Sublis Zvali gadaskda, deda.. da is tyvia me viyavi...
skdomis xma.
is Rame ar damZinebia, deda... orive gamovitire. diliT ukve carieli viyavi... da omma iseve
damtena, rogorc carieli mWidi. sikvdilis isrebiT gamavso...
bevris TvalebSi Cavaqre sinaTle, bevrs vanane dabadeba, deda... me Sevicvale. me aRar mtkiva...
me aRar vnanob...
yvelaferi maviwydeba nel–nela..
ici, ra menatreba? SokmanJe da Cvens naZvebSi mindorze wamowola, Cems sayvarel biZaSvilebTan
erTad. isev facxis aSeneba minda... rom Camoval avaSeneb mere, deda, Tu ar davrundi, bevri mitire.
yvelas gaagebine, yvelam mitiros.. vici, rom bevrs davwyvet guls... vici, rom bevri motirali meyoleba. yvelas uTxari, de, rom mamaci Svili gyavs... unda iamayo, deda... sxva aRaraferi dagrCeba
Tu sxvebma damaswres, mamam?
mamam icis... mamam icis, rogor unda gauZlos amas.. is kacia da is gamigebs. Cven kargi megobrebi
viyaviT.. gaufrTxildi mamas...
deda, vici, rom mec SemeZlo bevris msgavsad saxlSi davrCeniliyavi, avadmyofobis mowmoba
gamekeTebina da saRamoobiT ludiT xelSi savarZelSi mokalaTebuls televizorisTvis meyurebina da sadRegrZeloebSi „mepatriota“. deda, Seni Svili ukve kacia! tyviebSi gaizarda... me saxlSi
ver damakavebdiT, me maTTvis ar vibrZvi... Tu gadavrCebi, maTTvisac meqneba pasuxi....
mxolod erT rameze damwydeba guli, deda, Tu ver davbrundi, Cems ujraSi didi TeTri rveuli
devs, iq Cemi leqsebi weria. eg leqsebi marikasia... misTvisaa dawerili da mas miutane. xom icodi,
marika rom miyvarda... unda meTqva aqamdec. momerida... damagvianda...
deda, guli mwydeba... mindoda, vinme mec myoloda gverdSi, visac iseve veyvarebodi, rogorc
me. visac moundeboda CemTvis gulis gadaSla, vinc momefereboda, vinc Cems mklavze daiZinebda...
vis TmebSic Tavs Cavrgavdi. deda, bavSvebi mindoda... ori biWi da nabolara gogona... me es ver
gamovcade, deda! ver vicxovre...
me Tu vera biWebi dabrundebian. vinme aucileblad dabrundeba... is iyos Cem magieri. gadarCenil biWebs moefereT! aq xom yvelas erTi deda gvyavs... aq erTi saxeli gvqvia yvelas... deda, ici, aq
isev isvrian... sul isvrian... marTla isvrian... es tyviebic marTla klavs...
me Sevicvale...
me aRar mtkiva...
me Rar vnanob...“
0
#5/360
18
movlena
Tamar lomTaZe
TbilisSi maxaTas mTaze iveriis RvTismSoblis xatis saxelobis taZari
Sendeba. taZris mSenebloba 2012 wlis 17 aprils daiwyo. ramdenime dRis win
ki taZris saZirkvlis mSenebloba dasrulda. mSenebloba 2700 kv. metrze
mimdinareobs. taZari 60 m. sigrZis da 32 m. siganis iqneba. simaRle ki 51 m. jvris
Ziramde. taZris arqiteqtori omar nafetvariZea.
interviu fond “iveriisa-s” sazogadoebasTan
- es aris taZris mSeneblobis fondi, romelic
urTierTobis samsaxuris xel-Tan q-n rusudan man- patriarqis locva-kurTxeviT Seiqmna. fonds saTajgalaZesTan
veSi udgas paata burWulaZe.
- rogor gadaricxon Tanxa fizikurma pirebma
da rogor unda moxdes organizaciebis CarTva
aRniSnil aqciaSi?
- cnobilia, rom am taZars mTeli saqarTvelo
da qarTuli emigracia erTad aSenebs. sazogadoebaSi xSirad gaismis kiTxvebi, rogor Sei- fondma ,,iveriisa’’ angariSi gaxsna saqarTZleba gaxdes TiToeuli qarTveli iveriis veloSi yvela moqmed bankSi. nebismier musrvels
RvTismSoblis xatis saxelobis taZrisa da sa- SeuZlia, mivides miTvis sasurveli bankis nebivanes aRmSenebeli?
-yvela adamians eZleva unikaluri Sansi-aaSenos taZari! ntaZris mSenebeli nebismier adamins
SeuZlia gaxdes. maT unda Seavson specialuri anketa da gaiRon Semowiruloba TavianTi axloblebis
saxelze, rogorc cocxlebze, ise gardacvlilebze. am adamianebis gvar-saxelebi, rogorc taZris
aRmSeneblebis, Seva cocxalTa da gardacvlilTa
wignSi, romelic taZarSi daidebs binas. visac ar
aqvs saSualeba Semmowiruloba gaiRos, man mxolod
anketa unda Seavsos.
- sad SeiZleba anketis aReba?
- anketis aReba SesaZlebelia nebismieri bankis
filialSi da fond ,,iveriisas’’ ofisSi, romelic
pekinis 28-Si mdebareobs. sabolood Sevsebuli anketac an bankSi unda datovon, an ofisSi moitanon.
SevsebasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu raime kiTxva gaCndeba, SegiZliaT dagvirekoT nomerze 214 04 84, mzad
varT yvela kiiTxvas vupasuxoT.
- ra fondia ,,iveriisa’’ da ratom iricxeba Tanxa
fondis angariSze?
0
360 /#5
smier filialSi mxolod erTxel, gaaaformos
xelSekruleba avtomaturi davalebis momsaxureobaze da CaerTos aqciaSi, rac niSnavs imas, rom
avtomaturad, TveSi erTxel, mis mier miTiTebuli
Tanxa CamoiWreba angariSidan da gadava taZris
mSeneblobis angariSze.
rac Seexeba organizaciebis CarTvas, Tu msurveli piri muSaobs organizaciaSi da TanamSromlebma gadawyvites, CaerTon aqciaSi, maSin maT
unda mimarTon fond ,,iveriisas’’. isini miawvdian
ganacxadis formas, romelsac Seavseben, miuTiTeben Tanxas, romelic surT, rom Seswiron taZris
mSeneblobas. am sabuTis safuZvelze organizaciis
buRalteria uzrunvelyofs yovelTviurad TanamSromlis angariSidan Tanxis gadaricxvas taZris mSeneblobis angariSze. Sevsebuli ganacxadis
formebis aslebi unda gadmoigzavnos fondSi.
- SeuZlia Tu ara pensioners gawverianeba,
raTa monawileoba miiRos taZrisa da savanes
aRmSeneblobaSi?
movlena
19
erTad vaSenoT Cveni sulis taZari!
- nebismier pensioners SeuZlia mibrZandes im vis saxelzec undaT gaiRon Semowiruloba. SemowirbankSi, sadac iRebs pensias, Seavsos fond ,,iverii- ulobis gaRebisaTvis ki unda akrifon 0901 777777
- SesaZlebelia, Tu ara Semowirulobis telefosas’’ ganacxadis forma da misTvis sasurveli Tanxa
niT gaReba?
gadaricxos taZris mSeneblobis angariSze.
- SeaZlebelia, rogorc ukve aRvniSne Semdeg no- rogor gawevriandnen sazRvargareT mcxovrebi
qarTvelebi?
merze - 0901 777777
- ramdeni adamianis saxelis Cawera CeiZleba da
- sazRvargareT mcxovreb qarTvelebs gadaricxramdeni unda Sewiron?
va SeuZliaT fond ,,iveriisas’’ veb-gverdze ganTavse- SeiZleba Caiweros imdeni saxeli, ramdenic gvbuli Semowirulobis velis saSualebiT.
saberZneTSi, inglissa da italiaSi mcxovreb surs da SemoswiroT imdeni, ramdenis survili da
Cvens Tanamemamuleebs SeuZliaT miakiTxon ,,intel- SesaZleblobac gaqvT.
-rodis gagrZeldeba mSenebloba?
eqspresis’’ nebismier filials da Tanxa yovelgvari
-gazafxuls velodebiT. mSenebloba gazafxudaqviTvis gareSe gadmoricxon.
- rogor gawevriandnen raionSi mcxovrebi Cveni lidan gagrZeldeba. yvelas, vinc am taZars aSenebs
moqalaqeebi, romelTa siaxloves ar aris ara- da aseTi am droisTvis ukve 204 000-ia, SeuZliaT
nairi banki?
pirdapiri eTeris reJimSi uyuron Tu rogor Sen- umjobesia, erTxel mainc Cavidnen raionul cen- deba taZari, amisaTvis saWiroa SexvideT fondis
trSi da miakiTxon banks, magram Tu amas veranairad veb gverdze www. Makhata.ge da LIVE reJimSi Tvali
ver axerxeben, maSin unda daukavSirdnen fond ,,iveri- adevnoT, Tu rogor Sendeba taZari, romelic Cven
isas’’ ofiss da ukarnaxon axloblebis gvar-saxelebi, gvaerTianebs.
20
sagamofeno darbazi
,,DISCOVERY GEORGIA’’
qarTuli turizmis sadarajoze
,,DISCOVERY GEORGIA’’ Seiqmna 2012 wlis ivlisSi da Tavisi saqmianobiT xels
uwyobs saqarTveloSi turizmis swraf ganviTarebas. xazgasasmelia is faqtic,
rom kompanias saTaveSi udganan aqtiuri, amasTanave, patriotuli suliskveTebiT
ganmsWvaluli axalgazrdebi, romelTac naTlad aqvT gaTavisebuli TavianTi
qveynis istoriul-kulturuli adgilebis Rirebuleba da daniSnuleba.
Tamar lomTaZe
dan saqarTveloSi turistebis nakadis gazrdas?
interviu qarTul turistul kompaniis ,,DISCOVERY
- vfiqrobT, ar arsebobs, radgan maT arasodes ugrZvniaT
GEORGIA’’-s xelmZRvanelebTan - giorgi fxalaZesa da giorqarTvelebis mxridan sicive da cudi damokidebuleba. ufro
gi TevdoraSvilTan.
metic, maTTvis gaxsnilia yvela saxis sasazRvro punqti da
-didixania, rac ,,DISCOVERY GEORGIA’’damsvenebels SeuZliaT, nebismier dros gadmolaxon is. piriqiT, Cveni
saqarTveloSi turebs sTavazobs?
kompaniis gamocdilebidan gamomdinare, SegviZlia Tamamad
- ar aris didi xani. Cveni kompania sul raRac naxevar vTqvaT, rom dResdReobiT qarvelebsa da rus turistebs Sowelze metia, rac daarsda da emsaxureba turistebs. Sesabam- ris megobruli da Tbili urTierToba sufevs.
-aqamde sazogadoebisaTvis romel ucnob adgilebs
isad, ,,DISCOVERY GEORGIA’’SeiZleba movixsenioT, rogorc
sTavazobT turistebs?
axalbeda turistuli saagento, romelic mudmivad mzadaa,
- erT-erTi maTgania birTvisi, romelic mdebareobs
daubrokoleblad da didi SemarTebiT ganaxorcielos TavTbilisidan 40 kilometrSi. birTvisTan misasvlelad fexiT
isi turistuli saqmianoba.
- ras akeTebs ,,DISCOVERY GEORGIA’’imisaTvis, rom ganvi- savalia 4kilometri, ris Sedegadac, damTvalierebeli aRTardes turistebis saqarTvelosTan urTierToba?
moCndeba erTgvar kanionSi, sadac mnaxvelis Tvalwin iSle- ,,DISCOVERY GEORGIA’’–s mizania, gaacnos qarTvelebsa ba ulamazesi buneba: Camoedineba mdinare, romelic manqanis
da aramarto maT, aramed ucxoel damsveneblebsac qarTuli savali gzidan arc ki mosCans.
kulturul-istoriul Zeglebi, risTvisac awesebs dabal da
aRsaniSnavia, fitareTi, romelic miviwyebuli adgilebSeRavaTian fasebs, raTa ar dabrkoldes xalxi da Tavisu- is ricxvSi Sedioda. cota xnis win am adgilas aRdga samoflad SeZlon im adgilebis naxva, rac memkvidreobiT gad- nastro cxovreba, gakeTda samanqano gza, Tumca mainc Znelad
mogveca winaprebisagan. mogexsenebaT, rom saqarTveloSi ms- misasvleli adgilia.
gavsi adgilebi Zalian bevria.
aseve mariam jvris daculi teritoria, romelic aucile- amJamad romeli regionebia moTxovnadi da ras sTava- blad unda naxos TiToeulma qarTvelma Tu turistma.
zobT maT konfortul dasvenebisaTvis?
- aRniSnuli ganisazRvreba sezonebis mixedviT: zafxulSi moTxovnadia xevsureTi, yazbegi, xevi, radgan yvela turists izidavs mTa, iq arsebuli sufTa haeri, aseve TuSeTi,
romelic, marTalia, SedarebiT miuwvdomelia sanaxavad,
magram Cveni kompaniis mTavari daniSnuleba swored aseT
adgilebSi turizmis ganviTarebis xelSewyobaa. rac Seexeba
zamTars, am droisaTvis aqtualuri xdeba gudauri da bakuriani. aseve turistebs ainteresebT kulturuli turebi,
riTac datvirTulia kaxeTi da nel-nela turizmi viTardeba samcxe-javaxeTSi, raWasa da imereTSi. bolo drois maCveneblebis mixedviT, moTxovnadia varZia, rac kidev erTxel
miuTiTebs am mxaris kulturul Rirebulebaze.
- saqarTveloSi saeqskursio, Rvinis, ekologiuri, samkurnalo da istoriul–religiuri turebi arsebobs.
romeli maTgania yvelaze aqtualuri dResdReobiT?
- iqidan gamomdinare, rom iuneskos ZeglTa dacvis qveS
myofi Zeglebi gvaqvs qarTvelebs, romlebic aramarto ucxoel turistebSi, aramed adgilobriv mosaxleobaSic did
interess iwvevs, aqtualuria ufro kulturuli turebi,
Tumca nel-nela wina fonze inacvlebs Rvinis turebi, riTac,
bunebrivia, gamoirCeva kaxeTi.
- rogorc vici, urTierToba gaqvT rus turistebTan da
arsebobs Tu ara dabrkoleba, rac xels SeuSlis ruseTi-
0
360 /#5
-ra zomebi unda miiRon saqarTvelos turistuli bazris
maregulirebelma organoebma imisaTvis, rom ruseTidan
moxdes turistuli nakadis gazrda da Tqven ra strategiebs imuSavebT efeqturi qarTuli turizmis amindis
SeqmnisaTvis?
- pirvel rigSi, saxelmwifom unda mixedos infrastruqturas ara calkeul, aramed yvela regionSi, radgan gasakeTebelia sxvadasxva kuTxis Zalian bevri kulturul-istoriuli adgili da, Tu amJamad qarTul turistul bazarze
dominirebs ramdenime adgili, amis Semdeg saqarTvelos
yvela kuTxe gaxdeba aqtualuri da moTxovnadi, radgan TiToeul maTgans Tavisi istoria, Rirebuleba da saganZuri
gaaCnia. amasTanave, unda arsebobdes qveyanaSi turistuli,
politikuri da ekonomikuri stabiluroba da simSvide, rac
xels Seuwyobs aramarto ruseTidan, aramed sxva qveynebidanac turistuli nakadis Semodinebas.
aseve ,,DISCOVERY GEORGIA’’-s gaaCnia Tavisi strategiebi, risi meSveobiTac qmnis qarTuli turizmis aminds, esenia:
*dabali da SeRavaTiani fasebi;
*xarisxiani momsaxureba;
*aqamde ucnobi adgilebis sazogadoebisaTvis gacnoba.
avtori Tamar lomTaZe, rubrika sagamofeno darbazi
sagamofeno darbazi
birTvisi
fitareTi
21
22
sagamofeno darbazi
RvTismSoblis Sobis taZari
dadianebis ezoSi
waCxuru
waCxurus saTave
Teona araxamia
megrul notebze
awyobili srulyofileba
aqarTvelo rom ulamazesi qveyanaa, amaSi eWvi aravis epareba. amboben, ufalma aq daibertyao Tavisi
madliani da uxvi kalTa. mis srulyofil silamazes
rom eziaroT, amisaTvis mxolod am qveyanaSi mogzaurobaa saWiro. misi TiToeuli mxare silamazis
erTi nimuSia, romelic, mTavaria, erTxel ixiloT da aRarasdros dagaviwydebaT.
dRes swored saqarTvelos erT-erT lamaz kuTxeSi minda, gamogzauroT da samegrelos erTi umSvenieresi sofeli,
salxino, gagacnoT.
salxino martvilis municipalitets ekuTvnis da gamorCeulia Tavisi bunebiT, xalxiTa Tu istoriiT. aq yoveli kuTxe
mSvenierebis notebsaviT erwymis erTmaneTs, erT simfoniad
efineba mzerasa da suls. erTxel Tu moxvdi, Semdeg mudam es
simfonia Cagesmis, geRiRineba nanaxi da ginda, mTel samyaros
umRero megrul notebze awyobili srulyofileba.
stumarTmoyvare da erTguli xalxi salxinos erT-erTi
simdidrea. Casuls, marTlac, salxinebels mogiwyoben da
Tan, dasZenen : „miirTvi, daisvene, gamxiaruldi“. aq nuraferze idardeb, es xom salxinoa, mxare, sadac Tamar da daviT mefeebi amodiodnen, qveynis sawuxarsac gverdiT debdnen da
isvenebdnen, ilxendnen. saxelwodebac maT SeurCies, radgan
es adgili, marTlac, yvelas suls axarebs. Senc, araferi
dagrCenia garda imisa, rom moeSva da maT nebas dahyve.
aqaurebisTvis stumari RmerTia, amitom mowyenis saSualebas ar mogcemen. aseTi gamamxnevebeli sityvebis Semdeg
naqebi mxaris gasacnobad wagiyvanen da pirvelad ulamazesi
Wadrebis xeivanSi gagatareben. TiToeuli xe, as welze meti
xnisaa. xeivnis bolos didi karebia, romlis SeRebis Semde-
s
0
360 /#5
gac, sul sxva samyaroSi aRmoCndebi, - es dadianebis sasaxlea, maTi sazafxulo rezidencia.
SesvlisTanave ucnauri surneli gecema notio, motkbo
da raRac Seucnobeli, samoTxeSic amgvari surneli iqnebao,
rom gafiqrebinebs iseTi. Semdeg qvafenils Cauyvebi da xids
miuaxlovdebi, romlis qveSac patara ru gadis. aq sicivisagan gagaJrJolebs, radgan es waCxuruaa, anu wyalcivi. es ru
ezos miRma arsebuli mdinaridan Camoedineba da ezos gavlis
Semdeg, isev mas erTvis. igi zamTar-zafxul yinuliviT civia. masSi mxolod kalmaxi binadrobs da wyalic samkurnaloa
- dasicxul kans aamebs. Tanac, iseTi kamkamaa, dasalevadac
gamodgeba.
xids gadaivli da salxinos RvTismSoblis mamaTa monasters miadgebi, romelic, dadianebis karis eklesia iyo.
kars zemoT nusxuri warweraa, saidanac vgebulobT taZris
amgebis vinaobas: „Sevide saxlsa Sensa, Tayvani vsce wmindasa
taZarsa SiSiTa SeniTa ufalo. - kacia II dadiani“ .
taZris marcxena kuTxeSi uCveulo xatia „yovlisa soflisa salxinebeli“, igive salxinos RvTismSobeli: RvTismSoblis gamosaxulebis qveS, salxinos taZaris xedia daxatuli. es xati specialurad salxinosTvis daiwera 2005 wlis
4 seqtembers da samebis sakaTedro taZarSi ikurTxa. am wlidan Wyondideli mitropoliti giorgis locva-kurTxeviTa
da xalxis surviliT, xatis xsenebis dRes, 4 seqtembers, dadianiseul ezoSi tardeba saeklesio-saxalxo dResaswauli
salxinooba. taZarSi brZandeba ruseTidan Camotanili siwmindeebi, romelTa Soris gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia optinis udabnos 12 Rirsi da RmerTSemosili mamebis wminda
nawilebi, wm. serafime sarovelis mantiis naWeri da divoe-
sagamofeno darbazi
wminda giorgis taZari
23
berebis sacxovrebeli
dadianebis marani
voeli dedebis wminda nawilebi da suraTebi. sakurTxevelTan misulebi saswaulis mowmenic gaxdebiT: aq RvTismSoblis
mironmdinare xatia. RvTismSobels gasuli wlidan moyolebuli Tvalebidan mironi sdis.
taZridan gamosulma uzarmazar ezos SegiZlia, moavlo
Tvali. aqeT-iqiT bzebis bilikia, SuaSi ki maRali WadrebiT
Semofargluli mwvane mdelo -dadianebis sajiriTo moedani.
iseTi sivrcea... mwvaned abibinebuli balaxi... Tavadac mogindeba, moaxte cxens da gaiqrolo Wadrebis CrdilqveS. am
fiqrebSi garTuli, bzis bilikebs Cauyvebi da axladrestavrirebul marans miadgebi, sadac dadianebis ezoSive mdebare
venaxebidan moyvanili yurZniT dawuruli ojaleSs dagagemovnebineben. iseTi saocari gemo aqvs, ggonia, marTlac, uflis sisxls ewafebi da mis dalevasTan erTad, uCveulo siTbo geRvreba sxeulSi. am siTboTi gaJRenTili bzis meore
xeivniT brundebi da siamovnebiT moavleb Tvals kopwiad
nageb, yvavilebiT morTul xis saxlebs- berebis sacxovreblebs. yovelgvar mdidrul sasaxles daTmobdi albaT, aseT
simyudroveSi rom gecxovra.
brundebi eklesiasTan da wamomarTul dadianebis sasaxles
xedav, romelic nangrevebisagan axlaxan aRadgines. esec lamazia, TiTqos axalic da Zvelic erTmaneTSia Serwymuli. SesasvlelTan TeTri etli dgas, zRaprul etls rom mogagonebs
iseTi. erT-erTi episkoposis naCuqari yofila Turme. SesvliT
ver SexvalT, ver gaivliT dadianebis Zvel nakvalevze, radgan
sasaxle prezidentisa da patriarqis rezidenciebadaa dayofili da ubralo gamvlels SigniT Sesvlis ufleba ar aqvs,
Tumca tkbobisTvis misi garegnuli silamazec sakmarisia.
dadianebis ezo-karis cqeriT aqauri simyudroviT verasdros ijereb guls, magram aranakleb lamazi adgilebia
kidev sanaxavi da Cvenc iqiTken gaveSuroT. Semdegi gaCereba sasaflaosTan mSenebare samonastro kompleqsia. wminda
giorgis saxelobis taZaris mSenebloba ukve dasrulebulia,
magram jer ar gaxsnila da Sesabamisad, wirvac ar aResruleba, Tumca Sesvla da sanTlis danTeba nebismier dros SegiZliaT. eklesias ulamazesi karebi aqvs wminda giorgis
gamosaxulebiT. amaRlebuli gorakidan aramarto salxino,
aramed, mezobeli soflebic TvalnaTliv mosCans da lamazi
sanaxaoba geSleba Tvalwin.
Semdegi RirSesaniSnaoba, romelic aucileblad unda ixilos salxinoSi Casulma aris aranakleb lamazi da legendaruli waCxurus mTavarangelozTa eklesia, igive „moske
dadianebis sasaxle
waCxura“ (eklesiis saxelwodeba „moske waCxua“ uZvelesia da
warmarTuli droidan modis. moske e.i. meZeve, meSviles niSnavs, xolo waCxura- wyalcivs). igi mdebareobs salxinos CrdiloeTiT, xirzenis mTis kalTaze, soflidan sakmaod maRla, saidanac mSvenivrad ixedeba mdinareebis waCxurusa da
texuras xeobis didebuli xedi.
mTavarangelozTa eklesia aSenebulia arauadres XVI
saukunisa. gadmocemiT, aq esvena RvTismSoblis xati, romelsac Svilierebas SesTxovda xalxi. aq uZvelesi droidan amodiodnen uSvilo dedebi an visac qaliSvili hyavda da vaJi
ar uCndebodaT. amohqondaT patara miniaturuli akvnebi,
mooqrovili an movercxlili, RamiT RvTismSoblis xats
„uwvebodnen“, Svils SesTxovdnen da amgvar specialur locvas warmoTqvamdnen: „vaJi gamimravle, vaJianobis waCxuro,
Cveni namravliT Cveni guli gaaxare, Sen saxeldalocvilo,
asi wlis locva Sen dagvacale“. waCxuroba aRdgomis Semdeg
xuTSabaTs aRiniSneba. am dRes, dResac sxvadasxva kuTxidan
uamravi adamiani amodis aq (zogi fexSiSceli), swiraven xats
akvans, cxvars, sxvadasxva nivTebs da SesTxoven Svils. eklesiis saxeli mravali saswaulebiTaa ganTqmuli. yovel xuTSabaTs amodis am taZarSi mrevli da wirva aRevlineba.
wirva-locvis Semdeg dasveneba dagWirdebaT, amitom
aucileblad unda gaiaroT taZris ukana ezo, rom mdinare
waCxurus saTavesTan moxvdeT. papanaqeba sicxeSic ki wyali
iseTi civia, orTqli asdis. aq ramdenime CanCqeria, jer erTi
eSveba Tvaluwvdeneli simaRlidan, Semdeg tbasaviT gubdeba, TiTqos Zalas ikrebs da kvlav uzarmazari kldidan exeTqeba Zirs. ase safexurebsaviT eSveba yuriswamRebi xmauriTa da grialiT da ulamazes xeds giSliT Tvalwin es kamkama
mdinare. aq saqeifod amodian soflis mkvidrebi Tavisis
stumrebiTurT da Tavs iwoneben TavianTi soflis bunebiT.
ar arsebobs adamiani, romelic salxinos estumros, daaTvalieros misi Tvalwartaci buneba da ukmayofilo dabrundes Sin. am mxares TiToeuli stumari dananebiT tovebs
da amavdroulad, Tvalebgabrwyinebuli, grZnobebanTebuli
miiCqaris, rom yvelas uambos im zRapruli mxaris Sesasaxeb,
romelsac salxino hqvia. miiCqaris, raTa yvelas uTxras, rom
man amqveyniuri savane naxa da urCios, sanam cocxali xar, es
mxare aucileblad unda naxo !
0
#5/360
yvela adamians aqvs raRac iracionaluri SiSi, rac zogjer metad ucnauria, magaliTad, Tagvis an stomatologTan vizitis SiSi. pirveli saxeobis SiSi bevr Cvengans aqvs
da garkveulwilad bunebrivicaa, magram stomatologiuri kabinetis zRurblTan miaxloebis SiSi ukve alogikuria. bevri adamiani axerxebs imas, rom misTvis garkveuli SiSi
iyos umniSvnelo, es TavisTavad xdeba, anu magaliTad, Tu me meSinia Tagvis ar Sevxedav
mas. magram rodesac SiSi xdeba iseTi mZime, rom mas SeuZlia gamoiwvios Zlieri SfoTva
da is xels uSlis Tqvens normalur cxovrebas, mas ukve fobias vuwodebT. kargi siaxle
isaa, rom SesaZlebelia fobiis gankargva da misgan gankurneba. TviTdaxmarebis strategiebis gamoyenebiT da TerapiebiT SegviZlia gadavlaxoT Cveni SiSebi da daviwyoT iseTi
cxovreba, rogoric gvsurs.
ra aris fobia?
fobia aris intensiuri SiSi raRacis gamo, rac realurad an Zalian mcire arsebobs,
an faqtobrivad, aranair safrTxes ar qmnis.
gavrcelebuli fobiebi da SiSebia: daxuruli sivrcis SiSi; simaRlis SiSi; gzatkecilze saWis marTvis SiSi; mwerebis; gvelebis da nemsis SiSi. umetesad fobiebi bavSvobaSi viTardeba, Tumca SesaZlebelia, mozrdilobis asakSic ganviTardes.
elene lobJaniZe
Tu Sen gaqvs fobia, SesaZloa Sen aanalizeb kidec, rom SiSis
realuri mizezi ar arsebobs, magram mainc ver akontroleb Sens
grZnobebs. mocemul momentSi fiqrob mxolod obieqtze an situaciaze, ramac SesaZlebelia SenSi SiSi gamoiwvios. „es fiqrebi“ avtomaturad modis Sens TavSi da ggonia, rom dauZlevelia.
gamocdileba gviCvenebs, rom Tqven SegiZliaT fobiis daZleva
da es Secvlis Tqvens cxovrebas. magaliTad, Tu gaqvT klaustrofobia, garemoeba Semdegia: SesaZloa uaris Tqma mogiwioT SesaniSnav
samuSaoze myudro ofisSi, mxolod imis gamo, rom me-16 sarTulze
unda imuSaoT, Tqven ki liftSi Cajdoma ar SegiZliaT.
Tu gaqvT simaRlis SiSi SesaZloa 20 miliT meti gaiaroT mxolod imis gamo, rom Tavidan aiciloT maRali xidebi...
gaazreba Cveni fobiisa pirveli nabijia mis dasaZlevad. mniSvnelovania vicodeT, rom fobiebi saerToa. gqondes fobia ar niSnavs , rom SeSlili xar!
0
360 /#5
fobia SiSia, ufro
swored, usafuZvlo SiSi
24
saavtoro gverdi
VS
normaluri SiSebi
fobiebi
normaluri SiSebi:
25
fobiebi:
1)geSinodes
frenis qariSxlis
dros.
1)ar waxvide Seni
saukeTeso megobris qorwilSi
imis gamo, rom
mogiwevs frena.
2)geSinodes
caTambjenze
cocvis.
2)uari Tqva
samuSaoze imis
gamo, rom me10 sarTulzea
saofise Senoba.
3)SesaZlebelia
Segipyros SiSma,
rodesac xedav
xars.
3)geSinodes
ZaRlis danaxvis
4) geSinodes
sakuTari sisxlis
danaxvis
saavtoro gverdi
4)uari Tqva
yvelanair samedicino
umtkivneulo
proceduraze
imis gamo, rom
geSinia eqimebis.
yvelaze gavrcelebuli SiSebi:
obobis SiSi; daxuruli sivrcis SiSi; gvelebis SiSi; simaRlis SiSi; qariSxlis SiSi; nemsebis, ineqciis SiSi; sazogado
saubris SiSi (es socialuri SiSia); frenis SiSi; mikrobebis
SiSi; avadmyofobis da sikvdilis SiSi.
Turme cnobil adamianebsac eSiniaT...
joni deps klounebis SiSi aqvs (koulrofobia);
pamela andersons, raoden gasakviric ar unda iyos,
sarkeSi Caxedvis eSinia(catoptrofobia);
nikolkidmans –peplebis (lepdopterofobia);
jastin timberleiks – obobebis (araqnifobia);
uma Turmans da miSel pfaifers daxuruli sivrcis
SiSi aqvT (klaustrofobia);
kianurivzsa da jeniferlopess sibnelis SiSi aqvT
(niktofobia);
madonas — Weqa-quxilis (astrafobia);
devid beqhems uwesrigobis SiSi aqvs(ataqsiofobia).
es Tema imdenad vrceli da farToa, rom saTqmelis erT
statiaSi Cateva ver moxerxda. momdevno statiaSi SemogTavazebT fobiis fizikur da emocionalur niSnebsa da simptomebs, rogor vuSveloT sakuTar Tavs aseTi SiSebis dros
da romelia maTi mkurnalobis yvelaze swori forma. rogor
gavusworoT Tvali fobiebs da davexmaroT sakuTar Tavs.
da bolos, bernard Sou ambobda: „iyo SiSis mona-yvelaze
cudi saxeobaa monobisa“, am ideas zogi daeTanxmeba, zogi
– ara, magram mTavari erTia, Cemi gaoceba ki gamoiwvia „venustrafobiam“ (lamazi qalebis SiSi).
ise, amdeni SiSis gadamkide, saerTod cocxlebi rogor
varT, magram albaT imitom, rom fobia usafuZvlo, ararealuri SiSia da sakuTari codvebisa da gonebis garda,
araferi gvemuqreba.
0
#5/360
26
fsiqologia
mogonebebi
aTboben ara
mxolod suls,
aramed sxeulsac
mariam xuciSvili
ostalgia aTbobs suls. rac ar unda gasakviri
iyos, es marTali aRmoCnda ara mxolod gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT. rogorc eqsperimentma
aCvena, sinamdvileSi, Soreul dReebze mogonebebs SeuZlia gvaiZulos, vigrZnoT fizikuri sxeuli.
kvlevebSi, romlebic gamoqveynda Jurnal „Emotin”Si, Seswavlili iyo nostalgiuri mogonebebis zegavlena Cvens fizikur reaqciebze, aRqma sicivisa da siTbosi. eqsperimenti Sedgeboda ramdenime etapisgan.
dasawyisisTvis monawileebs Txoves, ubralod,
daeweraT Tavis nostalgiur grZnobebsa da mogonebebze, spontanurad, 30 dRis ganmavlobaSi yoveldRiurad. gamovlinda, rom TviTon mogonebebi warmoiSveba xSirad da gvaxsovs imaze didxans, vidre civi
dReebia. meore cdaze monawileebi gaanawiles 3 oTaxSi: civ (200С), komfortul (240С) da cxelSi (280C), da
gamokiTxes isini Temaze– mogonebebi da SegrZnebebi.
moxaliseebi, romlebic iyvnen komfotul da Tbil
oTaxebSi, ar gansxvavdebodnen erTmaneTisgan, moxaliseebi civ oTaxidan xSirad eZleodnen karg mogonebebs
warsulidan.
Semdeg monawileebs Txoves, ganlagebuliyvnen
n
0
360 /#5
SenobaSi da gaetarebinaT dro nostalgiur an Cveulebrivi movlenebis gaxsenebaSi sakuTari cxovrebidan.
amis Semdeg SesTavazes, gamoecnoT temperatura SenobaSi. isini, vinc ganicdidnen nostalgias, grZnobdnen ufo maRal temperaturas, vidre sinamdvileSi
iyo. analogiurad, moxaliseebs Txoves gaeCerebinaT
xelebi gayinul wyalSi manam, sanam amas SeZlebdnen.
Tu am drois ganmavlobaSi gaaqtiurdeboda nostalgiuri mogonebebi, xelebs wyalSi isini aCerebdnen
ufro didxans vidre sxvebi.
,, nostalgia ganicdeba xSirad, da yvelaferi, rac
Cven vicodiT mis Sesaxeb aqamde - es aris, rom mas SeuZlia SegvinarCunos garkveuli fsiqologiuri komforti“, - Tqva eqimma tim vildSutma, universitet
sautgemtonis universitetis ufrosma leqtorma da
avtorma kvlevisa. – „magram axla Cvenma kvlevam gviCvena, rom nostalgia emsaxureba adamianis organizmis
dabalansebul mdgomareobas da saSualebas aZlevs organizms, fizikuri mdgomareobis simulizaciisa fizikuri gamocdilebis xarjze. SesaZloa aRmoCndes, rom
nostalgias SeuZlia gaaumjobesos Cveni adaptacia da
sxva fizikuri diskomforti, garda dabali temperaturisa“.
fsiqologia
27
0
#5/360
lamazi sxeuli TviTSefasebis amaRlebas uwyobs xels,
TviTSefaseba ki dakavSirebulia bednierebasTan. is, visac
lamazi sxeuli aqvs, ufro didi albaTobaa, rom bedneiri
iqneba. ra SeuZlia Cvens sxeuls? – mas SeuZlia imoZraos,
lamazad mimoixaros da rac mTavaria, mas SeuZlia Seqmnas
xelovneba. am xelovnebas ki cekva hqvia. daviwyeb imis ganmartebiT, Tu ra aris cekva.
cekva aris tanis ritmuli moZraoba an mdgomareoba,
romelic Cveulebriv musikis TanxlebiT sruldeba. sacekvao
xelovneba xalxuri Semoqmedebis erT-erTi uZvelesi gamovlinebaa. cekvas Tavidan religiuri, magiuri, saqorwino,
xolo ganviTarebuli sazogadoebisaTvis socialuri da
mxatvruli daniSnuleba hqonda. qristianobamdel epoqaSi
didi mniSvneloba hqonda ritualur cekvebs, Zveli berZnuli cekvebi dRemde axdenen zegavlenas Tanamedrove cekvebze. miuxedavad imisa, rom dasavleT evropis xalxur cekvebs
xangrZlivi istoria aqvT, aRmosvluri cekvebis tradicia
mas bevrad win uswrebs. yvela xalxs cekvis Taviseburi, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli forma aqvs Seqmnili. am safuZvelzea
Seqmnili scenuri cekva baleti. profesiuli cekva, romelmac ganviTarebis maRal safexurs miaRwia, gaxda evropuli klasikuri cekvis, agreTve aziisa da afrikis qveynebis
sacekvao sistemebis safuZveli. klasikuri tradicia me-15
saukuniT TariRdeba (italia), cekvebis pirveli dabeWdili
testebi ki – me-16 saukuniT (safrangeTi). pirveli sacekvao
skola parizSi gaixsna me-17 saukuneSi. Tanamedrove cekvebi
me-20 saukunis p irmSoa.
ra moaqvs cekvas? mas moaqvs udidesi siamovneba, xdeba
adamianis gantvirTva, emociebisgan dacla. garda amisa,
didi xania cekva wamladaa aRiarebuli, radgan ganwyobis
gaumjobesebis garda, seriozul daavadebebsac kurnavs.
cekvis dros advilad ixsneba aramarto kunTovani daZabuloba, aramed naTldeba cnobiereba, umjobesdeba emociuri
mdgomareoba da inteleqtualuri unarebi. gansakuTrebiT
sasargeblo cekva maTTvisaa, vinc mieCvia negatiuri emociebis dagrovebas da maTTan ganSoreba garSemo myofebisaTvis
Tavs moxvevis gareSe ar SeuZlia. cekva adamians depresiidan gamosvlasa da samyaros axleburad danaxvaSi exmareba.
aseve dadagenilia, rom cekvas SeuZlia iSemiuri daavadebebis riskis Semcireba; nivTierebaTa cvlisa da imunitetis normalizacia; Zvlebis gamagreba, osteoporozisa da motexilobebis riskis Semcireba; bronqitebis gaqroba; asTmis
mimdinareobis Semsubuqeba; siarulis maneris, welis daWeris, aRnagobisa da moqnilobis gaumjobeseba. – esaa cekvisgan
miRebuli dadebiTi efeqtebis mciredi CamonaTvali.
cekvis dawyeba arasdrosaa gvian. ukuCvenebebic TiTqmis
ar arsebobs, ubralod, iseTi saxeobis SerCevaa saWiro,
romelic swored TqvenTvis iqneba Sesaferisi, xolo Tu
rame qronikuli daavadeba gaqvT, maSin cekvis dawyebamde
gaiareT konsultacia eqimTan da cekvis maswavlebelTan im-
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360 /#5
cekva
es janmrTelobaa
28
saavtoro gverdi
saavtoro gverdi
29
anano muqaTariZe
isTvis, rom TqvenTvis optimaluri fizikuri datvirTva
ganisazRvros.
uamravi sacekvao skola arsebobs, sadac SegiZliaT is
cekva SearCioT, rac Tqveni temperamentis Sesabamisi iqneba,
ufro mogixdebaT da sargebelic uzarmazari iqneba.
stili ”laTino” dRes metad popularia. mamba, rumba,
Ca-Ca-Ca, salsa – nebismier wveulebaze yuradRebis centrSi
mogaqcevT. figurasac male Seetyoba, radgan moZraobebis
gansakuTrebuloba isaa, rom cekvaSi CarTulia menjis kunTebi da TeZoebi. Sedegad, menjisa da TeZoebis saxsrebi
varjiSdeba, umjobesdeba sisxlis mimoqceva mcire menjis
arealis organoebSi, xdeba ginekologiuri da seqsualuri
darRvevebis, profilaqtika. laTinuri cekvebi kargi saSualebaa depresiis gasamklaveblad.
cekva kargia osteoqondrozis samkurnalodac. cekvis
dros didi yuradReba eTmoba tanis daWeras. es amagrebs welis kunTebs, ayalibebs swor dgomas, xsnis gul–mkerds da
mxrebs.
induri cekvebi garda kargi fsiqoTerapevtuli efeqtisa, did daxmarebas uwevs diabetiT, hipertoniiTa da arTritis sxvadasxva formiT daavadebul adamianebs.
kelturi cekvebi rekomendebulia sqoliozisa da lordozis dros. asworebs fexis formas. fexebis mkveTri,
Zlieri moZraobebi da zurgis sworad da uZravad daWeris
aucilebloba praqtikulad yvela kunTs amuSavebs. magrdeba
fexebisa da TeZoebis dundula nawilebi, varjiSdeba gulsisxlZarRvovani da sasunTqi sistema.
arabuli cekvebi yvelaze amaRelvebeli da sasargebloa
qalebisTvis. muclis cekva mxolod Tavisi faqizi erotizmiT
araa mimzidveli. es moZraoba gansakuTrebulad amuSavebs muclis yvela Rrma kunTs da diafragmas. cekvis dros Sinagani
organoebis msubuqi masaJi, nawlavis muSaobis stimulireba
xdeba. muclis cekva ginekologiuri daavadebebis mSvenieri
profilaqtikacaa. muSavdeba xerxemlis yvela monakveTi,
rac sxeuls saocrad moqnilsa da plastikurs xdis.
foqstroti alcheimeris avadmyofobis gaCenas aferxebs,
rac amerikeli mecnierebis kvlevebiT dasturdeba. gansakuTrebiT sasargeblo xandazmuli damianebisTvis.
CaCaCa -cekvaa, romelic xels uwyobs rogorc fizikur,
aseve gonebrivi SesaZleblobebis ganviTarebas. amerikel
mecierTa azriT, CaCaCa zrdis yuradRebianobas, radganac
es aris yvelaze rTulad dasaTvleli cekva
valsi yvelaze nazi da romantikuli cekvaa. misi Sesruleba nervul sistemas aZlierebs, dadebiTad moqmedebs
tvinis muSaobaze, avarjiSebs vestibiularul aparats da
Rrma harmoniisa da kmayofilebis grZnoba moaqvs.
ai ase, sasiamovno SeuTavseT sasargeblos - es cekvaa. amitom vicekvoT yvelgan da yovelTvis, sadac amis SesaZlebloba mogvecema. vinc am statias waikiTxavT, CarTeT Tqveni
sayvareli miusika. igrZeniT riTmi da gadaeSviT siamovnebis
morevSi, iq Tqven janmrTeloba geliT.
0
#5/360
30
musika
xarisxiani
musikis
samsaxurSi
interviu
gigi vanderTan
sofo cirgaia
gigi vanderi, igive gigi WipaSvili, Cveni drois erT-erTi warmatebuli
pianistia. pianistis kariera man Svidi wlis asakSi niWierTa aTwledidan
daiwyo, Semdeg iyo Tbilisis saxelmwifo konservatoria, romlis
dasrulebis Semdegac swavlis gasagrZeleblad bostonSi gaemgzavra.
TbilisSi dabrunebis Semdeg gadacema “feiskontrolis“ musikalur
gaformebaze zrunavda, swored am gadacemis saSualebiT gaicno gigi
farTo sazogadoebam. hqonda jgufi “City life”, romelic dReisaTvis
aRar arsebobs da gigic solo karieraSi Tavs bevrad ukeT grZnobs.
- Tqvens bavSvobaze mogviyeviT. rogor daukavSirdiT
- mogexsenebaT, musikaluri cxovreba bostonSi duRs.
musikas da ram gamoiwvia es?
bevri adamiani gavicani da urTierTobis damyarebac ar
- musikaze pirvelad deidam Semiyvana. 7 wlis viyavi
niWierTa aTwledSi rom daviwye swavla. miuxedavad imisa, rom miyvarda musika, verasdros warmovidgendi, Tu
musikosi gavxdebodi. Zalian zarmaci viyavi, magram radgan gulis siRrmeSi ase miyvarda, nel-nela mecadineobiT
daviwye da veRarc SevCerdi.
- ram gadagawyvetinaT swavlis sazRvargareT gagrZeleba?
gamWirvebia maTTan. didi skola gaviare did musikosebTan da amis Semdeg gavakeTeT musikaluri jgufi,sadac me
klaviSze vukravdi da simRerebs vwerdi.erTi simRera
warmatebuli gamodga da jildoc daimsaxura. Zalian didi
SemoqmedebiTi ganaTleba miviRe mag periodSi.
- stiv vanderis Tayvanismcemeli xarT. rodis mousmineT mas pirvelad?
- rac Tavi maxsovs, vanderi miyvars. CemTan yvelaze ax-konservatoriis damTavrebis Semdeg, bostonidan los misi simRerebia, amitomac vafaseb mas. is Cveni drois
mowveva momivida -gamocdaze Camodio. Cavedi, Cavabare yvelaze magari musikosia.
da damafinanses. ase davukavSirdi amerikas. jazi da pop- rogorc vici, stiv vanders SexvdiT kidec. am Sexvedraze miambeT.
musika bavSvobidan CemSi iyo da swored amitom, amerika
-2008 wlis ivnisSi, mis koncertze wavedi. gavige, rom
yvelaze kargi arCevani iyo CemTvis.
- rogor cxovrobdiT bostonSi? rogorc vici, iq saku- koncertis Semdeg miReba eqneboda. moxvedrisaTvis speTari jgufic CamoayalibeT...
cialuri stikeri iyo saWiro, romelic xvewna-xvewniT vi-
0
360 /#5
musika
31
Sove da miRebazec aRmovCndi. mas davukari misi sami simRera. es saocreba iyo. Cemi didi ocneba axda. vesaubre da
rCevebic miviRe. aseve, misi bendis wevrebsac davuaxlovdi.
gadarCena jazfestivalebia, sadac namdvil musikas movusmenT, magram amis gageba rCeulTa xvedria. didi muSaobaa saWiro, rom eri cudi musikis Crdilidan gamoZvres
da usminos namdvils. me imedi ar maqvs, radgan rac dro
- legendarulma musikosma Tqveni tatus Sesaxebac gadis, miT ufro uaresobaa, Tumca, raRac nawilis gamosgaigo. xelze stiv vanderi gaweriaT. rogori reaqcia woreba SeiZleba kargi aRzrdiT.
hqonda ?
- rogoria Tqveni samomavlo gegmebi?
- tatus Sesaxeb sxvebma uTxres da Zalian gaukvirda,
- dafinansebas velodebi axla saxelmwifosgan da
TeTrkanianisgan aseT siyvaruls ar eloda.
aucileblad gavemgzavrebi amerikaSi. manamde win bevri
- bevrma arc icis, rom gvarad WipaSvili xarT da yve- musikaluri gegmaa: sxvadasxva momRerlebTan musikaluri
la vanderiT mogmarTavT. es garkveulwilad diskomsaRamoebi...
forts xom ar giqmniT?
- Tqvens Tayvanismcemlebs rames xom ar etyodiT?
- saerTod ara. yvela vanderiT micnobs da arasdros
- Zalian mixaria, rom isini bevrni arian da Cemi musika
mqonia problema amasTan dakavSirebiT. piriqiT, Zalian
Tu cxovreba moswonT. madloba maT Tbili sityvebisTvis,
komfortulad vgrZnob Tavs.
aseve imisTvis, rom mismenen. arasdros gamigia kritika im- ra iyo saqarTveloSi Camosvlis da darCenis mizaze, rasac vakeTeb.Z alian mixaria da veferebi yvelas.
ezi?
- sabuTebi mqonda gasakeTebeli da kvlav dafinanseba
mWirdeboda, magram viza aRar gamigrZeles. axla velodebi dafinansebas da imedia, male davbrundebi ukan.
- sazogadoebis didma nawilma “feiskontroliT”
gagicnoT. rogor moxvdiT am gadacemaSi?
- pirvelad stumris statusiT mimiwvies, rogorc
musikosi. albaT moewonaT da kidev damirekes, rom mivsuliyavi. Semdeg ki ukve StatSi Camsves da Zalianac davmegobrdiT.
- saqarTveloSi,aCiko niJaraZesTan erTad jgufi
“City life” CamoayalibeT, Tumca, 2 welSi daiSala...
ra iyo amis mizezi?
- diax, samwuxarod, es jgufi aRar aris, radgan aCikom
gadawyvita, rom isev qarTuli simRerisTvis miexeda. mec
davTanxmdi da axla solo kariera maqvs da, simarTle
giTxraT, asec mirCevnia.
- giTqvamT Tu ara, romelime momRerlisTvis uari imis
gamo, rom misi repertuari ar mogwonebiaT?
- ki, bevrisTvis. saxelebs ver CamovTvli, magram maTi
repertuari Zalian ar momwons da vfiqrob, rom aris bevri ugemovno da ara maRali klasis musika, ris gavrcelebasac me ver Sevuwyob xels .
- ramden saaTs uTmobT dRe-RameSi musikas?
- simarTle giTxra, 24 saaTi musikaze var damokidebuli. musika Cemi cxovrebaa da mis gareSe ver viarsebeb.
yovel wams siaxlis molodinSi vatareb, rom musika iyos
namdvili da xarisxiani.
- rogor uTanxmebT erTmaneTs pirad cxovrebasa da
karieras?
- eg marTla rTulia, miTumetes Cemnairi adamianisTvis. me marTla fanatikurad var Seyvarebuli musikaze,
rac SesaZloa Zalian rTuli iyos Cemi meore naxevrisTvis.
jer ar var aqtiurad CarTuli pirad cxovrebaSi da ar
maqvs yuradReba amaze gadatanili, radgan vici, rom mag
sakiTxSic Zalian mondomebuli viqnebi da ar minda aman
musikaze imoqmedos.
- qarTvel musikosebze ra azris xarT?
- ra Tqma unda, Zalian bevri kargi musikosia, romlebzec me did imedebs vamyareb. isini Cemi uaxloesi megobrebi arian. amaT garda arian „mxecebi“: beqa goCiaSvili,
giorgi miqaZe, xatia buniaTiSvili, salome korkotaSvili
da Zalian vafaseb maT.
- rogor afasebT dRevandeli qarTuli sazogadoebis
musikalur gemovnebas?
- dRevandeli musikaluri gemovneba msoflioSi ganicdis kriziss, amitom Cvenc Zalian gviWirs. erTaderTi
0
#5/360
32
musika
Tamar kapanaZe
Jazz crusaders
„jazis jvarosnebi
da axdenili ocnebebi
„es is jgufia, romlis musikasac ara mxolod
unda mousmino, aramed unda gaigono da igrZno.“
1960 wels, roca hiustonSi Camoyalibebuli “The
Swingsters ” (klaviSi– jo sempli, drameri – stiqs
huperi, saqsafonisti – uil tonfelderi, trombonisti – vaian hendersoni) los-anjelesSi warmatebis
saZieblad gadabargda da saxelic gamoicvala, veravin warmoidgenda, rom 50 wlis Semdeg isini TbilisSi daukravdnen da iq iqneboda gogona, romelic
bendze mTeli 34 wliT umcrosia da maT koncertze
moxvedraze ocnebobs.
„jazis jvarosnebs“ (Jazz crusaders) am saxelma warmateba marTlac apovnina maTi kontraqti „Pacific
Jazz Records“-Tan Sedga. maTi Hard bop-ze agebuli kompoziciebi R&B da soulis elementebiT cudi namdvilad ar aRmoCnda.
0
360 /#5
ar vici, saxelis damsaxurebaa es, Tu im musikis,
isini rom qmnian, magram “Jazz Crusaders” samocdaaTianebis sakmaod popularuli jaz-bendi gaxda,
romelic aramarto jazs, aramed popsa da soulsac
irgebda.
1971 wels maT saxeli kidev ufro Seamokles,
magram “jvarosnobas” ver Seelien da amjerad mxolod “ The Crusaders” darCnen, am periodSi maT basi da
eleqtrogitarac daamates. xvdebodnen ara marto
jaz aramed R&B da pop Cartebis prestiJul adgilebze. „jvarosnebis“ SemoqmedebaSi Funk-is, Fusion-isa
da Soul-is elementebi swored am periodSi daemata.
1975 welis “qrusaderebisTvis” rigiT mecxe,
jgufis istoriaSi ki 28-e albomi –“Those Southern
Knights” gamouSves, Tumca maleve hendersonma jgufi
datova da mTeli Zalebi prodiuserobisken mimarTa,
utrombonistod darCenil jgufs male drameri stiqs
huperic gamoaklda da am sicarielm jgufis damaxasiaTebeli stili sul Secvala.
huperis wasvliT isini popularobis mwvervalidan
nel-nela dabla daeSvnen, magram Zveleburi SemarTeba
da melodiuroba, romelic maTSi msmenels ase uyvarda
ar daukargavT.
1991 wels semplma da felderma Seqmnes albomi “Wrilobebis Sexorceba”( „Healing the Wounds“), romelmac maT
Zveli dideba sul Tu ara, nawilobriv mainc daubruna
da isini pirvel adgilze moeqcnen “Top Contemporary Jazz
chart“–Si, 2003 wels bendma ori axali albomi gamouSva.
“jvarosnebi” kvlav ikrebdnen Zalebs da 2010 wels,
swored maSin, roca maT jer kidev ar icodnen, rom TbilisSi moelian, semplma daanonsa, rom isini kvlav dabrundnen, dabrundnen Zvelebi. adamianebi, romlebmac
“jazis jvarosnebis” legenda Seqmnes (huperis gamoklebiT) da isini kvlav iwyeben jazis sakuTar istorias,
mTeli 2010 weli gawerilia da am ganrigSi Tbilisis
jaz-festivalic moxvda.
jaz-festivalze ki movxvdi me da SevZeli, cocxlad
momesmina „jvarosnebisaTvis“, romlebmac TbilisSi
mTlianad akustikuri programa Camoitanes.
koncerti dinamiurad da mxiarulad midioda, darbazi mTlianad maTi musikis zegavlenaSi moeqca. ritmi
erTi wuTiTac ki ar Cavardnila, eqspresiuli, cocxali
da namdvili jazi uxvad iRvreboda scenidan, mayureblis ovacia udavo mowonebis niSani iyo. mokled, “qrusaiderebma” Cemi molodini ki ar gaamarTles, aramed
gadaaWarbes kidec.
me albaT gamimarTla, rom maT koncertze daswreba
SevZeli. gamimarTla, rom movusmine ionas uolmis Sesrulebas saqsofonze, regi salivanis virtuozul bas
partiebs da SesaniSnav uein hendersons, romelic namdvilad amarTlebs zedmet saxels „Trombone“. gansakuTrebiT gamamxiarula misma qarTulma “madlobam”, Mr
Trombone-s, savaraudod, misi JReradoba moswonda da
yoveli kompoziciis Semdeg orjer mainc warmosTqvamda mas melodiuri aqcentiT.
jo sempli jgufis udavo lideria, swored mas mihyavda musika, maTTvis ase bunebrivi da „jvarosnuli“.
koncerti bisze Sesrulebuli „The way back home“-Ti
dasrulda da „jvarosnebmac“ isev saxlisken aiRes gezi.
qarTvel msmenels ki dautoves musika, romelic unda
igrZno.
musika
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34
CemTvis saintereso
furcelze
gadmosuli
uTqmeli
sityvebi
interviu roin abuseliZesTan
Teona araxamia
poezia misi stiqiaa... leqsi-misi sxeulis nawili. wers imas,rasac
grZnobs da zogjer, misi uTqmeli sityvebic leqsebSi mJRavndeba.. es
baTumeli poeti roin abuseliZea.es is poetia, romelic internet
sivrceSi SemoiWra leqsiT “Cemi nene” da miipyro yvelas yuradReba. es
leqsi uecrad aitaca xalxma da ise Seiyvara misi avtoric, rom bevrma,
vinaobac ar icoda. dRes, ki, 24 wlis roin abuseliZis saxeli da misi
Semoqmedebac, TiTqmis, mTeli sqarTvelosaTvis ,kargadaa ,cnobili da
mis poeziis saRamoebssac yvela, mouTmenlad , elodeba.
-farTo auditoriam gagicnoT inetrnet sivrceSi gavrcelebuli leqsiT „Cemi nene“. ise aitaca igi xalxma, rom
bevrma avtoric ki ar icoda.rogor fiqrobT, ra gaxda am
leqsis warmatebis mizezi?
-dagvisaxeleT, Tu gyavT sayvareli poeti ,romlis
leqsebzec gaizardeT da romelmac didi gavlena moaxdina Tqvenze da Tqvnes Semoqmedebaze?
Zalian bevri sayvareli poeti myavs, konkretuli erTis
gamoyofa ar SemiZlia, zrdas rac Seexeba, bavSvobaSi naklebad mitacebda poezia da ufro skolaSi vecnobodi ama Tu im
avtors, dRes , ki, vTvli , rom bevri Zalian kargi Semoqmedis
xelovnebas vicnob da bevric wasakiTxi maqvs, jer kidev...
albaT is problemebi romlebic dRes sxvadasxva saxiT
dgeba Cvens winaSe, azrTa sxvadasxvaoba da rigi cvlilebebi, romlebic mimdinareobs dRes, saqarTveloSi. Tumc Cemi
leqsi ar yofila araferze gaTvlili da me ar gamipiarebia,
mZuls TviTon sityva „piari“, poeziasTan arafer kavSirSi
-gansakuTrebuli pirobebi Tu gWirdebaT werisaTvis?
ar unda iyos igi. zemoT xsenebuli leqsi,ki, Cemi saTqmeli
ara, gansakuTrebuli araferia saWiro werisTvis. yveiyo ubralod da vTqvi.
laze mTavari ki,albaT, aris is, rom rodesac vwer, marto
-xSirad werTfereidanSi gadasaxlebul, „gaTurqebul“ viyo.
qarTvelebze-Cveneburebze,raime konkretuli mizezis
gamo xom ar aris es Tma TqvenTvis aqtualuri?
- nikoloz baraTaSvilis premiisa da „leqsebis
gamofenis“ pirveli adgilis mflobeli xarT.ras niSnavs
TqvenTvis amgvar konkursebSi gamarjveba da ramdenad
mniSvnelovania?
gaTurqebuli qarTveli cudad JRers, zustad unda
dafiqsirdes is, rom ZaliT akeTebdnen amas Cveni mtrebi, rac
xalxisTvis ramdenad mniSvnelovania , ar vici, radgan
leqss Seexeba , mizezic sazogadoa, vfiqrob ar unda gvaviwydebodes is xalxi, romlebic dRes, samwuxarod, Cvens sam- piradi sixarulis garda araferi moutania am warmatebas
CemTvis. vTvli, rom konkursSi gamarjveba poets ar zrdis
SobloSi ar moisazrebian da qarTvelebihqviaT .
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CemTvis saintereso
35
da gaumarjvebloba ar akninebs, albaT ,es ufro pativisce- cdilobs, Tumca, es drois faqtoria, istoria gadaafasebs.
istorias ki qmnian niWieri, namdvili Semoqmedebi.
mis gamoxatvaa, mkiTxvelis mxridan Tu SevxedavT.
-gyavT ulamazesi meuRle da Svili, romlebsac gansa-Tqveni azriT, ra aris mwerlis funqcia da Tavad rogor
kuTrebuli adgili uWiravT Tqvens poeziaSic...arc meoarTmevT Tavs?
jaxobaa advili saqme da arc leqsebis wera. xels xom ar
galas sityvebs moviSvelieb: “davdgeT iq, sadac qariSxauSlis es ori erTmaneTs?
lia“ - vfiqrob, swored esaa mwerlis funqciac.
ar uSlis. es ori sxvadasxva ramaa CemTvis, rac erTmaneT- socialur qselSi giweriaT, „muSaobs ‘ sakuTar TavSio’
“ - ras niSnavs es,rogor muSaobT „sakuTar TavSi“?
Tan winaaRmdegobaSi ar mosula jer.
„gwamdes, gavxi Seni grZnobis emigranti
sisxli aduRda da Seferadda
radgan imnairad Semiyvardi,
rogorc kvazimodos esmeralda..“
reJimiT - romelsac varRvev. ufro konkretulad imis
Tqma SemiZlia, rom vwer da Tu es saqmea , maSin , weris garda,
sxva e.w saqme ar gamaCnia.
- naTqvamia, mwerals yvela Tavisi nawarmoebi SviliviT
uyvarso ,magram mainc gkiTxavT,gamorCeulad Tu giyvarT Tqveni romelime leqsi ,romeli da ratom?
ramodenime leqsi miyvars gansakuTrebiT,Tumc gamovar- leqsebSi naTelia rois usazRvro siyvaruli, cxovreCevdi „mamaCemi“-s
baSi rogor gamoxatav mas?
radgan es leqsi Cemi sulieri mdgomareobis da mamasTan
- leqsi albaT is aris rasac ver gamoxatav da wer, Tumc ,
es imas ar niSnavs , rom ar gamovxatav siyvaruls cxovrebaSi, damokidebulebis zusti nimuSia. („Ramea sxvaTa Soris,
ubralod, yvela is uTqmeli sityva grovdeba , romelic am
gancdaTa Sejereba,
grZnobis gancdisas unda gveTqva da ver vTqviT, es yvelaferi
rTulia usaSvelod
erTmaneTs emateba da furcelze gadmodis leqsad.
-erTgan werT : „saqarTveloSi-fexze ikidebs leqsebs!..
poetis ganaCeni,
isea masa“- rogor fiqrobT, dRes literatura da poezia
Zalian araferi,
saTanado doneze ar dgas sazogadoebaSi?
ubralod mewereba
dRes mkiTxvelis done poeziaze saocrad dabla dgas, moda axla mamasaviT
miteveT, magram asea. xalxs rasac awvdis televizia da inmaklia mamaCemi.“
terneti ,is moswons da es cudia. ise, amaSi ufro masmedias
vadanaSauleb.
-samomavlo gegmebze ras metyviT: poeziis saRamos gama-Tanamedrove poetebze ras ityviT? „TiTqos mravldebian poetebi, magram poezia ara Cans.“-es striqonebi
erTgvari sayveduri xom ar aris maT mimarT?
rTvas an wignis gamoSvebas xom ar apirebT axlo momavalSi?
arasodes ar damigegmavs saRamo, wignis gamoSvebas rac
Zalian kargi Taoba modis, Zalian. gamravlebas rac Seexe- Seexeba, Tu gamovuSveb, minda, rom mec momwondes konkreba da mag striqons, is igulisxmeba rom ,TiTqosda, modaSi Se- tulad Cemi surviliT gamoSvebuli wigni da jer verafriT
movida wera. amasTanave ,dRes,yoveli meore Tavis gamoCenas movawone Cemi leqsebi roin abuseliZes .
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36
memkvidreoba
iq, sadac Tanamedroveoba
Zaldautaneblad exmianeba warsuls
euZlebelia Cven vcxovrobdeT awmyoSi da ar vicodeT sakuTari qveynis istoria, es maSin,
rodesac bevr ers arc ki hqonia warsuli. sakuTari Tavis Secnoba ki swored maSin iwyeba,
rodesac vmogzaurobT im didebul ganZTsacavSi, sadac Cveni sulieri da xorcieli vinaobis krebuli inaxeba; sadac naCvenebia, ra gza gaviareT, rom dRevandelobamde movsuliyaviT. adgils, sadac SesaZlebelia, igrZno warsulisa da awmyos pulsacia erTdroulad,
muzeumi ewodeba da, sabednierod, arc Tu ise cota gvaqvs saqarTveloSi. dRes Tqvens yuradRebas
Tbilisis istoriis muzeumze SevaCereb da vecdebi gamogzauroT iq, sadac Tanamedroveoba Zaldautaneblad exmianeba warsuls.
Tbilisis istoriis saxelmwifo muzeumi (qarvasla), rogorc qarTveli xalxis materialur da
sulier faseulobaTa ganZTsacavi, imdroindeli qalaqis TviTmarTvelobis mier ‘’municipaluri
muzeumis’’ saxelwodeniT daarsda 1910 wels.
arsebobis 95 wlis manZilze muzeumis fondebSi Tavi moiyara 50 aTasze metma eqsponatma. muzeumSi Camoyalibebulia xelovnebis, arqeologiis, saojaxo nivTebis (keramika da sxv.), xis (aveji, musikaluri instrumentebi, maketebi, xis saojaxo nivTebi...), negativebisa da fotosuraTebis, saarqivo
dokumentebis (Zveli sabuTebi, naxazebi, gegmebi, rukebi, programebi da sxva), numizmatikis da fragistikis (monetebi, rogorc arqeologiuri gaTxrebis Sedegad mopovebuli, aseve axlad Semosuli),
saWurvelis (masSi Sedis iseTi iaraRebi, romelsac ara aqvs vercxlis elementebi, xanjlebi da omis
droindeli yumbaris namsxvrevebi, xelnakeTi danebi, jaWvis perangi) fondebi, aseve patar-patara
fondebi, romlebSic Sedis samkaulebi, vazebi, dana-Canglebi, qvabebi, xaliCebi da tansacmeli.
es yvelaferi saSualebas iZleva, Tvali vadevnoT qalaqis istorias, mis yofas da kulturas
Zv.welTaRricxvis IV aTaswleulis bolodan, rodesac am teritoriaze pirveli samosaxloebi gaCnda, dRemde.
pirvel darbazSi, stacionarul eqspoziciaSi warmodgenilia Tbilisis istoria uZvelesi xanidan dRemde. unikaluri arqeologiuri, dokumenturi, foto- masalis saSualebiT naCvenebia gza,
rac gaiara Tbilisma, sanam jer qarTlis, Semdeg saqarTvelos da bolos amierkavkasiis politikuri, ekonomikuri da kulturuli cxovrebis centrad iqceoda.
SesvlisTanave TvalSi mogxvdebaT fragmenti uZvelesi matianedan – „moqcevai qarTlisai“ (VII).
esaa Tbilisis pirveli moxsenieba werilobiT wyaroebSi. masSi laparakia sparsTa mefis mixelis
pitiaxSis mier Tbilisis cixis aRebis Sesaxeb (sur.). mas gverds umSvenebs vaxtang gorgaslisa da
petre kaTalikosis freskis asli sveticxovelis taZridan. Semdeg mas mohyveba unikaluri arqeologiuri masala adrebrinjaos xana (Zv. w. XXV-XXIIIs. s), adreSuasaukuneebis xana (ax.w.IV-Xss. erekle
II-is saxelobis moedani. nariyala), ganviTarebuli Suasaukuneebis xana (ax.w. XI-XIIIs.s 300 aragvelis
saxelobis baRi, Taboris cixe), gviani Suasaukuneebis xana (ax.wXIV-XVIIIs.s), Semdgom warmodgenilia
wminda nikolozis saxelobis (XII) eklesiis (nariyala) kedlis fragmenti asomTavruli warweriT.
warwera naklulia da ikiTxeba Semdegnaira „..angelozTa...codva da madli isnelTa..’’
S
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360 /#5
memkvidreoba
37
aqvea erekle II-is nivTebi: iaraRebi, WurWeli. traqtatis asli beWdiT.
momdevno darbazSi warmodgenilia maketebi da fotomasala:
1)Tbilisis saqalaqo TviTmmarTvelobis Senoba erevnis moedanze;
2)maketi metexis taZrisa da cixe;
3)erovnuli samosebi da aqsesuarebi;
4)etli;
5)konkis patara maketebi.
darbazSi agreTve warmodgenilia Tbilisuri aivniani saxlebis maketebi.
Semdgom saamqroebis dasaTvarieleblad vinacvlebT. vxvdebiT vercxlis saamqros, mklavis
saxelosnos, xidis duqans, xaliCebisa da fardagebis saamqroebs, dasasvenebel oTaxs. TiToeul
samqros hqonda Tavisi droSa, romelzedac yvela TanamSromeli debda Tavisi saqmis erTgulebis
fics.
mcire darbazSi warmodgenilia „qalaquri bina’’ – XIX saukunis meore naxevris SeZlebuli Tbiliseli moqalaqis interieri da sayofacxovrebo nivTebi. gamofena Sesrulebulia cnobili baletmaisteris iuri zareckis koleqciis safuZvelze. igi moicavs rusuli da evropuli warmoSobis sxvadasxva stilis (baroko, rokoko, klasicizmi) avejs. saxviTi xelovnebis nimuSebs (ferwera, grafika,
xatwera, miniatura, mcire plastika), gamoyenebiTi da dekoratiuli xelovnebis nimuSebis faifuris, brolis, minis, fraJes, brinjaos larnakebs, WaRebs, Sandlebs, WurWels da a.S. romelTa udidesi nawilebic XVII-XIX saukuneebiT TariRdeba.
warmodgenili gamofena logikuri dasasrulia Tbilisis istoriis muzeumis eqspoziciisa
,,Tbilisi uZvelesi droidan XX saukunis dasawyisamde’’(sur.).
warsulis amsaxvel masalebTan erTad Tbilisis istoriis muzeumi warmogvidgens Tanamedrove
xelovnebasac. Senobis mesame sarTulze funqcionirebs Tanamedrove xelovnebis sagamofeno seqtori, romelic sistematiurad asaxavs Tanamedrove qarTuli xelovnebis mdgomareobas.
Tbilisis istoriis saxelmwifo muzeums saqarTvelos muzeumebs Soris gansakuTrebuli adgili
ukavia. es ganpirobebulia aramarto misi fondebis simdidriT da saintereso eqspoziciiT, aramed
imiTac, rom muzeumi ganTavsebulia istoriul SenobaSi. damTvalierebeli xvdeba Zvelebur qarvaslaSi, rac kidev ufro aZlierebs STabeWdilebas. es aris Tbilisis erTaderTi muzeumi, romlis
forma da Sinaarsic organulad erwymis erTmaneTs da sadac Tanamedroveoba Zaladautaneblad exmianeba warsuls.
neli SavlaZe
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38
Cveni problema
xelovnebis SimSili
kve wlebia qarTul sazogadoebaSi Rrmad gaudgams fesvebi xelovnebis SimSils. xelovnebis ukvdavi
wyaro, rogoricaa Teatri, internetma da bestselerebis kiTxvam Caanacvla. aq wina planze sulierebisa da samSoblos siyvarulis nacvlad, materialuri faseulobebi da vnebaTa aboboqrebuli Relvaa
wamoweuli, romlebic adamianebs uzneo cxovrebis ken mouwodeben da samudamod aSoreben im madliT
mofenil gzas, romelsac uflis usazRvro rwmenisa da siyvarulisaken mivyavarT.
dReebi wylis dinebasTan erTad midian. adamianebi arafers akeTeben imisaTvis, rom xelovnebis mwvave SimSilisagan gamowveuli ukidegano sicariele mravlis mTqmeli literaturis wakiTxviTa da amaRelvebeli
spektaklis naxviT Secvalon, iseTi sanaxaobiT, sadac mravali cnobili wignis personaJia gacocxlebuli da
mayurebels SeuZlia imis danaxva, Tu ras ganicdida aleqsandre yazbegis goCa, rodesac onises qmedebas gansjida, Tu ras SeigrZnobdnen daTo turaSvilis ,,jinsebis Taobis’’ gmirebi, gega da Tina, rodesac gamTeniisas
nariyalaze adiodnen da erTmaneTis siyvaruliTa da cqeriT tkbebodnen.
aRsaniSnavia, rom arsebobs sayvareli adamianis daviwyebis xelovneba da is individi, romelic wlebis ganmavlobaSi erT adamianzea mijaWvuli da siyvarulis gamo TviTmkvlelobas mimarTavs (Tumca minda xazgasmiT
vTqva – siyvarulis gamo mxolod kinoSi iklaven Tavs), sayvareli adamianis daviwyebis xelovnebis arqoniT da
am faqtisgan gamowveuli SimSiliT nadgurdeba, umetes SemTxvevaSi ki, sulier krizissac ganicdis.
amasTanave, msoflio xelovneba da mwerlobac erTgvar „xelovnebis SimSilis malarias“ moucavs, vinaidan, istoriaSi yvelaze mwuxare da mgrZnobiare striqonebia: ,,daviwyebulni da gamorCeulni’’.
sazogadoeba aucileblad unda icnobdes:
u
rudolf fon alti daibada 1812 wlis 28 agvistos avstriis dedaqalaq
venaSi da warmoadgenda erTerT gamoCenil avstriel
mxatvar-akvarelists. samxatvro xelovnebis niWi mas
bavSvobidanve Tan dahyva da
misi pirveli maswavlebeli
rudolfis mama iakob alti
(1789-1862 ww) iyo, romelic
aseve cnobili avstrieli
mxatvari, grafikosi da liTografi gaxldaT. 1828 wlidan ki rudolfi saxviTi
xelovnebis srulyofilad
Seswavlis mizniT Cairicxa
venis saxviTi xelovnebis akademiaSi. swavlis dasrulebis Semdeg mamasTan erTad
imogzaura evropis masStabiT, ra drosac gaecno sxvadasxva qveynebis xelovnebas, rac asaxa kidec sakuTar SemoqmedebaSi.
am periods ukavSirdeba mis mier Sesrulebuli naxatebi: alpebis,
italiis, bavariis, dunais olqisa da bohemiis peizaJebi. rudolfis
mTavar saxatav saSualebas akvareli warmoadgenda da mxatvris suraTebi gamoirCeoda daxvewili formebiT. rudolf fon altis funjs ekuTvnis cnobili tilo „Stefansdomi”, romelzec gamosaxulia
venis wminda stefanes saxelobis taZari. rudolfi gardaicvala
1905 wlis 12 marts venaSi da swored iq iqna dakrZaluli. misi namuSevrebi dResac amSveneben msoflios mraval cnobil galereebs da
damTvalierebelSi did mowonebas imsaxureben.
georg zamfiri - daibada 1941 wlis 6 aprils rumineTis qalaq
geeStSi. igi warmoadgens erT-erT saukeTeso ruminel musikoss da Semsrulebels mravali SesaniSnavi musikaluri nawarmoebisa ulamazesi
hangebis gamomcem pan-fleitaze. Tavdapirvelad zamfiri dainteresebuli iyo akordeonis SeswavliT, Tumca 14 wlis asakSi Seiswavla pan–
fleita. Caabara buqarestis samusiko akademiaSi, sadac swavla gaiara
didi rumineli musikosis, feikae lukas xelmZRvanelobiT. is dain-
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360 /#5
teresda pan-fleitis sxva
versiis SeswavliT, kerZod,
ruminuli erovnuli sasule musikaluri sakravis
variantiT, romelsac nai
ewodeba da male masze Sesrulebis saukeTeso musikosadac iqca msoflioSi. panfleitisagan gansxvavebiT
nai 20-30 milisagan Sedgeba da gamoscems unikalur
JReradobas, romliTac msmeneli ixibleba. swored am
musikalur sakravzea Sesrulebuli enio morikones
mier dawerili mravali
musika filmebisaTvis da maT
Soris yvelasaTvis nacnobi
filmisaTvis “erTxel amerikaSi”, romlis erT-erT
cnobil musikasac, swored
georg zamfiri asrulebs.
farTo publikis winaSe georgi 1960-ian wlebSi warsdga, Sveicareli
musikosis marselo seles mxardaWeriT da Tavdapirvelad asrulebda
ruminul erovnul kompoziciebs. misma niWma da saSemsruleblo talantma imTaviTve didi yuradReba da mowoneba daimsaxura. pirveli
jildo ki mas yvelasaTvis cnobilma kompoziciam, “martoxela mwyemsma” moutana 1959 wels, romelic Seasrula cnobili germaneli kompozitoris, jeik lastis orkestrTan erTad. garda imisa, rom zamfiri didi musikosia, wers leqsebs da kargad xatavs kidec. mis mier
dawerili avtobiografiuli wigni da ramdenime poeziis krebuli
rumineTSi iqna gamocemuli, mogvianebiT ki - ucxoeTSic. 1990 wlis 23
dekembers arCeul iqna moldovas dedaqalaq kiSinovis sapatio moqalaqed. aRsaniSnavia, rom georgis vaJic sakmaod cnobili rumineli
musikosia. georgis mier Sesrulebuli kompoziciebi ismis iseT cnobil mxatvrul filmebSi, rogorebicaa: “erTxel amerikaSi”, “mokali
bili”, “pikniki umaRles kldeze” da sxva. dReisaTvis georg zamfiri
cxovrobs buqarestSi da aqtiurad aris CarTuli musikalur xelovnebaSi. misi musika ki Tanamedrove samyaroSic udides esTetiur siamovnebas aniWebs msmenels.
Tamar lomTaZe
ian gosarti, “mabiuzi” - daibada 1479 wels safrangeTis qalaq
mabioJSi. meore saxeli “mabiuzi”
swored am qalaqis dasaxelebasTan aris dakavSirebuli. gosarti
warmoadgenda
erT-erT
udides niderlandel mxatvars,
grafikossa da xis CuqurTmebis
ostats. aris mosazreba, rom man
xatva didi niderlandeli mxatvris, herard davidis xelmZRvanelobiT Seiswavla. 1502 wels
miiRes wminda lukas gildiaSi
(antverpeni), Tumca manamde, 1499
wels, imogzaura inglisSi, sadac
ZiriTadad dakavebuli iyo portretuli Janris tiloebis SeqmniT. misma genialurma samxatvro
niWma didi yuradReba daimsaxura saxviTi xelovnebis moyvarulebSi, aseve ian gosartis SemoqmedebiT daintereseba gamoxata filipe burgundielma (filipe III-is
ukanono Svili) da mxatvari sasaxlis karzec iqna miwveuli. mabiuzi
filipes romSi mogzaurobis dros (1508-1509 wlebi) axlda Tan. momdevno wlebSic igi aqtiurad iyo CarTuli filipes sasaxlis karze
sxvadasxva sasaxleebis moxatviT antverpensa da midelburgSi. garda
amisa, SekveTebs iRebda harbsbugTa ojaxisganac. istoriuli werilobiTi wyaroebidan Cans, rom gosartis mier iqna Seqmnili germaniis
mefis karl V-isa da misi dis, eleonora portugalielis, portretebi.
maleve utrextis episkoposis miwveviT gadadis urstedes sasaxleSi
da dekoratiul gaformebebSi iRebs monawileobas. ianma STaunerga
sakuTar moswavles, ian val skolers, emogzaura evropis masStabiT
da gaecno sxvadasxva qveynebis kultura, xelovneba da maTi istoria.
cnobilia, rom Tavadac didad moyvaruli gaxldaT mogzaurobis da
araerTi suraTi dauxatavs mogzaurobis periodSi, magaliTad: italiaSi yofnisas Seqmna tilo “mogvTa Tayvaniscema”, inglisSi mogzaurobisas - “portreti henrix VII-es bavSvebis” da sxva. aseve, moxatuli
aqvs ramdenime eklesia. mxatvris Semoqmedebam didi gavlena iqonia
iseT udides germanel mxatvarze, rogoric iyo albrext diureri.
iani leonardo da vinCis, miqelanjelosa da rafaelis ukvdavi SemoqmedebiT iyo aRfrTovanebuli. mabiuzi miiCneva niderlandur ferweraSi “romantizmis” fuZemdeblad XVI saukuneSi. ian gosarti gardaicvala 1541 wlis 1 oqtombers belgiis qalaq antverpenSi. gosartis
tiloebi dResac amSvenebs msoflios udides muzeumebs londonSi,
belgiaSi, germaniaSi, niderlandebsa da sxva qveynebSi.
sofonisba angisola - daibada,
daaxloebiT, 1532 wels italiis
qalaq kremonaSi (lombardia). is
gaxldaT gamoCenili italieli mxatvari da pirveli cnobili fermweri qali renesansis epoqaSi. Svid
dedmamiSvils Soris sofonisba
ufrosi iyo, sul eqvsi da da erTi
Zma. mis garda, SesaniSnavad xatavda sofonisbas da, luCia. Tavad
angisolas ojaxi aristokratul
wres miekuTvneboda: mama – genuis
aristokratTa jgufs, xolo deda,
bianka poncone, - maRali da cnobili aristokratuli fenis ojaxs,
romelic xuTi wlis asakSi gardaecvala, aman mxatvris Semdgom
Semoqmedebaze garkveuli gavlena
iqonia. bavSvobidanve didi samxatvro niWi hqonda angisolas da
mudam eswrafvoda am ulamazesi xelovnebis srulyofil dauflebas.
mxatvris Semoqmedeba ki imdenad momxibvleli gaxldaT xelovnebis
moyvarulTaTvis, rom 1558 wels gaemgzavra milanSi “hercogi albas” portretis Sesaqmnelad. swored hercogma albam gauwia rekomendacia mas espaneTis mefe filipe II-Tan da maleve miiRo mowveva
espaneTis samefo karisagan, rac mxatvris didi talantis kidev erTi
Cveni problema
39
dadastureba gaxldaT. 27 wlis asakSi sofonisba tovebs ojaxs da
1559 wels gadadis espaneTSi (madridSi), sadac espaneTis dedofal
elisabed valuas (filipe II-is rigiT mesame coli) sasaxlis karis mxatvari xdeba. am periodSi man dedoflis didi ndoba daimsaxura,
elisabed valua aRfrTovanebuli iyo angisolas SemoqmedebiT. espaneTSi yofnisas angisola ZiriTadad xatavda samefo ojaxis wevrTa
portretebs, maT Soris: filipe II-is dis, ioana; misi vaJi, don karlosi; elisabed valua; ana avstrieli da sxva cnobili samefo ojaxis wevrebi. samSobloSi dabrunebisas gaicno gemis yofili kapitani
oracio lomelino da, miuxedavad asakSi didi sxvaobisa (sofonisba
47 wlis iyo, xolo oracio masze bevrad axalgazrda), 1580 wlis ianvarSi pizaSi daqorwindnen. meuRle mxatvars did daxmarebas uwevda yovelmxriv da gansakuTrebiT samxatvro SemoqmedebaSi, rac maTi
bednieri Tanacxovrebaze mianiSnebda. maTi ZiriTadi sacxovrebeli
adgili genuaSi iyo, sadac oraciom SesaniSnavi saxelosno gauxsna da
yvela piroba Seuqmna sofonisbas samuSaod. mis saxelosnos uamravi
im periodis gamoCenili mxatvari stumrobda da mravali maTganis
Semoqmedebaze iqonia sofonisbas gansakuTrebulma xatvis stilma
gavlena ( magaliTad, livinia fontana, fede galicia, barbara longi
da artemizia jentileski), sicocxlis ukanasknel xanebSi is xatavda
aramarto portretul Janrebs, aramed religiur Temebsac. miuxedavad mxatvris nayofieri muSaobisa, dRemde mxolod mcire nawilma moaRwia. meuRlis warmatebulma vaWrobam da filipe II-s mier
daniSnulma didma pensiam sofonisbas saSualeba misca, komfortSi
gaetarebina cxovrebis darCenili wlebi. sofonisba angisola im
periodis genuis wamyvani “portretisti” mxatvari qali iyo, Tumca
male genuidan palermoSi gadavida, sadac 1620 wels ukanasknelad
daxata sakuTari avtoportreti. sofonisba angisola gardaicvala
1625 wlis 16 noembers italiis qalaq palermoSi.
hariet bakeri - daibada 1845
wlis 21 ianvars holmestranis komunaSi, vestfolis sagrafoSi (norvegia). is warmoadgenda did norvegiel
mxatvars da saxviTi xelovnebis istoriaSi pirvel skandinaviel profesional mxatvar qals. 1857 wels
12 wlis asakSi harieti mSoblebTan erTad sacxovreblad norvegiis
dedaqalaq qristianiaSi (dRevandeli oslos Zveli saxelwodeba) gadadis. grafikuli xelovnebis Seswavla daiwyo ioahim kalmeirTan,
xolo Semdeg ki cnobil norvegiel
mxatvar iuhan fredrik ekersbergTan. swavlis dasrulebis Semdeg sakmaod bevri imogzaura dasTan erTad
evropis masStabiT. misi da, agaTa baker-griondali, didi kompozitori da pianisti gaxldaT. 1874-1878 wlebSi harieti swavlobda miunxenSi, sadac kidev ufro daxvewa sakuTari xelovneba. mogvianebiT
1878-1888 wlebSi gadavida parizSi, sadac cnobili frangi mxatvris, leon Jozef floranten bonas xelmZRvanelobiT kidev ufro srulyo sakuTari xelovneba. bakeri ufro realisturi siuJetebis xatviT gamoirCeoda da mis Semoqmedebaze didi gavlena iqonia frangi
impresionisti mxatvrebis Semoqmedebam. megobrobda im droisaTvis
cnobil mraval frang da norvegiel xelovanTan, maT Soris, gamoCenil norvegiel mxatvar eilif petersenTan. hariet bakeris namuSevrebma parizis 1889 wlis msoflio gamofenaze brinjaos medlebi
daimsaxures, rac skandinaviuri samxatvro samyarosaTvis udidesi
miRweva iyo, radgan is mandilosanma moipova. 1908 wels ki hariets
sakuTari SemoqmedebisaTvis mieniWa norvegiis samefo akademiis
oqros medali. hariet bakeri gardaicvala 1932 wlis 25 marts osloSi. mxatvris namuSevrebi dResac amSvenebs msoflios saxvadasxva
salonebsa Tu muzeumebs.
TiToeuli adamianis valia, gaecnos msoflio geniasa da Sedevrebs,
ar daiviwyos Tavisi qveynis kultura, romelic ukve mravali sukunea gvaqvs qarTvelebs da droa, xelovnebis SimSili isev xelovnebis
dafasebiT davamarcxoT manam, sanam xelovnebis SimSilTan erTad xelovnebis wyurvilic mtkvris adidebis msgavsad ar wagvlekavs da
gagvanadgurebs.
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40
xelovneba
belgiuri
siurealizmi
da rene
magriti
sofo cirgaia
siurealisturi mimdinareoba aRmocenda pirveli
msoflio omis dros da misi umTavresi mizani msoflios Secvla iyo.
aRsaniSnavia, rom poeturi revolucia, sxvadasxvagvarad iqna gagebuli safrangeTsa da belgiaSi,radgan
es ukanasknelni, gamoirCeodnen meti ironiiTa da
revoliciuri xasiaTiT, vidre frangebi.
belgiis frankofolur nawilSi, siurealizmi
Camoyalibda, 2 msoflio oms Soris da ori gansxvavebuli jgufi Seiqmna: pirveli,romelsac saTaveSi edga
mxatvari rene magriti da pol nuJe, meore „rubture“
e.w „rRveva“, romelsac saTaveSi edgnen heno aSil Save
da fernand dumoni.
1924 wels, rene magriti Sexvda kamil goemansa
da marsel lakonts,romlebmac igi aziares dadaizms. swored lakontis wyalobiT ganicada magritma WeSmariti xelovanis emocia, jorjo de Cirkos,
reproduqciis - „siyvarulis simRera“ - aRmoCeniT.
mxatvris azriT, misma Tvalebma,pirvelad ixiles
nafiqrali. mogvianebiT, oqtomberSi, margitma daarsa Jurnali „periodi“, mesensTan, goemenTan da lakontTan erTad. is iyo ZiriTadad minimalisturi
Jurnali,romelic ganixilavda marginalur, sazogadoebisaTvis miuRebel nawarmoebebs. swored am JurnaliT ipyrobdnen xelovnebaTmcodneebis da literatorebis yuradRebas.
rene magritis siurealisturi mxatvroba
romlis qveSac weria Semdegi : „es ar aris Cibuxi“. (aRsaniSnavia, rom magritis yvela naxatis teqsti ekuTvnis pol nuJes).
amgvarad, mxatvari sagans aRiqvamda, rogorc
konkretul realobas da ara misi funqciis mixedviT.
risi gamoxatva surda am nawarmoebiT magrits : „cnobili „Cibuxi“, xSirad msayvedurobdnen mis saTaurTan
dakavSirebiT. xom SeuZlebelia masSi TuTunis Cadeba?
es , misi, mxolod gamosaxulebaa. maSasadame, gamodis,
rom Tu mas davawerdi Cibuxs,movityuebodi.“
magritisaTvis mxatvroba iyo reprezentaciis miseburi samyaro, neitraluri da akademiuri, igi warmoadgenda dekonstruqciis mcdelobas im urTierTobebisas, romlebic myardeba sagnebs Soris realobaSi.
magritisaTvis, xiluli realoba, unda Sefasebuliyo obieqturad. realoba ar unda ganxiluliyo simbolur WrilSi. am ideis matarebelia erT-erTi cnobili tilo „winaswarmetyveleba“. tiloze aRbeWdilia,
magida da masze dadebuli kvercxi,romelsac uyurebs
mxatvari da xatavs Cits. es naxati Zalian didi emociurobiTaa datvirTuli.
aRsanisnavia,
agreTve
misi
erT-erTi
tilo,romelsac hqvia „akrZaluli reproduqcia“.
masze aRbeWdilia kaci, romelic iyureba sarkeSi da
saxis danaxvis nacvlad, xedavs Tavis zurgs.. amiT,
simbolurad, magrits surda eTqva , rom mxatvroba
realobis sarke ar aris.
magritis Semoqmedeba Tanamedrove epoqaSi
siurealist mxatvarTa mTavari aqcenti keTdeboda
postmodernistul epoqaSi, sadac waSlilia
sagansa da mis reprezentaciaze. magaliTad magritis yovelgvari zRvari xelovnebis mimdinareobebs SoerT-erTi yvelaze cnobili tilo gamosaxavs Cibuxs, ris, vxvdebiT, zogjer, magritis Semoqmedebis siure-
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360 /#5
alistur Strixebs. magaliTad, ganvixiloT 2 reklama.
rogorc vxedavT, magritis naxatis msgavsad, sareklamo
banerebSic igive,an igive daniSnulebis nivTebs vxvdebiT.,
romlebic Cveulebriv zomas, metad aRematebian da uadgilo
adgilas arian moTavsebuli.
Teatri da siurealizmi
ngrevis surili, sazogadoebis uaryofa, - aseTi iyo siurealizmis damokidebuleba absurdul wesebSi moqceuli
xelovnebis mimarT. is, rac siurealistebs ainteresebdaT,
is iyo dafaruli, aRmosaCeni realoba. belgiuri siurealizmi iyo Teatris winaaRmdegi,magram cxovrebis Teatralizaciis momxre. magaliTad, pol nuJe dadioda da ambobda,
rom mokvda,im dros,rodesac garegani mxare sxva rames ambobda. is gulisxmobda,sulier,moralur da fsiqologiur
sikvdils.
amrigad, siurealizmis mizani iyo,gonebis gaTavisufleba realobis axleburi warmosaxvis eqsperimentebiT.
gasaqani mieca fsiqologiisaTvis,ocnebebisaTvis,qvecnobie
risaTvis, warmosaxvisaTis. momxdariyo saocrebis reabilitacia mieniWebina survilisaTvis yvelanairi Zalaufleba.
momxdariyo saocrebis reabilitacia. gavTavisuflebuliyaviT yovelgvari moralisagan, sazogadoebis akrZalvebisagan. sworad amitom iyo siurealizmis mTavari mizani, realobasTan dapirispireba.
xelovneba
41
42
sagamofeno darbazi
ojaxad qceuli „sxveni“
sofo cirgaia
bilisis saxelmwifo universitetis Teatraluri dasi „sxveni“ ukve 15 welia,
Zalisxmevas ar iSurebs mayurebelTa winaSe Rirseulad warsadgenad. Sedegic
arasdros ayovnebs: maT arcerT spektakls ar Cauvlia sruli anSlagisa da aplodismentebis gareSe. aTze meti spektakli, poeziis saRamoebi, warmodgenebi Tavisufal Teatrsa da Tsu-Si
- es dasis mcire istoriaa...
saxelmwifo universitetis Teatraluri dasi
1999 wels studentebis xelmZRvanelobiT Camoyalibda. Tavdapirvelad pantomimis Teatri iyo, Semdeg
ki saxe icvala da dRes ukve pantomimisa da dramis
Teatria.
garkveuli periodis ganmavlobaSi dasma arseboba
Sewyvita, Tumca 2007 wels „sxvenis“ erT-erTi msaxiobis, Tornike jobavas, ZalisxmeviT kvlav aRdga.
repeticiebi Tsu-s pirveli korpusis sxvenSi
hqondaT xolme. saxelwodebis („sxveni“) ideac
swored aqedan wamovida. dasi sul 24 msaxiobisgan
Sedgeba. misi wevrebi Tsu-s rogorc amJamindeli
studentebi, aseve kursdamTavrebulebi arian. maT
Soris aris profesionali msaxiobi imeda natroSvili. „sxvenis“ reJisori giorgi gomuraSvilia.
ukve wlebia, rac Teatralur dass xelmZRvanelobs.
misi azriT, axali sisxli yovelTvis saWiroa, amitom yoveli wlis oqtomber- noemberSi marTavs SesarCev konkurss, romelic ori turisgan Sedgeba.
pirvel turSi metyveleba, smena da plastika mowmdeba, meore turSi ki axalbeda msaxiobebs etiudis
dadgma uwevT. SezRudvebi ar arsebobs, monawileobis miReba saxelmwifo universitetis nebismieri
fakultetis students SeuZlia. giorgi gomuraSvilis xelmZRvanelobiT dass dadgmuli aqvs ocamde
spektakli: „klounada“, „vTamaSobT samaniSvils“,
„Wriloba“, „gankiTxvis dRe“, „balagani“, „stumarmaspinZeli“ da a.S
bolos, 2013 wlis 3 da 4 ianvars, saxelmwifo
universitetis pirveli korpusis saaqto darbazSi Catarda saaxalwlo RonisZieba da bavSvebisTvis
daidga „fifqia da Svidi juja“ disneis multfilm-
T
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360 /#5
is mixedviT. gamonaklisi arc es spektakli yofila.
darbazi, tradiciulad, savse iyo xalxiT da isedac
amaRlebuli saaxalwlo ganwyoba msaxiobebma ormagad aumaRles didsa Tu pataras.
ukve wlebia, dasis wevrebi yoveldRe ikribebian da mTel dros repeticiebs uTmoben. msaxiobi
Tamar feraZe ambobs, rom sxvadasxva piesis dadgmas
gansxvavebuli dro sWirdeba, amitom SeuZlebelia,
gansazRvro dro, romelic mayureblis winaSe Rirseulad warsadgomad aris saWiro.
marTalia, spektaklebs
ivane javaxiSvilis
saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis
pirveli korpusis saaqto darbazSi marTaven, Tumca es araa erTaderTi scena, romelzec gamosulan.
maT samjer iTamaSes Tavisufali Teatris scenaze
„klounada“. baTumSi „eris xmaze“ ki nawyveti „berikebidan“ Seasrules. Caatares sami poeziis saRamoc, maTgan erT-erTi niko gomelauris xsovnas
mieuZRvnes. saRamos poetis ojaxis wevrebi da megobrebi eswrebodnen.
„sxvenis“ warmodgenebs yovelTvis
uamravi mayurebeli hyavs, gansakuTrebuli mowoneba
„gankiTxvis dRem“ daimsaxura, romelic giorgi
kaWaravas amave saxelwodebis romanis mixedviT
daidga ( spektaklis premiera, 2012 wlis 22 marts
marts Sedga ).
Tavad msaxiobebic „gankiTxvis dRes“ gamoyofen.
sofo soloRaSvili miiCnevs, rom spektakli aqtualur Temebzea Seqmnili da mowonebac amitom
daimsaxura: „mayurebeli daafiqra cxovrebis arsze, bevrma sakuTari Tavic amoicno personaJebSi.
maqsimalurad vecadeT, is emocia migvetana mayureblamde, rac ase xSirad gvxvdeba realur cxovrebaSi“ - aRniSnavs msaxiobi.
dasSi gansakuTrebuli idilia sufevs. rogorc
Tavad amboben, maTTvis „sxveni“ ojaxia, romlis gareSec cxovreba ver warmoudgeniaT.
didi gegmebi aqvT: poeziis saRamosa da koncertis Catarebas apireben. manamde ki uwyvet reJimSi
gadian repeticiebs, raTa mayureblis winaSe Rirseulad warsdgnen.
sagamofeno darbazi
43
0
#5/360
44
kvali 180 gradusi ukan
anano muqaTariZe
veni samyaro savsea uamravi mSvenieri, amoucnobi,
SesaniSnavi, amaRelvebeli, dauviwyari, gasaocari
leqsebiT, simRerebiT, qandakebebiT, nawarmoebebiT,
naxatebiT, SenobebiT... yoveli maTganis ukan ki Semoqmedi dgas. Semoqmedi, romelsac usasrulod ganviTarebuli azrovneba aqvs. viRacam SeiZleba mkiTxos, ras
niSnavs usasrulos ganviTarebuli azrovneba? Cemi azriT,
es mesame Tvalia. gonebis, gulis Tvali, romelsac SeuZlia
3600– iT itrialos, adgilmdebareoba Seicvalos, maRla
avides da iqidan gadmoxedos msoflios; gauswros drosa da
sivrces; gadaadgildes rogorc unda da sadac unda; dainaxos is, rasac sxva ver xedavs; dabados iseTi azrebi, romlebic msoflios Secvlian da istorias Seqmnian. ai, es aris
CemTvis usasrulod ganviTarebuli azrovneba. rogorc ukve
aRvniSne, yvelaferi amis ukan Semoqmedi dgas. Semoqmedis
goneba warmoidgens, misi xeli ki am warmodgenas realobad
aqcevs. albaT yvelas gagigoniaT, mas muza ewvia da SesaniSnavi leqsi Seqmna an muza ar aqvs da ver werso... da mainc,
ra aris an vin aris es muza? romlis mobrZaneba–ar mobrZanebaze amdeni ramaa damokidebuli?
yvelafers Tavidan daviwyeb. Zveli berZnuli miTologiis Tanaxmad, zevsisa da titanil mnemosies (mexsierebis qalRmerTi) saidumlo kavSiris Sedegad, romelic cxra dRe da
Rame grZeldeboda daibada cxra qaliSvili, romelTagan
yoveli maTgani erTdroulad dajildoebulni iyvnen simReris da cekvis xelovnebiT. muza qalRmerTebi yvela drois
poetebis STagonebis wyaroni iyvnen da parnasze cxovrobdnen. isini iyvnen erTaderTni, romelTac gaaCndaT srulyofili mexsiereba; warsulis, awmyosa da momavlis winaswarmetyvelebis niWi. es muza qalRmerTebi iyvnen:
1. kaliope-epikuri poeziis muza;
2. evterpe-lirikuli poeziis muza;
3. melpomene-tragediis muza;
4. Taleia-komediss muza;
5. erato- sasiyvarulo poeziis muza;
6. polihimnia-pantomimisa da himnis muza;
7. terpsiqora-cekvebis muza;
8. klio-istoriis muza;
9. urania-asrtonomiis muza.
svadasxva adgils Tvlian muzebis sacxovreblad: mTa pelvoni beotiaSi, sadac isini hipokraneas fantanTan ikribebodnen simRerisa da cekvisaTvis; mTa parnasi; da, ra Tqma
unda, olimpos ferdobebi mamis, zevsis, samyofelTan axlos.
maTi kulti praqtikulad gaqra elinuri epoqis dasawyisSi
da ver hpova gagrZeleba romaul miTologiaSi, magram zevsis cxra qaliSvilis arseboba yovelTvis axdens zegavlenas
Semoqmedis warmodgenaze.
rogorc aRvniSne, SeiZleba bevrs ar sjera zevsis cxra
qaliSvilis arseboba, magram muzis arsebobas aravin uaryofs.
ufro xSirad muzas mainc qalad warmoidgenen, swored amitomaa, rom Svenierebis qmna muzas ukavSirdeba. zogisTvis
muza siyvarulia, siyvaruli mSveneri da amaRelvebeli,
rogorc samyaros mamoZravebeli Zala, zogisTvis muza adamianis meore „mea“, muza zogis warmosaxvaSi enaa. ena, romelsac
silamazis, siyvarulis, realobis ise aRwera SeuZlia, romelic Jruantels moggvris, yelSi burTs gagiCxers, emociebiT
dagaxrCobs da ase usasrulod... rogoric ar unda iyos muza,
SemoqmedebiTi qmna metad rTuli saqmea, mxolod Sromismoyvareoba, saqmis siyvaruli. saqmis erTguleba, codna, sakmarisi
ar aris, amas kidev sxva ram sWirdeba, sxva energia, SemarTeba,
sxva sunTqva, Zala, romelic ubiZgebs Semoqmeds da mis gonebaSi amoativtivebs SemoqmedisTvis ucxo mxares.
vinc ar unda iyos an rac ar unda iyos muza, erTi ram cxadia, Zalian bevr adamians mis arsebobaSi eWvi ar epareba, es
albaT TiToeuli adamianisaTvis individualuria. me erTaderTi ram SemiZlia vTqva, me madlobveli var misi, radgan
Cven, adamianebs, amdeni saswauli gvaCuqa. muzam Seqmna da qmnis istorias, is qmnis xelovnebas, rac adamianis ganviTarebis uSreti wyaroa. da bolos, me muzad mainc siyvaruli
mimaCnia, siyvaruli ara mxolod mandilosnisa, aramed siyvaruli yvelasa da yvelafris, sicocxlis siyvaruli, radgan mxolod siyvarulia safuZveli mSvenierebis.
mariam xuciSvili
saavtoro gverdi
„ efis
m
sityva“
ilmi „mefis sityva“ 2010 wels gadaRebuli britanuli istoriuli dramaa, romelSic moTxrobilia 1934 wlis britaneTis samefo karis realuri
istoria elisabed II-s mamaze, mefe jorjVI-ze.
reJisori tom – huperi, scenaris avtori –
devid seidleri, mTavar rolebSi – kolin feri da jefri
raSi.
filmis Sinaarsi aseTia: jorj VI-s uwevs taxtze asvla,
radgan mama gardaicvala da misma ufrosma Zmam uari ganacxada mefobaze. jorj VI-s metyvelebis problema aqvs, logopedis daxmarebiTac sargeblobs, magram gamojanmrTelebis
ar sjera da amitom ar surs gamefeba. ar swams sakuTari SesaZleblobebis, rom is odesme SeZlebs gamarTulad saubars,
da Tvlis, rom ar aris Rirsi, erqvas inglisi mefe. eri mis
sityvebs endoba, is maTTvis laparakobs, Tumca laparaki ar
SeuZlia ... logopedi, romelsac arc diplomi da arc serTifikati gaaCnia, cdilobs, mefes sakuTari Tavis rwmena da Tavdajerebuloba SesZinos, magram es arc ise advili gamodga.
jorj VI bevrjer gadawyvets Sewyvitos urTierToba, magram
mainc brundeba masTan. uamravi fizikuri savarjiSoebisa
da enobrivi savarjiSoebis Semdeg mefes mainc ar gamosdis
saubari, Semdeg eqimi laineli Seecdeba, mefis warsulze Seityos rame da dadgens, rom rTuli bavSvoba hqonda, mamis
SiSis, ZiZis zizRsa da xSirad SimSilSi mouwia wlebis gatareba, mefe imasac aRiarebs, rom es misi pirveli realuri
saubari iyo Cveulebriv adamianTan, mis logopedTan. kiTxvaze, ras metyviT megobrebze, mefe pasuxobs – verafers.
unikaluri, gansxvavebuli meTodebis gamoyenebiT, simReriT, uxamsi sityvebiT, didi pauzebiT sityvebs Soris,
romelsac mefe varjiSis dros logopedis davalebiT asrulebda, man SeZlo da yvelaze mniSvnelovani mimarTva,
,,mefis sityva“ , romelic inglisis omis dawyebis win unda
gaekeTebina, warmatebiT daasrula ise, rom win misi logopedi da ukve megobari edga da amxnevebda, mefe ki yvela mis
davalebas gonebaSi imeorebda.
jorj VI-is problema Tavdajerebulobis naklebobasTan
iyo dakavSirebuli, man SiSi gadalaxa. SiSis gadasalaxavad
ki Turme urTierToba, megobroba, esaWiroeboda. mefem sakuTri Tavis irwmuna, saukeTeso da erTaderTi megobari
SeiZina logopedis saxiT, romelic mas yvela radiogamosvlis dros gverdiT edga, am gamosvlebis wyalobiT jorjVI
erovnuli erTianobis simbolod iqca, laineli ki samefo
viqtorianuli ordenis meTaurad akurTxes, igi erTaderTia, vinc mefisTvis piradi samsaxuris gawevisTvis dajildovda.
,,mefis sityva” gvaCvenebs imas, Tu rogor iRvwvis erTi
adamiani (mefe) imisaTvis, rom milionobiT adamians mimarTos. nuTu marTla aseTi mniSvnelovani iyo es mimarTvebi?!
xom SeiZleboda, amis gakeTeba vinme sxvas aeRo sakuTar Tavze?! ise, rogorc bevri sxva ramis gakeTeba uwevT adamianebs
mefis magivrad. magram, ara! es ar iyo mxolod simboluri
mmarTvelis mimarTvebi. mefem Tavisi drois umetesi nawili
dauTmo logopedTan damRlel da gauTavebel vizitebs,
rom sakuTari xalxisTvis Tavad miemarTa, Tavisi individualuri mxardaWera, siyvaruli da Tanadgoma gamoexata maT
mimarT.
45
f
filmi wardgenili iyo 2011 wlis
oskaris 83-e dajildoebaze. yvelaze
meti 12 nominacia daimsaxura
da miiRo:
oskari saukeTeso suraTisTvis;
oskari saukeTeso reJisorisTvis;
oskari saukeTeso msaxiobi
mamakacisTvis;
oskari saukeTeso originaluri
scenarisTvis;
bafta saukeTso originaluri
scenarisTvis.
da rac mTavaria, films msoflio
kinokritikosTa 96%-is dadebiTi
Sefaseba mohyva.
0
#5/360
46
kvali 180 gradusi ukan
0
360 /#5
fsiqologia
47
0
#5/360
1/--pages
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